Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the presence of fat, sugar, and volatile compounds such as esters and sulphur-containing compounds such as thioacetals, thioesters, and thiolanes, as well as alcohols. This review shows that durian is also rich in flavonoids (i.e., flavanols, anthocyanins), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. However, limited studies exist regarding the variation in bioactive and volatile components of different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Experimental animal models have shown that durian beneficially reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Durian extract possesses anti-proliferative and probiotics effects in in vitro models. These effects warrant further investigation in human interventional studies for the development of functional food.
Wart disease (WD) is a skin illness on the human body which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). This study mainly concentrates on common and plantar warts. There are various treatment methods for this disease, including the popular immunotherapy and cryotherapy methods. Manual evaluation of the WD treatment response is challenging. Furthermore, traditional machine learning methods are not robust enough in WD classification as they cannot deal effectively with small number of attributes. This study proposes a new evolutionary-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using machine learning to classify the WD treatment response. The main architecture of our CAD system is based on the combination of improved adaptive particle swarm optimization (IAPSO) algorithm and artificial immune recognition system (AIRS). The cross-validation protocol was applied to test our machine learning-based classification system, including five different partition protocols (K2, K3, K4, K5 and K10). Our database consisted of 180 records taken from immunotherapy and cryotherapy databases. The best results were obtained using the K10 protocol that provided the precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy values of 0.8908, 0.8943, 0.8916 and 90%, respectively. Our IAPSO system showed the reliability of 98.68%. It was implemented in Java, while integrated development environment (IDE) was implemented using NetBeans. Our encouraging results suggest that the proposed IAPSO-AIRS system can be employed for the WD management in clinical environment.
The production of ammonia has been increasing over the past few years. Unfortunately, the production does not follow the safety control of ammonia on workers. Indonesia still adopts chemical standard from other countries. Therefore, it requires an ammonia standard at the highest dose without effect or no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in the workplace. This research aims to determine standard at the highest dose of without effect through the expression of CD8 cells as well as analysis of histological alteration CD8 lymphocyte between exposed to ammonia group and control. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research with a post-test only control group design. The research used Rattus novergicus species as many as 24. NOAEL was determined by middle dose with a location between the smallest and the largest dose. The doses of ammonia were given through inhalation. The histological alteration of CD8 between ammonia in exposed and the control group were analyzed by using the Kruskal Wallis test. Results: NOAEL was found through CD8 located in group 3 with 0.0154 dose mg/kg body weight. There was a differential expression of CD8 lymphocyte cells in the white mice lung between exposed to ammonia group and control (p=0.042). Conclusion: The expression of CD8 lymphocyte cells in the white mice lung exposed to ammonia differs significantly with the number of the expression of CD8 lymphocyte cells in white mice lung at control group. NOAEL was 0.0154 mg/kg body weight of white mice.
A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements.
Indonesian government secures the access of the poor towards health services through subsidised schemes. This study is aimed to describe the pattern of health expenditure by households and to describe the pattern of health service utilisation across household’s socioeconomic level in the city of Padang after seven years of the introduction of subsidised schemes. A household survey was conducted involving 918 households, with multistage random sampling method. The proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending as a share of household’s capacity to pay was regressive across consumption quintiles. The proportion of households with catastrophic health expenditure was 1.6% while 1.1% faced impoverished health expenses. Among those who need health care, the utilisation among the rich was higher than the poor. Health insurance schemes in Padang provides financial protection, however with regards to household’s capacity to pay, the poor has the higher burden of health payment. The gap on health service utilisation between the poor and the better-offs was still apparent for outpatient services and it has been narrowed for inpatient care. This study suggests that the subsidised schemes for the poor are highly needed and the possibility of the leakage of subsidies to the rich should be considered by the government.
Biomass burning is one of the main sources of air pollution in South East Asia, predominantly during the dry period between June and October each year. Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia, have been identified as the regions connected to biomass burning due to their involvement in agricultural activities. In Sumatra, the Province of Riau has always been found to have had the highest number of hotspots during haze episodes. This study aims to determine the concentration of five major pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) in Riau, Indonesia, for 2006 and 2007. It will also correlate the level of air pollutants to the number of hotspots recorded, using the hotspot information system introduced by the Malaysian Centre for Remote Sensing (MACRES). Overall, the concentration of air pollutants recorded was found to increase with the number of hotspots. Nevertheless, only the concentration of PM10 during a haze episode is significantly different when compared to its concentration in non-haze conditions. In fact, in August 2006, when the highest number of hotspots was recorded the concentration of PM10 was found to increase by more than 20% from its normal concentration. The dispersion pattern, as simulated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), showed that the distribution of PM10 was greatly influenced by the wind direction. Furthermore, the particles had the capacity to reach the Peninsular Malaysia within 42 hours of emission from the point sources as a consequence of the South West monsoon.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism and virulence analyses were used to evaluate the population structure of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the rice bacterial blight pathogen, from several rice-growing countries in Asia. Two DNA sequences from X. oryzae pv. oryzae, IS1112, an insertion sequence, and avrXa10, a member of a family of avirulence genes, were used as probes to analyze the genomes of 308 strains of X. oryzae pv. oryzae collected from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, and the Philippines. On the basis of the consensus of three clustering statistics, the collection formed five clusters. Genetic distances within the five clusters ranged from 0.16 to 0.51, and distances between clusters ranged from 0.48 to 0.64. Three of the five clusters consisted of strains from a single country. Strains within two clusters, however, were found in more than one country, suggesting patterns of movement of the pathogen. The pathotype of X. oryzae pv. oryzae was determined for 226 strains by inoculating five rice differential cultivars. More than one pathotype was associated with each cluster; however, some pathotypes were associated with only one cluster. Most strains from South Asia (Nepal and India) were virulent to cultivars containing the bacterial blight resistance gene xa-5, while most strains from other countries were avirulent to xa-5. The regional differentiation of clusters of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia and the association of some pathotypes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with single clusters suggested that strategies that target regional resistance breeding and gene deployment are feasible.
Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.
A recently described species of black fly, Simulium wayani Takaoka and Chen, from the island of Timor was chromosomally mapped to provide insights into its evolutionary and biogeographic history. The morphologically based species status of S. wayani is supported by a suite of fixed chromosomal rearrangements and unique sex chromosomes derived primarily from a large pool of polymorphisms in the S. ornatipes complex in Australia. The banding patterns of its polytene chromosomes indicate that S. wayani is closely related to a pair of homosequential cryptic species (S. norfolkense Dumbleton and S. ornatipes cytoform A2) in the S. ornatipes Skuse complex on mainland Australia; all three species uniquely share the same amplified band in their chromosomal complement. The low level of polymorphism and heterozygosity in S. wayani, relative to Australian populations of the S. ornatipes complex, suggests few colonization events from the larger land mass.
On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused death and destruction in twelve countries including India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. One of the authors was a volunteer with FELDA WAJA AMAN MALAYSIA medical relief team that served the Aceh victims from 16th February to 24th February 2005 (8 weeks post tsunami). A study to determine the pattern of health ailments was conducted among children aged 18 years and below based at Seuneubok Camp, 30 km from Banda Aceh. All respondents were from Pulau Aceh and the total number of children seen and examined was 60. About 18% had lost their fathers, 10 % had lost their mothers and 27% had lost one or more of their siblings. 77% suffered some form of health ailments. The common health ailments were diarrhea (61%), respiratory complaints (59%) and fever (20%). About 38 % of preschoolers had loss of appetite and 28% had sleep disturbances. About 35% of the elementary school children suffered from sleep disturbances, 29% of the young adolescents suffered from headaches and 24% had sleep disturbances. Nearly a quarter (24%) of all the children felt fearful and anxious about the disaster. Nevertheless, 56% of the respondents wanted to return back to Pulau Aceh, although 14 % did not want to go back. Interestingly, 73% of the children voiced their gratitude to God for having been saved from death.
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a rare in children; the risk of SUDEP in children is up to 10-fold less than adults. Herein, we report a case of SUDEP in a 14-year-old boy. The post-mortem findings in neuropathological examination in SUDEP are not pathognomonic. Tongue and lip bites marks are only an indication of a seizure before death. Basically, there are no lesions that could explain the incidence of seizures before death. However, post-mortem examination is mandatory in order to determine the diagnosis of SUDEP. Autopsy, histopathological, and toxicologic examinations and a proper medical history of epilepsy are required to come to diagnosis of SUDEP. This case report further demonstrates the importance of medicolegal autopsy in allegedly dead victims.
Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore.
PIP: Responses to questions relating to breastfeeding in the World Fertility Surveys of South Korea, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Bangladesh are analyzed. Of these countries, the percentage of ever-married women who had breastfed in the last closed interval was between 94-99%, except for Malaysia (81%) and average number of months breastfeeding took place was from 16.5-19.2, except for Malaysia (7.3). The infant mortality rate in these countries was 33/1000 live births for South Korea, 45/1000 for Malaysia, 51/1000 for Sri Lanka, 137/1000 for Indonesia, 150/1000 for Bangladesh, and 152/1000 for Nepal. Responses, however, might vary according to different interview situations. Assuming that the reporting errors are of similar magnitude and direction, the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and the birth interval can be studied. But it is possible that breastfeeding was prolonged due to other reasons for which conception was delayed; thus the regression of breastfeeding duration on the birth interval is not as logical as the regression of the birth interval on the breastfeeding is, especially when habitual breastfeeding can be avoided. The negative relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality does exist, assuming that a woman breastfeeds all her children for similar durations. Some breastfeeding differentials are place of residence (less for rural areas), education (reduces duration), and religion (Christians have shorter duration than Muslims, Hindus, or Buddhists). In South Korea the mean length of breastfeeding of women aged 25-34 and 35-44 are 17.5 and 20.5, and women using contraceptives are 26% for 25-34 and 20% for 35-44. South Korea also has the highest level of breastfeeding, highest incidence of ever use of contraceptives, and a very low level of fertility. Nepal and Bangladesh have a high level of breastfeeding but since their contraceptive incidence is low, their fertility level remains high. Some areas of further research include influence of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality.
Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[188.8.131.52(1,5)]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1-19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.
Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated.
Piper cubeba L. is the berry of a shrub that is indigenous to Java, Southern Borneo, Sumatra, and other islands in the Indian Ocean. The plant is usually used in folk traditional medicine and is an important ingredient in cooking. The purpose of this study was to isolate and purify the bioactive compounds from P. cubeba L. fractions. In addition, the isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antispore activities against vegetative cells and spores of Bacilluscereus ATCC33019, B. subtilis ATCC6633, B.pumilus ATCC14884, and B.megaterium ATCC14581. The phytochemical investigation of the DCM fraction yielded two known compounds: β-asarone (1), and asaronaldehyde (2) were successfully isolated and identified from the methanol extract and its fractions of P. cubeba L. Results showed that exposing the vegetative cells of Bacillus sp. to isolated compounds resulted in an inhibition zone with a large diameter ranging between 7.21 to 9.61 mm. The range of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 63.0 to 125.0 µg/mL and had minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 250.0 to 500.0 µg/mL against Bacillus sp. Isolated compounds at a concentration of 0.05% inactivated more than 3-Log10 (90.99%) of the spores of Bacillus sp. after an incubation period of four hours, and all the spores were killed at a concentration of 0.1%. The structures were recognizably elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR analyses (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1, and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. In conclusion, the two compounds show a promising potential of antibacterial and sporicidal activities against Bacillus sp. and thus can be developed as an anti-Bacillus agent.
Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa.