SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous systematic review identified 115 outcomes in 60 trials and systematic reviews evaluating treatments for children with appendicitis, suggesting the need for a COS.
METHODS: The development process consisted of four phases: (1) an updated systematic review identifying all previously reported outcomes, (2) a two-stage international Delphi study in which parents with their children and surgeons rated these outcomes for inclusion in the COS, (3) focus groups with young people to identify missing outcomes, and (4) international expert meetings to ratify the final COS.
RESULTS: The systematic review identified 129 outcomes which were mapped to 43 unique outcome terms for the Delphi survey. The first-round included 137 parents (eight countries) and 245 surgeons (10 countries), the second-round response rates were 61% and 85% respectively, with ten outcomes emerging with consensus. After two young peoples' focus groups, two additional outcomes were added to the final COS (12): mortality, bowel obstruction, intra-abdominal abscess, recurrent appendicitis, complicated appendicitis, return to baseline health, readmission, reoperation, unplanned appendectomy, adverse events related to treatment, major and minor complications.
CONCLUSION: An evidence-informed COS based on international consensus, including patients and parents has been developed. This COS is recommended for all future studies evaluating treatment of simple appendicitis in children, to reduce heterogeneity between studies and facilitate data synthesis and evidence-based decision-making.
METHODS: After obtaining data on food consumption of palm and soya oils and mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM, correlations between the consumption of oils and mortality burdens of diseases were explored.
RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the consumption of soya oil with the mortality burden of CBVDs in Australia, Switzerland, and Indonesia, as well as the mortality burden of DM in the USA. The consumption of palm oil had a positive correlation with the mortality burden of DM in Jordan only.
CONCLUSIONS: Food consumption of soya oil in several countries possibly contributes to the mortality burden of CBVDs or DM more than food consumption of palm oil, which could be a possible risk factor in the mortality burdens of CBVDs and DM.
METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.
RESULTS: Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.
METHODS: A total of 176 adolescents in selected urban areas in the states of Wilayah Persekutuan and Selangor were selected. The Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS) was used to measure the level of severity or tendency of suicidal ideation. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure the perceived social support received by the respondent while the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (SWBS) was used to measure the religious wellbeing (RWB), the existential wellbeing (EWB) and the overall score of spiritual wellbeing (SWB).
RESULTS: The study found that both RWB and EWB showed significant negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Similarly, support from family and friends also showed a negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Further analysis using multiple regressions showed that RWB and SWB, and family support predict suicidal ideation in adolescents.
CONCLUSION: Spiritual wellbeing in combination with family support plays a major role in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, intervention for encompassing spirituality and family support may contribute to a more positive outcome in suicidal adolescents.
METHODOLOGY: Pubmed, Medline, SPORTDiscus and Google scholar were searched from inception to 4th January 2021 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving injection therapies (e.g. blood derivatives, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin) for CSTI. The primary and secondary outcomes were pain and function, respectively, at (or nearest to) 6 months. Effect size (ES) was presented as standardised mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). Frequentist random effect NMA was used to generate the overall estimates, subgroup estimates (by region and measurement time point) and sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 91 articles (87 RCTs; 5859 participants) involving upper limb (74%), lower limb (23%) and truncal/hip (3%) injuries were included. At all time points, prolotherapy had no statistically significant pain benefits over other therapies. This observation remained unchanged when tested under various assumptions and with exclusion of studies with high risk of bias. Although prolotherapy did not offer statistically significant functional improvement compared to most therapies, its ES was consistently better than non-injections and corticosteroid injection for both outcomes. At selected time points and for selected injuries, prolotherapy demonstrated potentially better pain improvement over placebo (<4 months: shoulder [ES 0.65; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.30]; 4-8 months: elbow [ES 0.91; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.70]; >8 months: shoulder [ES 2.08; 95% CI 1.49, to 2.68]). Injections generally produced greater ES when combined with non-injection therapy.
CONCLUSION: While clinical outcomes were generally comparable across types of injection therapy, prolotherapy may be used preferentially for selected conditions at selected times.
METHODS: Questionnaire of dietary changes was modified from WHEL study and adapted to typical Malay's food intake in Malaysia. A total of 23 items were listed and categorized by types of food and cooking methods. Four categories of changes "increased", "decreased", "no changes" or "stopped" were used to determine the changes in dietary practices. Score one (+1) is given to positive changes by reference to WCRF/AICR and Malaysia Dietary Guideline healthy eating recommendations. Malay EORTC QLQ-C30 were used to determine the QoL. Sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and anthropometric measurement were also collected.
RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects (n=77) was 50.7±7.8 years old with duration of survivorship 4.0±3.1 years. Subjects mean BMI was 27.8±4.9 kg/m2 which indicate subjects were 31.2% overweight and 32.5% obese. The percentage score of positive dietary changes was 34.7±16.4%. Positive dietary changes were increased intake of green leafy vegetable (49.4%), cruciferous vegetable (46.8%) and boiling cooking methods (45.5%). Subjects reduced their intake of red meat (42.9%), sugar (53.2%) and fried cooking method (44.2%). Subjects stopped consuming milk (41.6%), c 2008-5862 heese (33.8%) and sweetened condensed milk (33.8%). With increasing positive dietary changes, there was a significant improvement on emotional function (rs=0.27; p=0.016) and reduced fatigue symptoms (rs=-0.24; p=0.033).
CONCLUSION: Positive changes in dietary intake improved emotional function and reduced fatigue symptoms after cancer treatment. By knowing the trend of food changes after cancer treatment, enables the formation of healthy food intervention implemented more effective.
Methods: We examined whether (a) PA and (b) selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (n = 1,151). Body mass indices, waist-hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF) were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS). Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model.
Results: PAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = -0.44 [95% confidence interval -0.72, -0.16], p = 0.002). The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.16 [-0.28, -0.05], corrected p = 0.01) and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = -0.06 [-0.12, -0.00], p = 0.02) were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.02) and combined GRS (β = -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01], p = 0.01) for % BF.
Conclusion: Higher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention in this population.