Methods: The extracts were assessed for the antimalarial potential using a malarial SYBR Green I fluorescence-based (MSF) assay, while the toxicity was screened by using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT), haemolytic assay, and cytotoxicity assay against normal embryo fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) and normal kidney epithelial cell line (Vero).
Results: The acetone extract showed the highest antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 5.85 ± 1.64 μg/mL), followed by the methanol extract (IC50 = 10.31 ± 1.90 μg/mL). Meanwhile, the ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed low antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 20.00 ± 1.57 and 30.95 μg/mL ± 1.27 μg/mL, respectively. The significant antimalarial activity was demonstrated in all extracts and artemisinin (P < 0.05). All extracts were non-toxic to brine shrimps (50% lethality concentration, LC50 > 1000 ppm). Furthermore, no occurrence of haemolysis (< 5%) was observed in normal erythrocytes when treated with all extracts compared to Triton X-100 that caused 100% haemolysis (P < 0.05). The acetone and methanol extracts were non-toxic to the normal cell lines and statistically significant to artemisinin (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Taken together with satisfactory selectivity index (SI) values, the acetone and methanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls could serve as an alternative, promising and safe antimalarial agents.
Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed.
Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL).
Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.