Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 928 in total

  1. Khan NA, Soopramanien M, Maciver SK, Anuar TS, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 18;26(16).
    PMID: 34443585 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164999
    Crocodiles are remarkable animals that have the ability to endure extremely harsh conditions and can survive up to a 100 years while being exposed to noxious agents that are detrimental to Homo sapiens. Besides their immunity, we postulate that the microbial gut flora of crocodiles may produce substances with protective effects. In this study, we isolated and characterized selected bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of Crocodylusporosus and demonstrated their inhibitory effects against three different cancerous cell lineages. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, several molecules were identified. For the first time, we report partial analyses of crocodile's gut bacterial molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*; Bacteria/metabolism
  2. Neoh HM, Tan XE, Sapri HF, Tan TL
    Infect Genet Evol, 2019 10;74:103935.
    PMID: 31233781 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.103935
    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is considered the "gold standard" for bacteria typing. The method involves enzyme restriction of bacteria DNA, separation of the restricted DNA bands using a pulsed-field electrophoresis chamber, followed by clonal assignment of bacteria based on PFGE banding patterns. Various PFGE protocols have been developed for typing different bacteria, leading it to be one of the most widely used methods for phylogenetic studies, food safety surveillance, infection control and outbreak investigations. On the other hand, as PFGE is lengthy and labourious, several PCR-based typing methods can be used as alternatives for research purposes. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have also been proposed for bacteria typing. In fact, as WGS provides more information, such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence of the tested bacteria in comparison to PFGE, more and more laboratories are currently transitioning from PFGE to WGS for bacteria typing. Nevertheless, PFGE will remain an affordable and relevant technique for small laboratories and hospitals in years to come.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/classification*; Bacteria/genetics; Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods*
  3. Saeed M, Ilyas N, Bibi F, Shabir S, Jayachandran K, Sayyed RZ, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 May;324:138311.
    PMID: 36878368 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138311
    A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbiome engineered biochar amendment may result in a synergistic impact on degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Therefore, the present study analyzed the potential of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria A designated as Aeromonas hydrophila YL17 and B as Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 morphological characterized as rod shaped, anaerobic and gram-negative immobilized on biochar, and the degradation efficiency was measured by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Whole genome sequencing of both strains revealed the existence of genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation. In 60 days remediation setup, the treatment consisting of immobilization of both strains on biochar proved more efficient with less half-life and better biodegradation potentials compared to biochar without strains for decreasing the content of TPHs and n-alkanes (C12-C18). Enzymatic content and microbiological respiration showed that biochar acted as a soil fertilizer and carbon reservoir and enhanced microbial activities. The removal efficiency of hydrocarbons was found to be a maximum of 67% in soil samples treated with biochar immobilized with both strains (A + B), followed by biochar immobilized with strain B 34%, biochar immobilized with strain A 29% and with biochar 24%, respectively. A 39%, 36%, and 41% increase was observed in fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, polyphenol oxidase and dehydrogenase activities in immobilized biochar with both strains as compared to control and individual treatment of biochar and strains. An increase of 35% was observed in the respiration rate with the immobilization of both strains on biochar. While a maximum colony forming unit (CFU/g) was found 9.25 with immobilization of both strains on biochar at 40 days of remediation. The degradation efficiency was due to synergistic effect of both biochar and bacteria based amendment on the soil enzymatic activity and microbial respiration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics; Bacteria/metabolism
  4. Oruganti RK, Katam K, Show PL, Gadhamshetty V, Upadhyayula VKK, Bhattacharyya D
    Bioengineered, 2022 Apr;13(4):10412-10453.
    PMID: 35441582 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2022.2056823
    The scarcity of water resources and environmental pollution have highlighted the need for sustainable wastewater treatment. Existing conventional treatment systems are energy-intensive and not always able to meet stringent disposal standards. Recently, algal-bacterial systems have emerged as environmentally friendly sustainable processes for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. The algal-bacterial systems work on the principle of the symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria. This paper comprehensively discusses the most recent studies on algal-bacterial systems for wastewater treatment, factors affecting the treatment, and aspects of resource recovery from the biomass. The algal-bacterial interaction includes cell-to-cell communication, substrate exchange, and horizontal gene transfer. The quorum sensing (QS) molecules and their effects on algal-bacterial interactions are briefly discussed. The effect of the factors such as pH, temperature, C/N/P ratio, light intensity, and external aeration on the algal-bacterial systems have been discussed. An overview of the modeling aspects of algal-bacterial systems has been provided. The algal-bacterial systems have the potential for removing micropollutants because of the diverse possible interactions between algae-bacteria. The removal mechanisms of micropollutants - sorption, biodegradation, and photodegradation, have been reviewed. The harvesting methods and resource recovery aspects have been presented. The major challenges associated with algal-bacterial systems for real scale implementation and future perspectives have been discussed. Integrating wastewater treatment with the algal biorefinery concept reduces the overall waste component in a wastewater treatment system by converting the biomass into a useful product, resulting in a sustainable system that contributes to the circular bioeconomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics; Bacteria/metabolism
  5. Najiah M, Nadirah M, Sakri I, Shaharom-Harrison F
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Mar 15;13(6):293-7.
    PMID: 20506717
    A study was carried out to investigate the presence of bacteria flora in wild mud crab (Scylla serrata) from Setiu Wetland as well as their antibiotic resistances. A total of 91 bacterial isolates consisting of 12 bacterial species were successfully isolated from mud crab. Oxolinic acid was found to be effective against all the bacterial isolates whilst the highest percentage of antibiotic resistance was shown by lincomycin (94.5%) followed by ampicillin (90.1%), amoxicillin (86.8%) and oleandomycin (78.0%). The study is very useful to evaluate the safety of mud crab for human consumption based on wild mud crab-associated bacteria as well as their antibiotic resistances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/classification; Bacteria/isolation & purification*
  6. Dejea CM, Wick EC, Hechenbleikner EM, White JR, Mark Welch JL, Rossetti BJ, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2014 Dec 23;111(51):18321-6.
    PMID: 25489084 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406199111
    Environmental factors clearly affect colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the mechanisms through which these factors function are unknown. One prime candidate is an altered colonic microbiota. Here we show that the mucosal microbiota organization is a critical factor associated with a subset of CRC. We identified invasive polymicrobial bacterial biofilms (bacterial aggregates), structures previously associated with nonmalignant intestinal pathology, nearly universally (89%) on right-sided tumors (13 of 15 CRCs, 4 of 4 adenomas) but on only 12% of left-sided tumors (2 of 15 CRCs, 0 of 2 adenomas). Surprisingly, patients with biofilm-positive tumors, whether cancers or adenomas, all had biofilms on their tumor-free mucosa far distant from their tumors. Bacterial biofilms were associated with diminished colonic epithelial cell E-cadherin and enhanced epithelial cell IL-6 and Stat3 activation, as well as increased crypt epithelial cell proliferation in normal colon mucosa. High-throughput sequencing revealed no consistent bacterial genus associated with tumors, regardless of biofilm status. However, principal coordinates analysis revealed that biofilm communities on paired normal mucosa, distant from the tumor itself, cluster with tumor microbiomes as opposed to biofilm-negative normal mucosa bacterial communities also from the tumor host. Colon mucosal biofilm detection may predict increased risk for development of sporadic CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/classification; Bacteria/isolation & purification
  7. Buru AS, Pichika MR, Neela V, Mohandas K
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 May 14;153(3):587-95.
    PMID: 24613273 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.044
    Cinnamomum species have been widely used in many traditional systems of medicine around the world. In the Malaysian traditional system of medicine, the leaves, stem bark and stem wood of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum have been used to treat wound infections. To study the antibacterial effects of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum against common bacteria found in wound infections with primary focus on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
  8. Rahman ZA, Harun A, Hasan H, Mohamed Z, Noor SS, Deris ZZ, et al.
    Eye Contact Lens, 2013 Sep;39(5):355-60.
    PMID: 23982472 DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e3182a3026b
    Ocular surface infections that include infections of conjunctiva, adnexa, and cornea have the potential risk of causing blindness within a given population. Empirical antibiotic therapy is usually initiated based on epidemiological data of common causative agents. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns of isolates from ocular surface specimens in our hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
  9. Chan YJ, Chong MF, Law CL
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Dec;125:145-57.
    PMID: 23026327 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.118
    Thermophilic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was studied in a novel integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor (IAAB). The IAAB was subjected to a program of steady-state operation over a range of organic loading rate (OLR)s, up to 30 g COD/L day in order to evaluate its treatment capacity. The thermophilic IAAB achieved high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies of more than 99% for OLR up to 18.5 g COD/L day. High methane yield of 0.32 LCH(4) (STP)/g COD(removed) with compliance of the final treated effluent to the discharge limit were achieved. This is higher than that of the mesophilic system due to the higher maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) of the thermophilic microorganisms. Besides, coupling the model of Grau second order model (anaerobic system) with the model of Monod (aerobic system) will completely define the IAAB system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria, Aerobic/growth & development; Bacteria, Aerobic/metabolism*; Bacteria, Anaerobic/growth & development; Bacteria, Anaerobic/metabolism*
  10. Yusof MI, Yusof AH
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):574-7.
    PMID: 15889557
    Staphylococcus aureus infection remains the commonest organism causing musculoskeletal infection and antibiotic is the mainstay of treatment apart from adequate and appropriate surgical intervention. The exact figure of antibiotic resistance in orthopaedic practice is not known but it is expected to be higher than previously reported as the use of antibiotics is rampant. Its sensitivity to various antibiotics differs from one center to another making local surveillance necessary. From 66 patients with musculoskeletal infections studied in our centre, Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 50-65% of patients, depending on the sample taken. Fifteen percent of this were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to cloxacillin in 95% of patients' sample. MRSA remained highly sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin and fucidic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
  11. Marimuthu K, Gunaselvam P, Aminur Rahman M, Xavier R, Arockiaraj J, Subramanian S, et al.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2015 May;19(10):1895-9.
    PMID: 26044237
    Sea urchin gonad is considered as a highly prized delicacy in several countries. It is also rich in valuable bioactive compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and β-carotene. This study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of the ovary extract from sea urchin Diadema setosum against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects*; Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
  12. Yasin M, Jeong Y, Park S, Jeong J, Lee EY, Lovitt RW, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Feb;177:361-74.
    PMID: 25443672 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.022
    Microbial conversion of syngas to energy-dense biofuels and valuable chemicals is a potential technology for the efficient utilization of fossils (e.g., coal) and renewable resources (e.g., lignocellulosic biomass) in an environmentally friendly manner. However, gas-liquid mass transfer and kinetic limitations are still major constraints that limit the widespread adoption and successful commercialization of the technology. This review paper provides rationales for syngas bioconversion and summarizes the reaction limited conditions along with the possible strategies to overcome these challenges. Mass transfer and economic performances of various reactor configurations are compared, and an ideal case for optimum bioreactor operation is presented. Overall, the challenges with the bioprocessing steps are highlighted, and potential solutions are suggested. Future research directions are provided and a conceptual design for a membrane-based syngas biorefinery is proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism*
  13. Dada AC, Asmat A, Gires U, Heng LY, Deborah BO
    Glob J Health Sci, 2012 May;4(3):126-38.
    PMID: 22980239 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p126
    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*
  14. Ibrahim CO
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Jul;99(11):4572-82.
    PMID: 18164196 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.040
    Malaysian enzyme industry is considered almost non-existence, although the import volume is large. Realizing the importance of enzymes, encompassing a wide range of applications in bioindustry, the development of home grown technologies for enzyme production and applications becomes one of the national priorities in industrial biotechnology. Enzyme production from indigenous microbial isolates was performed either by submerged or solid state fermentation processes. Based on its wide and unique spectrum of properties, enzymes have been developed for wide applications in various industrial processes. The development of the enzyme catalysed applications is based on the modification of the reaction systems to enhance their catalytic activities. Some of the applications of the industrial enzymes include the fine chemicals production, oleochemicals modification, detergent formulation, enzymatic drinking of waste papers, animal feed formulation and effluent treatment processes. Enzymes have also shown to be successfully used as analytical tool in the determination of compounds in body fluids. Although, most of these enzyme catalysed reactions were performed in aqueous phase, the use of enzymes in organic solvents was found to be significant for the production of new chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/enzymology*
  15. Acquah C, Danquah MK, Agyei D, Moy CK, Sidhu A, Ongkudon CM
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Dec;36(6):1010-1022.
    PMID: 26381238
    The genome of virulent strains may possess the ability to mutate by means of antigenic shift and/or antigenic drift as well as being resistant to antibiotics with time. The outbreak and spread of these virulent diseases including avian influenza (H1N1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Corona virus), cholera (Vibrio cholera), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola Virus) and AIDS (HIV-1) necessitate urgent attention to develop diagnostic protocols and assays for rapid detection and screening. Rapid and accurate detection of first cases with certainty will contribute significantly in preventing disease transmission and escalation to pandemic levels. As a result, there is a need to develop technologies that can meet the heavy demand of an all-embedded, inexpensive, specific and fast biosensing for the detection and screening of pathogens in active or latent forms to offer quick diagnosis and early treatments in order to avoid disease aggravation and unnecessary late treatment costs. Nucleic acid aptamers are short, single-stranded RNA or DNA sequences that can selectively bind to specific cellular and biomolecular targets. Aptamers, as new-age bioaffinity probes, have the necessary biophysical characteristics for improved pathogen detection. This article seeks to review global pandemic situations in relation to advances in pathogen detection systems. It particularly discusses aptameric biosensing and establishes application opportunities for effective pandemic monitoring. Insights into the application of continuous polymeric supports as the synthetic base for aptamer coupling to provide the needed convective mass transport for rapid screening is also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics
  16. El Zowalaty ME, Hussein Al Ali SH, Husseiny MI, Geilich BM, Webster TJ, Hussein MZ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:3269-74.
    PMID: 25995633 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S74469
    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS) to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep) was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria), and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily envision magnetic field direction of these nanoparticles to fight unwanted microorganism presence on demand. Due to the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to increase the sensitivity of imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging), these novel nanoparticles can also be used to diagnose the presence of such microorganisms. In summary, although requiring further investigation, this study introduces for the first time a new type of magnetic nanoparticle with microorganism theranostic properties as a potential tool to both diagnose and treat diverse microbial and tuberculosis infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects
  17. Keah KC, Jegathesan M, Tan SC, Chan SH, Chee OM, Cheong YM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):291-7.
    PMID: 8668045
    A study to determine contamination of diluted disinfectants at different points in preparation and use in 6 Malaysian hospitals was done using the in-use test. A growth of > or = 250 organisms/ml was taken as an indication of contamination. A total of 342 (7.9%) of the 4316 freshly diluted samples collected from disinfectant bottles in the pharmacy were found to be contaminated. The bacterial isolates obtained were Pseudomonas spp. (42.4%), Moraxella spp. (22.0%), Flavobacterium spp. (11.6%) and Enterobacter spp. (4.2%). Three hundred and sixty seven out of 2278 ward stock were contaminated. The isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48.6%), Moraxella spp. (17.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (8.9%) and Flavobacterium spp. (7.0%). Of the 9265 disinfectants in-use, 1519 (16.4%) were contaminated. Among the organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (44.3%), Bacillus spp. (13.0%), Enterobacter spp. (9.5%) and Acinetobacter spp. (7.3%). The results indicated a high level of contamination of diluted disinfectants prepared in the pharmacy, stored and used in the wards. This gave a high index of suspicion that recommendations for cleaning of disinfectant containers before refilling, handling of diluted stock solutions and using of disinfectants were not closely adhered to. Standard disinfection procedures outlined in the disinfection and sterilization policy by the Ministry of Health should therefore be followed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*
  18. Oothuman P, Jeffery J, Aziz AH, Abu Bakar E, Jegathesan M
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1989 1 1;83(1):133-5.
    PMID: 2603192
    A survey was conducted in 4 paediatric wards in Malaysia to determine the distribution of various species of cockroaches and to examine their gut contents for bacteria. Cockroaches were trapped from food dispensing areas (kitchens), store rooms, cupboards and open wards. 104 cockroaches were caught, consisting of Periplaneta americana (67.3%), Blattella germanica (26%), P. brunnea (4.8%), and Supella longipalpa (1.9%). Bacteria were isolated from all cockroaches except 3 P. americana. Many bacterial species were identified, including the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic species Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebseilla oxytoca, K. ozaena and Serratia marcescens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification
  19. Tiruvayipati S, Bhassu S
    Gut Pathog, 2016;8:23.
    PMID: 27231485 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-016-0105-5
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium which is found largely in estuarine and coastal waters. The bacteria has been a main focus in gastro-intestinal infections caused primarily due to the consumption of contaminated seafood. It was shown to survive in magnesium concentrations as high as 300 mM which are toxic to various other micro-organisms. Several genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied, among which gbpA (N-acetyl glucosamine binding protein) was reported in Vibrio cholerae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Gram-Negative Bacteria
  20. Sirajuddin SA, Sundram S
    Braz J Microbiol, 2020 Sep;51(3):919-929.
    PMID: 32078730 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-020-00241-0
    Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can take up exogenous DNA when they are in a competent state either naturally or artificially. However, the thick peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria's cell wall is considered as a possible barrier to DNA uptake. In the present work, two transformation techniques have been evaluated in assessing the protocol's ability to introduce foreign DNA, pBBRGFP-45 plasmid which harbors kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes into a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus EB2. B. cereus EB2 is an endophytic bacterium, isolated from oil palm roots. A Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EB35 was used as a control sample for both transformation protocols. The cells were made competent using respective chemical treatment to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and kanamycin concentration in the selective medium was also optimized. Preliminary findings using qualitative analysis of colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-GFP indicated that the putative positive transformants for B. cereus EB2 were acquired using the second transformation protocol. The positive transformants were then verified using molecular techniques such as observation of putative colonies on specific media under UV light, plasmid extraction, and validation analyses, followed by fluorescence microscopy. Conversely, both transformation protocols were relatively effective for introduction of plasmid DNA into P. aeruginosa EB35. Therefore, this finding demonstrated the potential of chemically prepared competent cells and the crucial step of heat-shock in foreign DNA transformation process of Gram-positive bacterium namely B. cereus was required for successful transformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics; Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics; Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
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