Displaying publications 21 - 40 of 43 in total

  1. Al-Anazi M, Al-Najjar BO, Khairuddean M
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563058 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123203
    Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-1 (EGFR), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK), has been associated with several types of cancer, including breast, lung, ovarian, and anal cancers. Thus, the receptor was targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches for cancer treatments. A series of chalcone derivatives are among the most highly potent and selective inhibitors of EGFR described to date. A series of chalcone derivatives were proposed in this study to investigate the intermolecular interactions in the active site utilizing molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. After a careful analysis of docking results, compounds 1a and 1d were chosen for molecular dynamics simulation study. Extensive hydrogen bond analysis throughout 7 ns molecular dynamics simulation revealed the ability of compounds 1a and 1d to retain the essential interactions needed for the inhibition, especially MET 93. Finally, MM-GBSA calculations highlight on the capability of the ligands to bind strongly within the active site with binding energies of -44.04 and -56.6 kcal/mol for compounds 1a and 1d, respectively. Compound 1d showed to have a close binding energy with TAK-285 (-66.17 kcal/mol), which indicates a high chance for compound 1d to exhibit inhibitory activity, thus recommending to synthesis it to test its biological activity. It is anticipated that the findings reported here may provide very useful information for designing effective drugs for the treatment of EGFR-related cancer disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/pharmacology; Chalcone/chemistry*
  2. Lim YH, Oo CW, Koh RY, Voon GL, Yew MY, Yam MF, et al.
    Drug Dev Res, 2020 Jul 28.
    PMID: 32720715 DOI: 10.1002/ddr.21715
    In recent years, chalcones and their derivatives have become the focus of global scientists due to increasing evidence reported towards their potency in antitumor and anti-cancer. Here, the chalcones designed and synthesized in our present study were derived from the derivatives of naphthaldehyde and acetophenone. Both these precursors have been reported in demonstrating a certain degree of anticancer property. Also, the substituents on these precursors such as hydroxyl, methoxy, prenyl, and chloro were shown able to enhance the anticancer efficiency. Hence, it is the interest of the current study to investigate the anticancer potential of the hybrid molecules (chalcones) consisting of these precursors with different alkoxy substituents and with or without the fluorine moiety. Two series of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized using the elemental analysis, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, subsequently evaluated for their anti-cancer activity. Interestingly, the results showed that the fluorinated chalcones 11-15 exhibited stronger cytotoxic activity towards the breast cancer cell lines (4T1) compared to non-fluorinated chalcone derivatives. Remarkably, the selectivity index obtained for these fluorinated chalcones derivatives against the breast cancer 4T1 cell line was higher than those exhibited by cisplatin, which is one of the most frequently deployed chemotherapy agents in current medical practice. These findings could provide an insight towards the potential of fluorinated chalcones being developed as an anti-cancer agent with moderate activity towards breast cancer cell and low inhibition of fibroblast cell at a concentration of 100 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  3. Sambasevam Y, Omar Farouk AA, Tengku Mohamad TA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2017 Feb 05;796:32-38.
    PMID: 27988285 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.12.020
    Neuropathic pain arises from the injury of nervous system. The condition is extremely difficult to be treated due to the ineffectiveness and presence of various adverse effects of the currently available drugs. In the present study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperlagesic properties of cardamonin, a naturally occurring chalcone in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain mice model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of cardamonin (3, 10, 30mg/kg) significantly inhibited (P<0.001) the chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain using the Hargreaves plantar test, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer test, dynamic plantar anesthesiometer test and the cold plate test in comparison with the positive control drug used (amitriptyline hydrochloride, 20mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with naloxone hydrochloride (1mg/kg, i.p.) and naloxone methiodide (1mg/kg, s.c) significantly reversed the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of cardamonin in dynamic plantar anesthesiometer test and Hargreaves plantar test, respectively. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrated novel antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of cardamonin through the activation of the opioidergic system both peripherally and centrally and may prove to be a potent lead compound for the development of neuropathic pain drugs in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  4. Al-Refai M, Ibrahim MM, Azmi MN, Osman H, Bakar MHA, Geyer A
    Molecules, 2019 Nov 10;24(22).
    PMID: 31717690 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24224072
    A series of 2-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile (5a-i)-bearing aryl substituents were successfully synthesized in good yields by the condensation of chalcones (4a-i) with malononitrile in basic medium. The condensation process, in most cases, offers a route to a variety of methoxypyridine derivatives (6a-g) as side products in poor yields. All new compounds were fully characterized using different spectroscopic methods. Mass ESI-HMRS measurements were also performed. Furthermore, these compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activities against three cancer cell lines; namely, those of the liver (line HepG2), prostate (line DU145) and breast (line MBA-MB-231). The cytotoxicity assessment revealed that compounds 5d, 5g, 5h and 5i exhibit promising antiproliferative effects (IC50 1-5 µM) against those three cancer cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  5. Liew YJM, Lee YK, Khalid N, Rahman NA, Tan BC
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9094.
    PMID: 32391211 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9094
    Flavonoids and prenylated flavonoids are active components in medicinal plant extracts which exhibit beneficial effects on human health. Prenylated flavonoids consist of a flavonoid core with a prenyl group attached to it. This prenylation process is catalyzed by prenyltranferases (PTs). At present, only a few flavonoid-related PT genes have been identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of PT in flavonoid production. We isolated a putative PT gene (designated as BrPT2) from a medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda. The deduced protein sequence shared highest gene sequence homology (81%) with the predicted homogentisate phytyltransferase 2 chloroplastic isoform X1 from Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis. We then cloned the BrPT2 into pRI vector and expressed in B. rotunda cell suspension cultures via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The BrPT2-expressing cells were fed with substrate, pinostrobin chalcone, and their products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We found that the amount of flavonoids, namely alpinetin, pinostrobin, naringenin and pinocembrin, in BrPT2-expressing cells was higher than those obtained from the wild type cells. However, we were unable to detect any targeted prenylated flavonoids. Further in-vitro assay revealed that the reaction containing the BrPT2 protein produced the highest accumulation of pinostrobin from the substrate pinostrobin chalcone compared to the reaction without BrPT2 protein, suggesting that BrPT2 was able to accelerate the enzymatic reaction. The finding of this study implied that the isolated BrPT2 may not be involved in the prenylation of pinostrobin chalcone but resulted in high yield and production of other flavonoids, which is likely related to enzyme promiscuous activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  6. Safdar MH, Hasan H, Afzal S, Hussain Z
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(12):1047-1063.
    PMID: 29173165 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171123212039
    The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells tends to cause disruption of homeostasis in the body and may lead to development of numerous immune system disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design a wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders. Owing to their unique structural and molecular framework, these α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties have also gained remarkable recognition due to their other multifarious pharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-tuberculosis, and anticancer potential. Though a great number of methodologies are currently being employed for their synthesis, this review mainly focuses on the natural and synthetic chalcone derivatives that are exclusively synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and their immunomodulatory prospects. We have critically reviewed the literature and provided convincing evidence for the promising efficacy of chalcone derivatives to modulate functioning of various innate and adaptive immune players including granulocytes, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  7. Jantan I, Bukhari SN, Adekoya OA, Sylte I
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1405-18.
    PMID: 25258510 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67370
    Arachidonic acid metabolism leads to the generation of key lipid mediators which play a fundamental role during inflammation. The inhibition of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism has been considered as a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect with enhanced spectrum of activity. A series of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were investigated for anti-inflammatory related activities involving inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, soybean lipoxygenase, and lipopolysaccharides-induced secretion of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. The results from the above mentioned assays exhibited that the synthesized compounds were effective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The results also revealed that the chalcone derivatives with 4-methlyamino ethanol substitution seem to be significant for inhibition of enzymes and cytokines. Molecular docking experiments were carried out to elucidate the molecular aspects of the observed inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds. Present findings increase the possibility that these chalcone derivatives might serve as a beneficial starting point for the design and development of improved anti-inflammatory agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  8. Suwito H, Jumina, Mustofa, Pudjiastuti P, Fanani MZ, Kimata-Ariga Y, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Dec 19;19(12):21473-88.
    PMID: 25532844 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191221473
    Some chalcones have been designed and synthesized using Claisen-Schmidt reactions as inhibitors of the ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase interaction to pursue a new selective antimalaria agent. The synthesized compounds exhibited inhibition interactions between PfFd-PfFNR in the range of 10.94%-50%. The three strongest inhibition activities were shown by (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (50%), (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (38.16%), and (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (31.58%). From the docking experiments we established that the amino group of the methoxyamino chlacone derivatives plays an important role in the inhibition activity by electrostatic interaction through salt bridges and that it forms more stable and better affinity complexes with FNR than with Fd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis*
  9. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/administration & dosage; Chalcone/pharmacology*
  10. Isa NM, Abdelwahab SI, Mohan S, Abdul AB, Sukari MA, Taha MM, et al.
    Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2012 Jun;45(6):524-30.
    PMID: 22358425
    The current in vitro study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of boesenbergin A (BA), a chalcone derivative of known structure isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), non-small cell lung cancer (A549), prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3), and normal hepatic cells (WRL-68) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of BA using the MTT assay. The antioxidant activity of BA was assessed by the ORAC assay and compared to quercetin as a standard reference antioxidant. ORAC results are reported as the equivalent concentration of Trolox that produces the same level of antioxidant activity as the sample tested at 20 µg/mL. The toxic effect of BA on different cell types, reported as IC50, yielded 20.22 ± 3.15, 10.69 ± 2.64, 20.31 ± 1.34, 94.10 ± 1.19, and 9.324 ± 0.24 µg/mL for A549, PC3, HepG2, HT-29, and WRL-68, respectively. BA displayed considerable antioxidant activity, when the results of ORAC assay were reported as Trolox equivalents. BA (20 µg/mL) and quercetin (5 µg/mL) were equivalent to a Trolox concentration of 11.91 ± 0.23 and 160.32 ± 2.75 µM, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of BA was significant at 12.5 to 50 µM and without any significant cytotoxicity for the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 at 50 µM. The significant biological activities observed in this study indicated that BA may be one of the agents responsible for the reported biological activities of B. rotunda crude extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/isolation & purification; Chalcone/pharmacology*
  11. Bukhari SNA, Alotaibi NH, Ahmad W, Alharbi KS, Abdelgawad MA, Al-Sanea MM, et al.
    Med Chem, 2020 Sep 05.
    PMID: 32888274 DOI: 10.2174/1573406416666200905125038
    BACKGROUND: Ligustrazine and chalcones have been reported previously for various biological activities including anticancer effects.

    OBJECTIVES: Based on the multitargeted biological activities approach of ligustrazine based chalcones, in current study 18 synthetic ligustrazine-containing α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based 1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on growth of five different types of cancer cells.

    METHODS: All compounds were evaluated for anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines by propidium iodide fluorescence assay and various other assays were performed for mechanistic studies.

    RESULTS: Majority of compounds exhibited strong inhibition of cancer cells especially synthetic compounds 4a and 4b bearing 1-Pyridin-3-yl-ethanone as a ketone moiety in main structural backbone were found most powerful inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Most active 9 compounds among whole series were selected for further studies related to different cancer targets including EGFR TK kinases, tubulin polymerization, KAF and BRAFV600E.

    CONCLUSION: Synthetic derivatives including 4a-b and 5a-b showed multitarget approach and showed strong inhibitory effects on EGFR, FAK and BRAF while three compounds including 3e bearing methoxy substitution, 4a and 4b with 1- pyridin-3-yl-ethanone moiety showed the inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  12. Konidala SK, Kotra V, Danduga RCSR, Kola PK
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 11;104:104207.
    PMID: 32947135 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104207
    Four series of thirteen new coumarin-chalcone hybrids (DPCU 1-13, DPCT 1-13, DCCU 1-13 and DCCT 1-13) were designed and synthesized using Biginelli synthesis, Pechmann condensation, Acetylation, and Claisen-Schmidt reactions. Synthesized compounds were tested for insulin receptor in silico docking studies (PDB ID: 1IR3); DCCU 13 and DCCT 13 derivatives received the lowest docking score; Streptozocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (NA) induced type II diabetes was tested for their anti-diabetic activity in rats. In vivo tests suggested that fasting blood glucose levels of animals treated with DCCU 13 (30 mg/kg body weight) and DCCT 13 (30 mg/kg body weight) were significantly and moderately suppressed, respectively, relative to fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic control animals. Similarly, therapy with DCCU 13 and DCCT 13 attenuated oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the glutathione (GSH) in the liver and pancreas in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison, therapy with DCCU 13 (30 mg/kg body weight) mitigated alterations in the histological architecture of the liver and pancreatic tissue. These results indicated that the hybrids DUUC 13 and DCCT 13 at 30 mg/kg had an anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant impact on STZ + NA mediated type II diabetes in rats. Further detailed work could be required to determine the precise mode of action of the anti-diabetic behavior of hybrids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/administration & dosage; Chalcone/pharmacology*; Chalcone/chemistry
  13. Abu Bakar NA, Sulaiman MR, Lajis N, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Nov;12(Suppl 2):S711-S717.
    PMID: 33828366 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_344_19
    Introduction: Pain is a major global health issue, where its pharmacotherapy prompts unwanted side effects; hence, the development of effective alternative compounds from natural derivatives with lesser side effects is clinically needed. Chalcone; the precursors of flavonoid, and its derivatives have been widely investigated due to its pharmacological properties.

    Objective: This study addressed the therapeutic effect of 3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methyl furan-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one (DMPF-1); synthetic chalcone derivative, on antinociceptive activity in vivo.

    Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive profile was evaluated using acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate, and formalin-induced paw licking test. Capsaicin, phorbol 12-myristate 12 acetate (PMA), and glutamate-induced paw licking test were carried out to evaluate their potential effects toward different targets.

    Results: It was shown that the doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg of DMPF-1 given via intraperitoneal injection showed significant reduction in writhing responses and increased the latency time in hot-plate test where reduced time spent on licking the injected paw in formalin and dose contingency inhibition was observed. The similar results were observed in capsaicin, PMA, and glutamate-induced paw licking test. In addition, the challenge with nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) aimed to evaluate the involvement of the opioidergic system, which showed no reversion in analgesic profile in formalin and hot-plate test.

    Conclusion: Collectively, this study showed that DMPF-1 markedly inhibits both peripheral and central nociception through the mechanism involving an interaction with vanilloid and glutamatergic system regardless of the activation of the opioidergic system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  14. Wong KT, Osman H, Parumasivam T, Supratman U, Che Omar MT, Azmi MN
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 05;26(7).
    PMID: 33916423 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072081
    A total of fourteen pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized through cyclo-condensation reactions by chalcone derivatives with different types of semicarbazide. These compounds were characterized by IR, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C and Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer - DEPT-135) and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) as well as mass spectroscopy analysis (HRMS). The synthesized compounds were tested for their antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra in vitro. Based on this activity, compound 4a showed the most potent inhibitory activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 17 μM. In addition, six other synthesized compounds, 5a and 5c-5g, exhibited moderate activity, with MIC ranges between 60 μM to 140 μM. Compound 4a showed good bactericidal activity with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 34 μM against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Molecular docking studies for compound 4a on alpha-sterol demethylase was done to understand and explore ligand-receptor interactions, and to hypothesize potential refinements for the compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  15. Sambasevam, Yogesvari, Wong, Siong Jiun, Farihah Hanani Ghazali, Ammar Izzati Amir Ramadan, Mohd Roslan Sulaiman, Mohd Khairi Hussain, et al.
    Introduction: Active compounds derived from plants are able to inhibit nerve conduction. Cardamonin, a naturally occurring chalcone, manifests anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-neuropathy properties. Consequently, cardamonin may potentially inhibit nerve action potential, whereby, it affects the nerve conduction. Compound action potential is the sum of the activity which is measured from a nerve trunk. Objective: The experiment was carried out to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardamonin on compound action potentials and its possible mechanism of action on frog sciatic nerve. Methodology: LabTutor software was used to record compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve was isolated from the frog and soaked in Ringer’s solution. Stimulating electrodes were used to stimulate the nerve and recording electrodes were used to record compound action potentials. Compound action potential of the nerve were recorded before and after treatments [vehicle, cardamonin (0.5, 1 & 2 mg/ml) & morphine (3mg/ml)]. Participation of opioid system was investigated by pre-treating the nerve with naloxone and followed by cardamonin. All the data were recorded and analysed via LabTutor software. The data were analysed by using Two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferonni’s post hoc test with significant value at P < 0.05. Results: The outcomes showed that all the doses of cardamonin significantly reduced the peak amplitude of compound action potential in frog sciatic nerves. Besides, co-treatment of naloxone and cardamonin significantly (P < 0.001) reversed the effect of cardamonin on peak amplitude of compound action potential, suggesting the involvement of opioid receptors to inhibit nerve conduction. Conclusion: Cardamonin reduces the nerve signal conduction via activation of opioid receptors to modulate pain and contribute to the analgesic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  16. de Toledo TA, da Costa RC, Al-Maqtari HM, Jamalis J, Pizani PS
    PMID: 28259100 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.02.051
    The heterocyclic chalcone containing thiophene ring 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2-thienyl)prop-2-en-1-one, C13H9ClOS was synthesized and investigated using experimental techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at room temperature, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from room temperature to 500K and Raman scattering at the temperature range 10-413K in order to study its structure and vibrational properties as well as stability and possible phase transition. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine the vibrational spectrum viewing to improve the knowledge of the material properties. A reasonable agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental Raman spectrum taken at 10K since anharmonic effects of the molecular motion is reduced at low temperatures, leading to a more comprehensive assignment of the vibrational modes. Increasing the temperature up to 393K, was observed the typical phonon anharmonicity behavior associated to changes in the Raman line intensities, line-widths and red-shift, in special in the external mode region, whereas the internal modes region remains almost unchanged due its strong chemical bonds. Furthermore, C13H9ClOS goes to melting phase transition in the temperature range 393-403K and then sublimates in the temperature range 403-413K. This is denounced by the disappearance of the external modes and the absence of internal modes in the Raman spectra, in accordance with DSC curve. The enthalpy (ΔH) obtained from the integration of the endothermic peak in DSC curve centered at 397K is founded to be 121.5J/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  17. Maidur SR, Patil PS, Ekbote A, Chia TS, Quah CK
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Sep 05;184:342-354.
    PMID: 28528255 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.05.015
    In the present work, the title chalcone, (2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-{[(1E)-(4-fluorophenyl) methylene]amino}phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (abbreviated as FAMFC), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound is crystallized in the monoclinic system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and hence it satisfies the essential condition for materials to exhibit second-order nonlinear optical properties. The molecular structure was further confirmed by using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The title crystal is transparent in the Vis-NIR region and has a direct band gap. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated in solution (0.01M) by Z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) DPSS laser at the wavelength of 532nm. The title chalcone exhibited significant two-photon absorption (β=35.8×10-5cmW-1), negative nonlinear refraction (n2=-0.18×10-8cm2W-1) and optical limiting (OL threshold=2.73kJcm-2) under the CW regime. In support of the experimental results, a comprehensive theoretical study was carried out on the molecule of FAMFC using density functional theory (DFT). The optimized geometries and frontier molecular orbitals were calculated by employing B3LYP/6-31+G level of theory. The optimized molecular structure was confirmed computationally by IR vibrational and 1H NMR spectral analysis. The experimental UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was interpreted using computational chemistry under time-dependent DFT. The static and dynamic NLO properties such as dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizabilities (β) were computed by using finite field method. The obtained dynamic first hyperpolarizability β(-2ω;ω,ω) at input frequency ω=0.04282a.u. is predicted to be 161 times higher than urea standard. The electronic excitation energies and HOMO-LUMO band gap for FAMFC were also evaluated by DFT. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement, and the NLO study suggests that FAMFC molecule can be a potential candidate in the nonlinear optical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  18. Arshad L, Jantan I, Bukhari SN, Haque MA
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:22.
    PMID: 28194110 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00022
    The immune system is complex and pervasive as it functions to prevent or limit infections in the human body. In a healthy organism, the immune system and the redox balance of immune cells maintain homeostasis within the body. The failure to maintain the balance may lead to impaired immune response and either over activity or abnormally low activity of the immune cells resulting in autoimmune or immune deficiency diseases. Compounds containing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties are often reactive. The reactivity of these groups is responsible for their diverse pharmacological activities, and the most important and widely studied include the natural compounds curcumin, chalcone, and zerumbone. Numerous studies have revealed the mainly immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aforesaid compounds. This review highlights the specific immunosuppressive effects of these natural α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds, and their analogs and derivatives on different types of immune cells of the innate (granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells) immune systems. The inhibitory effects of these compounds have been comprehensively studied on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but their effects on T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells have not been well investigated. It is of paramount importance to continue generating experimental data on the mechanisms of action of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds on immune cells to provide useful information for ensuing research to discover new immunomodulating agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  19. Ho YF, Karsani SA, Yong WK, Abd Malek SN
    PMID: 23533528 DOI: 10.1155/2013/857257
    Researchers are looking into the potential development of natural compounds for anticancer therapy. Previous studies have postulated the cytotoxic effect of helichrysetin towards different cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of helichrysetin, a naturally occurring chalcone on four selected cancer cell lines, A549, MCF-7, Ca Ski, and HT-29, and further elucidated its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. Helichrysetin showed the highest cytotoxic activity against Ca Ski followed by A549. Changes in the nuclear morphology of A549 cells such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were observed in cells treated with helichrysetin. Further evidence of apoptosis includes the externalization of phosphatidylserine and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which are both early signs of apoptosis. These signs of apoptosis are related to cell cycle blockade at the S checkpoint which suggests that the alteration of the cell cycle contributes to the induction of apoptosis in A549. These results suggest that helichrysetin has great potentials for development as an anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone; Chalcones
  20. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e105244.
    PMID: 25286005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105244
    INTRODUCTION: The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.

    METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.

    RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcone/analogs & derivatives*; Chalcone/chemical synthesis; Chalcone/pharmacology; Chalcone/therapeutic use
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