Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48035 in total

  1. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2014 Apr 25;112(16):161802.
    PMID: 24815637
    Results are presented of a search for a "natural" supersymmetry scenario with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. It is assumed that only the supersymmetric partners of the top quark (the top squark) and the Higgs boson (Higgsino) are accessible. Events are examined in which there are two photons forming a Higgs boson candidate, and at least two b-quark jets. In 19.7  fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at s=8  TeV, recorded in the CMS experiment, no evidence of a signal is found and lower limits at the 95% confidence level are set, excluding the top squark mass below 360 to 410 GeV, depending on the Higgsino mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  2. Knaapen M, Hall NJ, Moulin D, van der Lee JH, Butcher NJ, Minneci PC, et al.
    Ann Surg, 2020 Dec 29.
    PMID: 33630468 DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004707
    OBJECTIVE:: To develop an international Core Outcome Set (COS), a minimal collection of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all future clinical trials evaluating treatments of acute simple appendicitis in children.

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous systematic review identified 115 outcomes in 60 trials and systematic reviews evaluating treatments for children with appendicitis, suggesting the need for a COS.

    METHODS: The development process consisted of four phases: (1) an updated systematic review identifying all previously reported outcomes, (2) a two-stage international Delphi study in which parents with their children and surgeons rated these outcomes for inclusion in the COS, (3) focus groups with young people to identify missing outcomes, and (4) international expert meetings to ratify the final COS.

    RESULTS: The systematic review identified 129 outcomes which were mapped to 43 unique outcome terms for the Delphi survey. The first-round included 137 parents (eight countries) and 245 surgeons (10 countries), the second-round response rates were 61% and 85% respectively, with ten outcomes emerging with consensus. After two young peoples' focus groups, two additional outcomes were added to the final COS (12): mortality, bowel obstruction, intra-abdominal abscess, recurrent appendicitis, complicated appendicitis, return to baseline health, readmission, reoperation, unplanned appendectomy, adverse events related to treatment, major and minor complications.

    CONCLUSION: An evidence-informed COS based on international consensus, including patients and parents has been developed. This COS is recommended for all future studies evaluating treatment of simple appendicitis in children, to reduce heterogeneity between studies and facilitate data synthesis and evidence-based decision-making.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  3. Fadzilah Mohamad, Ping Yein Lee, , Maliza Mawardi
    Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends evaluation of maternal satisfaction to improve quality of health care during childbirth. Dissatisfaction may lead to undesired outcomes such as unassisted homebirth and delay in seeking treatment. Determining the maternal satisfaction level and its associated factors may help to improve health care services and prevent negative implications to both mothers and infants. This study aimed to determine the maternal satisfaction towards intrapartum care of designated healthcare facilities and its associated factors among postnatal women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of postnatal women attended Klinik Kesihatan Salak from December 2017 to February 2018. Systematic random sampling with the ratio of 1:3 was applied to the eligible respondents. A self-administered questionnaire that include respondent’s socio-demographic characteristics and a validated 14-items Maternal Satisfaction with Hospital-based Intrapartum Care Scale was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS 23. Results: 274 respondents were recruited in this study. Overall, only 21.2% of respondents were sat- isfied with the intrapartum care given. The level of satisfaction was highest in interpersonal care domain (36.1%), followed by physical birth environment (34.3%) and the least satisfied was information and decision making domain (27.7%). Binary logistic regression showed that maternal satisfaction was significantly associated with place of birth (AOR (95% CI): 0.046 (0.183, 0.984)) and labour complications (AOR (95% CI): 3.387 (1.345, 8.528)). Conclusion: The overall maternal satisfaction towards intrapartum care was low and the information and decision-making do- main appeared to be the least satisfied. Maternal satisfaction was associated with place of birth and labour compli- cations. Therefore, health care providers should emphasize and improve the quality of services especially for this domain and to consider factor that contribute to dissatisfaction towards the intrapartum care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  4. Reidpath D, Allotey P, 166 signatories
    Science, 2020 May 15;368(6492):725.
    PMID: 32409468 DOI: 10.1126/science.abc2677
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  5. Aravind SR, Al Tayeb K, Ismail SB, Shehadeh N, Kaddaha G, Liu R, et al.
    Curr Med Res Opin, 2011 Jun;27(6):1237-42.
    PMID: 21506631 DOI: 10.1185/03007995.2011.578245
    To determine the incidence of hypoglycaemia during Ramadan in Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with a sulphonylurea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  6. Sullivan P, 96 Psychiatric Genetics Investigators
    Mol Psychiatry, 2012 Jan;17(1):2-3.
    PMID: 21826059 DOI: 10.1038/mp.2011.94
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  7. Ismail M, Alsalahi A, Khaza'ai H, Imam MU, Ooi J, Samsudin MN, et al.
    PMID: 32731336 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17155410
    BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular diseases (CBVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are interrelated and cumbersome global health burdens. However, the relationship between edible oils consumption and mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM has not yet been evaluated. This review aims to explore correlations between per capita mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM, as well as food consumption of palm or soya oils in 11 randomly selected countries in 2005, 2010, and 2016.

    METHODS: After obtaining data on food consumption of palm and soya oils and mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM, correlations between the consumption of oils and mortality burdens of diseases were explored.

    RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the consumption of soya oil with the mortality burden of CBVDs in Australia, Switzerland, and Indonesia, as well as the mortality burden of DM in the USA. The consumption of palm oil had a positive correlation with the mortality burden of DM in Jordan only.

    CONCLUSIONS: Food consumption of soya oil in several countries possibly contributes to the mortality burden of CBVDs or DM more than food consumption of palm oil, which could be a possible risk factor in the mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  8. E M Eid E, S Alanazi A, Koosha S, A Alrasheedy A, Azam F, M Taban I, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 13;24(14).
    PMID: 31337024 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142554
    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are highly promising tools to deliver therapeutic molecules into tumours. αVβ3 integrins are cell-matrix adhesion receptors, and are considered as an attractive target for anticancer therapies owing to their roles in the process of metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of co-administration of zerumbone (ZER) and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with TP5-iRGD peptide towards cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and proliferation of normal and cancerous breast cells utilizing in vitro assays, as well as to study the molecular docking of ZER in complex with TP5-iRGD peptide. Cell viability assay findings indicated that ZER and ZERencapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (ZER-HPβCD) inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor positivebreast cancer cells (ER+ MCF-7) at 72 h treatment with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 7.51 ± 0.2 and 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, and inhibited the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with an IC50 of 14.96 ± 1.52 µg/mL and 12.18 ± 0.7 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, TP5-iRGD peptide showed no significant cytotoxicity on both cancer and normal cells. Interestingly, co-administration of TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 cells reduced the IC50 of ZER from 7.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 3.13 ± 0.7 µg/mL and reduced the IC50 of ZER-HPβCD from 5.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL to 0.49 ± 0.004 µg/mL, indicating that the co-administration enhances the potency and increases the efficacy of ZER and ZER-HPβCD compounds. Acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining under fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of early apoptosis after 72 h from the co-administration of ZER or ZER-HPβCD with TP5-iRGD peptide in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The findings of the computational modelling experiment provide novel insights into the ZER interaction with integrin αvβ3 in the presence of TP5-iRGD, and this could explain why ZER has better antitumor activities when co-administered with TP5-iRGD peptide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  9. Md Yusof K, Rosli R, Abdullah M, A Avery-Kiejda K
    Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 06;12(11).
    PMID: 33172072 DOI: 10.3390/cancers12113290
    Lymphatic vessels are regarded as the "forgotten" circulation. Despite this, growing evidence has shown significant roles for the lymphatic circulation in normal and pathological conditions in humans, including cancers. The dissemination of tumor cells to other organs is often mediated by lymphatic vessels that serve as a conduit and is often referred to as tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis. Some of the most well-studied lymphangiogenic factors that govern tumor lymphangiogenesis are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C/D and VEGFR-2/3), neuroplilin-2 (NRP2), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to name a few. However, recent findings have illustrated that non-coding RNAs are significantly involved in regulating gene expression in most biological processes, including lymphangiogenesis. In this review, we focus on the regulation of growth factors and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the lymphatic development in normal and cancer physiology. Then, we discuss the lymphangiogenic factors that necessitate tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, with regards to ncRNAs in various types of cancer. Understanding the different roles of ncRNAs in regulating lymphatic vasculature in normal and cancer conditions may pave the way towards the development of ncRNA-based anti-lymphangiogenic therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  10. Ehab Helmy Abdel Malek Fahmy, Constance Liew Sat Lin, Alvin Oliver Payus, Rhanye Mac Guad, May Zaw Soe, Satishratnam Nagaratnam, et al.
    Dysmenorrhea is one of the leading causes of pelvic pain and menstrual disorder among women during childbearing age. The burden of dysmenorrhea is greater than any other gynaecological complaint. Some women have severe dysmenorrhea which renders them incapacitated for days each menstrual cycle requiring absence from study or duty, frequently requiring pain killer, restriction of daily performance, poor sleep, negative moods such as anxiety and depression. A 31-year-old female presented with severe dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) as a cause of multiple uterine fibroids, underwent surgeries to remove 100 fibroids from her uterus which has improved her quality of life, eliminating her dysmenorrhea and menstrual abnormalities
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  11. Pasayan MKU, S Mationg ML, Boettiger D, Lam W, Zhang F, Ku SW, et al.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2019 04 01;80(4):436-443.
    PMID: 30550488 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001933
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART.

    METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    RESULTS: Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  12. Ibrahim N, Che Din N, Ahmad M, Amit N, Ghazali SE, Wahab S, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):553.
    PMID: 31196009 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6861-7
    BACKGROUND: The high number of adolescents and young adults harbouring suicidal ideation, as reported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, is alarming. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the association between social support and spiritual wellbeing in predicting suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    METHODS: A total of 176 adolescents in selected urban areas in the states of Wilayah Persekutuan and Selangor were selected. The Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS) was used to measure the level of severity or tendency of suicidal ideation. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure the perceived social support received by the respondent while the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (SWBS) was used to measure the religious wellbeing (RWB), the existential wellbeing (EWB) and the overall score of spiritual wellbeing (SWB).

    RESULTS: The study found that both RWB and EWB showed significant negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Similarly, support from family and friends also showed a negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Further analysis using multiple regressions showed that RWB and SWB, and family support predict suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    CONCLUSION: Spiritual wellbeing in combination with family support plays a major role in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, intervention for encompassing spirituality and family support may contribute to a more positive outcome in suicidal adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  13. Goh SL, Jaafar Z, Gan YN, Choong A, Kaur J, Kundakci B, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0252204.
    PMID: 34038486 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252204
    INTRODUCTION: Prolotherapy and other injections, primarily acting on pathways associated with maladaptive tissue repair, are recommended for recalcitrant chronic soft tissue injuries (CSTI). However, selection of injection is challenging due to mixed results. This network meta-analysis (NMA) aimed to compare prolotherapy with other therapies, particularly injections, for CSTI and establish robustness of the results.

    METHODOLOGY: Pubmed, Medline, SPORTDiscus and Google scholar were searched from inception to 4th January 2021 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving injection therapies (e.g. blood derivatives, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin) for CSTI. The primary and secondary outcomes were pain and function, respectively, at (or nearest to) 6 months. Effect size (ES) was presented as standardised mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Frequentist random effect NMA was used to generate the overall estimates, subgroup estimates (by region and measurement time point) and sensitivity analyses.

    RESULTS: A total of 91 articles (87 RCTs; 5859 participants) involving upper limb (74%), lower limb (23%) and truncal/hip (3%) injuries were included. At all time points, prolotherapy had no statistically significant pain benefits over other therapies. This observation remained unchanged when tested under various assumptions and with exclusion of studies with high risk of bias. Although prolotherapy did not offer statistically significant functional improvement compared to most therapies, its ES was consistently better than non-injections and corticosteroid injection for both outcomes. At selected time points and for selected injuries, prolotherapy demonstrated potentially better pain improvement over placebo (<4 months: shoulder [ES 0.65; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.30]; 4-8 months: elbow [ES 0.91; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.70]; >8 months: shoulder [ES 2.08; 95% CI 1.49, to 2.68]). Injections generally produced greater ES when combined with non-injection therapy.

    CONCLUSION: While clinical outcomes were generally comparable across types of injection therapy, prolotherapy may be used preferentially for selected conditions at selected times.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  14. Zainordin NH, Abd Talib R, Shahril MR, Sulaiman S, A Karim N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Dec 01;21(12):3689-3696.
    PMID: 33369469 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.12.3689
    OBJECTIVE: Fear of cancer recurrent, side effects of treatment and belief in food taboos encourage cancer survivors to make changes in their dietary practices after diagnosis of cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of dietary changes on quality of life (QoL) among Malay breast and gynaecological cancer survivors.

    METHODS: Questionnaire of dietary changes was modified from WHEL study and adapted to typical Malay's food intake in Malaysia. A total of 23 items were listed and categorized by types of food and cooking methods.  Four categories of changes "increased", "decreased", "no changes" or "stopped" were used to determine the changes in dietary practices. Score one (+1) is given to positive changes by reference to WCRF/AICR and Malaysia Dietary Guideline healthy eating recommendations. Malay EORTC QLQ-C30 were used to determine the QoL. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and anthropometric measurement were also collected.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects (n=77) was 50.7±7.8 years old with duration of survivorship 4.0±3.1 years. Subjects mean BMI was 27.8±4.9 kg/m2 which indicate subjects were 31.2% overweight and 32.5% obese. The percentage score of positive dietary changes was 34.7±16.4%. Positive dietary changes were increased intake of green leafy vegetable (49.4%), cruciferous vegetable (46.8%) and boiling cooking methods (45.5%). Subjects reduced their intake of red meat (42.9%), sugar (53.2%) and fried cooking method (44.2%). Subjects stopped consuming milk (41.6%), c 2008-5862 heese (33.8%) and sweetened condensed milk (33.8%). With increasing positive dietary changes, there was a significant improvement on emotional function (rs=0.27; p=0.016) and reduced fatigue symptoms (rs=-0.24; p=0.033).

    CONCLUSION: Positive changes in dietary intake improved emotional function and reduced fatigue symptoms after cancer treatment. By knowing the trend of food changes after cancer treatment, enables the formation of healthy food intervention implemented more effective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  15. Vk C, Ty L, Wf L, Ywy WS, An S, S Z, et al.
    Microbiol Res, 2018 Mar;207:108-115.
    PMID: 29458845 DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.015
    Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, which accounts for high morbidity and mortality globally. Leptospiral infections are often found in tropical and subtropical regions, with people exposed to contaminated environments or animal reservoirs are at high risk of getting the infection. Leptospirosis has a wide range of clinical manifestations with non-specific signs and symptoms and often misdiagnosed with other acute febrile illnesses at early stage of infection. Despite being one of the leading causes of zoonotic morbidity worldwide, there is still a gap between pathogenesis and human immune responses during leptospiral infection. It still remains obscure whether the severity of the infection is caused by the pathogenic properties of the Leptospira itself, or it is a consequence of imbalance host immune factors. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize the past and present milestone findings on the biomarkers of host immune response aspects during human leptospiral infection, including cytokine and other immune mediators. A profound understanding of the interlink between virulence factors and host immune responses during human leptospirosis is imperative to identify potential biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic applications as well as designing novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  16. Zaharan NL, Muhamad NH, Jalaludin MY, Su TT, Mohamed Z, Mohamed MNA, et al.
    PMID: 29755414 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00209
    Background: Several non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity. Little is known about their associations and interactions with physical activity (PA) in relation to adiposity parameters among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Methods: We examined whether (a) PA and (b) selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (n = 1,151). Body mass indices, waist-hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF) were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS). Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model.

    Results: PAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = -0.44 [95% confidence interval -0.72, -0.16], p = 0.002). The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.16 [-0.28, -0.05], corrected p = 0.01) and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = -0.06 [-0.12, -0.00], p = 0.02) were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.02) and combined GRS (β = -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01], p = 0.01) for % BF.

    Conclusion: Higher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  17. Loh UL, Tai PY, Hussein A, A Qamarruddin F
    Cureus, 2018 Dec 17;10(12):e3743.
    PMID: 30800553 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.3743
    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a localized orbital cellulitis at the orbital apex that can cause vision loss from optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia involving multiple cranial nerves. Herein, we report a rare and rapidly progressive case of OAS secondary to fungal pansinusitis caused by Scedosporiumapiospermum in an immunocompromised patient following the extraction of abscessed teeth. A 48-year-old man with diabetes mellitus who had failed to adhere to his treatment presented with complaints of a right-sided headache and toothache for two weeks, with nausea and vomiting for two days prior to presentation. The patient was treated for septic shock secondary to the dental abscesses. Non-contrast brain computed tomography (CT) showed no significant intracranial abnormalities other than pansinusitis. Four days later, dental extraction was performed. The patient reported progressive painless blurring of the vision in his right eye following the dental extractions and was referred to the ophthalmology department. Subsequent examinations revealed decreased optic nerve function and ophthalmoplegia in his right eye and dental caries in the upper molars, with a mucopurulent discharge from the right sphenoid region. The clinical diagnosis was OAS. Pus near the orbital apex was drained surgically. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the pus and a nasal swab. Tissue culture from the septal wall yielded S.apiospermum. The patient's condition deteriorated, despite intensive antibiotic and antifungal treatment and repeated surgical debridement. The disease progressed rapidly to his left eye. Sixty-seven days after the inital presentation, his visual acuity (VA) of both eyes was classified as no perception of light (NPL). The patient discharged himself from the hospital (at own risk discharge) and subsequently failed to attend a scheduled appointment in the ophthalmology clinic. If immunocompromised patients present with OAS, fungal infections should be ruled out. Prompt and aggressive treatment using a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory in cases of potentially life-threatening and vision-threatening fungal infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  18. Hassan R, Siregar JA, A Rahman Mohd NA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Mar;21(2):54-62.
    PMID: 24876808 MyJurnal
    Telemedicine in neurosurgery or teleneurosurgery has been widely used for transmission of clinical data and images throughout the country since its implementation in 2006. The impact is a reduction of patient number that need to be reviewed in the level III hospitals and an increment in the number of patients that are kept in level II hospitals for observation by the primary team. This translates to reduction of unnecessary transfer of patients and subsequently cost benefits for patients and medical providers. The main aim is to determine the amount of reduction in unnecessary transfer by the implementation of teleneurosurgery in the management of referrals to neurosurgical department in Hospital Sultanah Amninah Johor Bahru (HSAJB). Other factors associated with transfer decision are also evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
  19. Narayan, K.A., A Rashid, K.
    This study was conducted to study the blood pressure pattern and the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in a rural community in two coastal villages in rural Kedah, Mahysia. Out of the total population 504 were above 20 years of age and were eligible to participate. There were 227 males and 252 females. The mean systolic blood pressure was found to rise with age, peaking in the 6l·70 years age group, For women the mean blood pressure rose earlier from the age group of 4-l· 50 years. Mean blood pressures rose with increasing body mass index. lt also varied with occupation and education. The retired and unemployed had a higher blood pressure than those employed and there was an inverse relationship with increasing education. The prevalence of hypertension was 33.6%. More females were hypertensive (36.5%) as compared to males (3 0.4%) and this finding was the same for both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Majority (71.4%) of the hypertensives were undiagnosed. 72.5% of hypertensives who were on treatment were not under control. Hypertension was more prevalent among retirees and illiterates. Prevalence of hypertension increased correspondingly with age. Obesity was associated with hypertension. There was no association with family history of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression showed a positive association only for obesity. ln conclusion, given the high prevalence of hypertension at
    present, it appears that the prevalence will increase as each age cohort grows older. Obesity, especially among housewives is a significant assorted factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Humans
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