Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 468 in total

  1. Zulkifli, A.F., Tham, L.G., Perumal, N., Azzeme, A., Shukor, M.Y., Shaharuddin, N.A., et al.
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is usually used as an inhibitive assay for insecticides. A lesser
    known property of AChE is its inhibition by heavy metals. In this work we evaluate an AChE
    from brains of striped snakehead (Channa striatus) wastes from aquaculture industry as an
    inhibitive assay for heavy metals. We discovered that the AChE was inhibited almost completely
    by Hg2+, Ag2+ and Cu2+ during an initial screening. When tested at various concentrations, the
    heavy metals exhibited exponential decay type inhibition curves. The calculated IC50 for the
    heavy metals Hg2+, Ag2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr6+ were 0.08432, 0.1008, 0.1255, 0.0871, and 0.1771,
    respectively. The IC50 for these heavy metals are comparable and some are lower than the IC50
    values from the cholinesterases from previously studied fish. The assay can be carried out in less
    than 30 minutes at ambient temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Zulkepli NA, Rou KV, Sulaiman WN, Salhin A, Saad B, Seeni A
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(1):259-63.
    PMID: 21517268
    One of the main aims of cancer chemopreventive studies is to identify ideal apoptotic inducers, especially examples which can induce early apoptotic activity. The present investigation focused on chemopreventive effects of a hydrazone derivative using an in vitro model with tongue cancer cells. Alteration in cell morphology was ascertained, along with stage in the cell cycle and proliferation, while living-dead status of the cells was confirmed under a confocal microscope. In addition, cytotoxicity test was performed using normal mouse skin fibroblast cells. The results showed that the compound inhibited the growth of tongue cancer cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 0.01 mg/ml in a dose and time-dependent manner, with a two-fold increase in early apoptotic activity and G0G1 phase cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. Exposure to the compound also resulted in alterations of cell morphology including vacuolization and cellular shrinkage. Confocal microscope analysis using calcein and ethidium staining confirmed that the compound caused cell death, whereas no cytotoxic effects on normal mouse skin fibroblast cells were observed. In conclusion, the findings in this study suggested that the hydrazone derivative acts as an apoptotic inducer with anti-proliferative chemopreventive activity in tongue cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Zin NNINM, Mohamad MN, Roslan K, Abdul Wafi S, Abdul Moin NI, Alias A, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Jul;27(4):36-50.
    PMID: 32863744 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.4.4
    Background: The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance in common antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-based combination therapies, has necessitated the discovery of new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In the present study, the in vitro antimalarial and toxicological activities of acetone, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) galls were investigated.

    Methods: The extracts were assessed for the antimalarial potential using a malarial SYBR Green I fluorescence-based (MSF) assay, while the toxicity was screened by using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT), haemolytic assay, and cytotoxicity assay against normal embryo fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) and normal kidney epithelial cell line (Vero).

    Results: The acetone extract showed the highest antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 5.85 ± 1.64 μg/mL), followed by the methanol extract (IC50 = 10.31 ± 1.90 μg/mL). Meanwhile, the ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed low antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 20.00 ± 1.57 and 30.95 μg/mL ± 1.27 μg/mL, respectively. The significant antimalarial activity was demonstrated in all extracts and artemisinin (P < 0.05). All extracts were non-toxic to brine shrimps (50% lethality concentration, LC50 > 1000 ppm). Furthermore, no occurrence of haemolysis (< 5%) was observed in normal erythrocytes when treated with all extracts compared to Triton X-100 that caused 100% haemolysis (P < 0.05). The acetone and methanol extracts were non-toxic to the normal cell lines and statistically significant to artemisinin (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Taken together with satisfactory selectivity index (SI) values, the acetone and methanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls could serve as an alternative, promising and safe antimalarial agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Zhong L, Liu Q, Ting YS, Thien VY, Binti Kalong NS, Yang D, et al.
    Chem Biol Drug Des, 2018 12;92(6):1998-2008.
    PMID: 30043441 DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.13371
    Overexpression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and β-cell apoptosis. We have previously shown that W2476 inhibited high glucose-induced TXNIP expression at both mRNA and protein levels in INS-1E cells. In this study, we describe structural modification and optimization of W2476 leading to three more active derivatives, 8d, 8g, and 9h, capable of suppressing TXNIP expression in BG73 and INS-1E cells, increasing insulin production, and reducing high glucose-induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:3045-3063.
    PMID: 29123378 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S144415
    The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Zawawi NK, Taha M, Ahmat N, Ismail NH, Wadood A, Rahim F, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2015 Dec;63:36-44.
    PMID: 26432614 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2015.09.004
    Biscoumarin analogs 1-18 have been synthesized, characterized by EI-MS and (1)H NMR and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. All compounds showed variety of α-glucosidase inhibitory potential ranging in between 13.5±0.39 and 104.62±0.3μM when compared with standard acarbose having IC50 value 774.5±1.94μM. The binding interactions of the most active analogs were confirmed through molecular docking. The compounds showed very good interactions with enzyme. All synthesized compounds 1-18 are new. Our synthesized compounds can further be studied to developed lead compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa MR, Abubakar S
    PMID: 23140177 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-214
    Dengue is a serious arboviral disease currently with no effective antiviral therapy or approved vaccine available. Therefore, finding the effective compound against dengue virus (DENV) replication is very important. Among the natural compounds, bioflavonoids derived mainly from plants are of interest because of their biological and medicinal benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa MR, Abubakar S
    Virol J, 2011;8:560.
    PMID: 22201648 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-560
    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Zamani A, Mat Jusoh SA, Al-Jamal HA, Sul'ain MD, Johan MF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016 11 01;17(11):4857-4861.
    PMID: 28030911
    Background: Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor specifically targeting the BCR/ABL fusion protein, induces hematological remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the majority of CML patients treated with imatinib develop resistance with prolonged therapy. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq. is a Malaysian mistletoe species that has been used as a traditional treatment for several ailments such as smallpox, ulcers, and cancers. Methods: We developed a resistant cell line (designated as K562R) by long-term co-culture of a BCR/ ABL positive CML cell line, K562, with imatinib mesylate. We then investigated the anti-proliferative effects of D. pentandra methanol extract on parental K562 and resistant K562R cells. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed to determine the IC50 concentration; apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were conducted by flow cytometry. Results: D. pentandra extract had greater anti-proliferative effects towards K562R (IC50= 192 μg/mL) compared to K562 (500 μg/ mL) cells. Upon treatment with D. pentandra extract at the IC50. concentration: K562 but not K562R demonstrated increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Conclusion: D. pentandra methanol extract exerts potent anti-proliferative effect on BCR/ABL positive K562 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Wadood A, Shah SAA, Ahmed QU, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 05;9(1):16015.
    PMID: 31690793 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-52100-0
    Here in this study regarding the over expression of TP, which causes some physical, mental and socio problems like psoriasis, chronic inflammatory disease, tumor angiogenesis and rheumatoid arthritis etc. By this consideration, the inhibition of this enzyme is vital to secure life from serious threats. In connection with this, we have synthesized twenty derivatives of isoquinoline bearing oxadiazole (1-20), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as HREI-MS, 1H- NMR and 13C-NMR and evaluated for thymidine phosphorylase inhibition. All analogues showed outstanding inhibitory potential ranging in between 1.10 ± 0.05 to 54.60 ± 1.50 µM. 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 1.12 µM) was used as a positive control. Through limited structure activity relationships study, it has been observed that the difference in inhibitory activities of screened analogs are mainly affected by different substitutions on phenyl ring. The effective binding interactions of the most active analogs were confirmed through docking study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Zakaria I, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Widyawaruyanti A
    Fitoterapia, 2012 Jul;83(5):968-72.
    PMID: 22561914 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.04.020
    A new flavanone derivative, malaysianone A (1), four prenylated flavanones, 6-prenyl-3'-methoxyeriodictyol (2), nymphaeol B (3), nymphaeol C (4) and 6-farnesyl-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (5), and two coumarins, 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (6) and scopoletin (7), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the inflorescences of Macaranga triloba. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines, with 5 inhibiting very strongly the growth of HeLa and HL-60 cells (IC(50): 1.3 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml, respectively). Compound 5 also showed strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 0.06 μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Zahari Z, Jani NA, Amanah A, Latif MN, Majid MI, Adenan MI
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Feb 15;21(3):282-5.
    PMID: 24269185 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.011
    Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 μg/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Zahari A, Cheah FK, Mohamad J, Sulaiman SN, Litaudon M, Leong KH, et al.
    Planta Med, 2014 May;80(7):599-603.
    PMID: 24723007 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1368349
    The crude extract of the bark of Dehaasia longipedicellata exhibited antiplasmodial activity against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum K1 isolate (resistant strain). Phytochemical studies of the extract led to the isolation of six alkaloids: two morphinandienones, (+)-sebiferine (1) and (-)-milonine (2); two aporphines, (-)-boldine (3) and (-)-norboldine (4); one benzlyisoquinoline, (-)-reticuline (5); and one bisbenzylisoquinoline, (-)-O-O-dimethylgrisabine (6). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS spectroscopic techniques and upon comparison with literature values. Antiplasmodial activity was determined for all of the isolated compounds. They showed potent to moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.031 to 30.40 µM. (-)-O-O-dimethylgrisabine (6) and (-)-milonine (2) were the two most potent compounds, with IC50 values of 0.031 and 0.097 µM, respectively, that were comparable to the standard, chloroquine (0.090 µM). The compounds were also assessed for their antioxidant activities with di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (IC50 = 18.40-107.31 µg/mL), reducing power (27.40-87.40 %), and metal chelating (IC50 = 64.30 to 257.22 µg/mL) having good to low activity. (-)-O-O-dimethylgrisabine (6) exhibited a potent antioxidant activity of 44.3 % reducing power, while di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium and metal chelating activities had IC50 values of 18.38 and 64.30 µg/mL, respectively. Thus it may be considered as a good reductant with the ability to chelate metal and prevent pro-oxidant activity. In addition to the antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities, the isolated compounds were also tested for their cytotoxicity against a few cancer and normal cell lines. (-)-Norboldine (4) exhibited potent cytotoxicity towards pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 with an IC50 value of 27.060 ± 1.037 µM, and all alkaloids showed no toxicity towards the normal pancreatic cell line (hTERT-HPNE).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Zafar MN, Masood S, Chaudhry GE, Muhammad TST, Dalebrook AF, Nazar MF, et al.
    Dalton Trans, 2019 Aug 08.
    PMID: 31393494 DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01923e
    The two cationic palladium(ii) complexes, [Pd(Len)2][OTf]2 (4) and [Pd(Lphen)2][OTf]2 (5), were synthesized by treatment of bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(ii) with [H2Len][OTf]2 (2) or [H2Lphen][OTf]2 (3), respectively, in the presence of a weak base. The pro-ligands 2 and 3 were synthesized by melt reactions between N-methyl-4-chloropyridinium triflate (1) and the amines ethylenediamine or phenylenediamine, respectively. The water-soluble compounds 2-5 were fully characterized, including by single-crystal X-ray crystal structure determinations for 2-4. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the binding interactions of 2-5 with CT-DNA. The spectroscopic data suggested the presence of intercalative and groove binding modes and this was supported by molecular docking studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies (IC50 values) showed that the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D were more sensitive towards 3, 4 and 5 than cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of the new compounds decreased in the order 5 > 4 > 3 > 2. Furthermore, the annexin V-FITC staining method strongly suggested the presence of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer membrane of the treated cells, which is a hallmark of apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Yusof WNSW, Abdullah H
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Apr;31(1):69-84.
    PMID: 32963712 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.1.5
    Conventional and modern cancer treatment were reported to manifest adverse effects to the patients. More researches were conducted to search for selective cytotoxic agent of plant natural product on cancer cells. The presences of wide range phytochemicals in Quercus infectoria (QI) extract have been implicated with the cytotoxic effect against various types of cancer cell which remain undiscovered. This present study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic effect of QI extracts on selected human cancer cells and then, the most potent extract was further analysed for general phytochemical constituents. QI galls were extracted successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded three main extracts; n-hexane (QIH), ethyl acetate (QIEA) and methanol (QIM), respectively. The most potent extract was qualitatively analysed for the present of tannin, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Next, the extracts were tested to determine the cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2) using MTT assay. Cytotoxic activity of QI extracts against normal fibroblast (L929) cell line was also evaluated to determine the cytoselective property. Meanwhile, DMSO-treated cells served as negative control while cisplatin-treated cells served as positive control. The most potent extract then chosen to be further investigated for DNA fragmentation as hallmark of apoptosis using Hoechst staining. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. QIEA extract exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with (IC50 value = 6.33 ± 0.33 μg/mL) and showed cytoselective property against L929 cells. DNA fragmentation revealed QIEA induced apoptosis in the treated cells. The richness of phytochemical constituents in QIEA extract might contribute to the potency of cytotoxic activity towards HeLa cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Yusof KM, Makpol S, Jamal R, Harun R, Mokhtar N, Ngah WZ
    Molecules, 2015 Jun 03;20(6):10280-97.
    PMID: 26046324 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200610280
    Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) and 6-gingerol (6G) in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0-150 µg/mL) and 6G (0-300 µg/mL) on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02,) and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10) apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05) after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Yusefi M, Shameli K, Su Yee O, Teow SY, Hedayatnasab Z, Jahangirian H, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:2515-2532.
    PMID: 33824589 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S284134
    Introduction: Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with multiple functionalities are intriguing candidates for various biomedical applications.

    Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed.

    Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL).

    Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Yuliana ND, Tuarita MZ, Khatib A, Laila F, Sukarno S
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2020 Jun;29(6):825-835.
    PMID: 32523792 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-019-00725-2
    GC-MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC50 8.53 ± 0.26 µM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl-2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1-10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 µg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis-mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Yuandani, Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mohamad HF, Husain K, Abdul Razak AF
    PMID: 23737840 DOI: 10.1155/2013/603634
    The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1  µ g/mL). There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells). The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7  µ g/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4  µ g/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9  µ g/mL). Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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