Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 915 in total

  1. Dada AC, Asmat A, Gires U, Heng LY, Deborah BO
    Glob J Health Sci, 2012 May;4(3):126-38.
    PMID: 22980239 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p126
    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*
  2. Ibrahim CO
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Jul;99(11):4572-82.
    PMID: 18164196 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.040
    Malaysian enzyme industry is considered almost non-existence, although the import volume is large. Realizing the importance of enzymes, encompassing a wide range of applications in bioindustry, the development of home grown technologies for enzyme production and applications becomes one of the national priorities in industrial biotechnology. Enzyme production from indigenous microbial isolates was performed either by submerged or solid state fermentation processes. Based on its wide and unique spectrum of properties, enzymes have been developed for wide applications in various industrial processes. The development of the enzyme catalysed applications is based on the modification of the reaction systems to enhance their catalytic activities. Some of the applications of the industrial enzymes include the fine chemicals production, oleochemicals modification, detergent formulation, enzymatic drinking of waste papers, animal feed formulation and effluent treatment processes. Enzymes have also shown to be successfully used as analytical tool in the determination of compounds in body fluids. Although, most of these enzyme catalysed reactions were performed in aqueous phase, the use of enzymes in organic solvents was found to be significant for the production of new chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/enzymology*
  3. Acquah C, Danquah MK, Agyei D, Moy CK, Sidhu A, Ongkudon CM
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Dec;36(6):1010-1022.
    PMID: 26381238
    The genome of virulent strains may possess the ability to mutate by means of antigenic shift and/or antigenic drift as well as being resistant to antibiotics with time. The outbreak and spread of these virulent diseases including avian influenza (H1N1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Corona virus), cholera (Vibrio cholera), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola Virus) and AIDS (HIV-1) necessitate urgent attention to develop diagnostic protocols and assays for rapid detection and screening. Rapid and accurate detection of first cases with certainty will contribute significantly in preventing disease transmission and escalation to pandemic levels. As a result, there is a need to develop technologies that can meet the heavy demand of an all-embedded, inexpensive, specific and fast biosensing for the detection and screening of pathogens in active or latent forms to offer quick diagnosis and early treatments in order to avoid disease aggravation and unnecessary late treatment costs. Nucleic acid aptamers are short, single-stranded RNA or DNA sequences that can selectively bind to specific cellular and biomolecular targets. Aptamers, as new-age bioaffinity probes, have the necessary biophysical characteristics for improved pathogen detection. This article seeks to review global pandemic situations in relation to advances in pathogen detection systems. It particularly discusses aptameric biosensing and establishes application opportunities for effective pandemic monitoring. Insights into the application of continuous polymeric supports as the synthetic base for aptamer coupling to provide the needed convective mass transport for rapid screening is also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics
  4. El Zowalaty ME, Hussein Al Ali SH, Husseiny MI, Geilich BM, Webster TJ, Hussein MZ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:3269-74.
    PMID: 25995633 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S74469
    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS) to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep) was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria), and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily envision magnetic field direction of these nanoparticles to fight unwanted microorganism presence on demand. Due to the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to increase the sensitivity of imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging), these novel nanoparticles can also be used to diagnose the presence of such microorganisms. In summary, although requiring further investigation, this study introduces for the first time a new type of magnetic nanoparticle with microorganism theranostic properties as a potential tool to both diagnose and treat diverse microbial and tuberculosis infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects
  5. Keah KC, Jegathesan M, Tan SC, Chan SH, Chee OM, Cheong YM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):291-7.
    PMID: 8668045
    A study to determine contamination of diluted disinfectants at different points in preparation and use in 6 Malaysian hospitals was done using the in-use test. A growth of > or = 250 organisms/ml was taken as an indication of contamination. A total of 342 (7.9%) of the 4316 freshly diluted samples collected from disinfectant bottles in the pharmacy were found to be contaminated. The bacterial isolates obtained were Pseudomonas spp. (42.4%), Moraxella spp. (22.0%), Flavobacterium spp. (11.6%) and Enterobacter spp. (4.2%). Three hundred and sixty seven out of 2278 ward stock were contaminated. The isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48.6%), Moraxella spp. (17.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (8.9%) and Flavobacterium spp. (7.0%). Of the 9265 disinfectants in-use, 1519 (16.4%) were contaminated. Among the organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (44.3%), Bacillus spp. (13.0%), Enterobacter spp. (9.5%) and Acinetobacter spp. (7.3%). The results indicated a high level of contamination of diluted disinfectants prepared in the pharmacy, stored and used in the wards. This gave a high index of suspicion that recommendations for cleaning of disinfectant containers before refilling, handling of diluted stock solutions and using of disinfectants were not closely adhered to. Standard disinfection procedures outlined in the disinfection and sterilization policy by the Ministry of Health should therefore be followed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*
  6. Oothuman P, Jeffery J, Aziz AH, Abu Bakar E, Jegathesan M
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1989 1 1;83(1):133-5.
    PMID: 2603192
    A survey was conducted in 4 paediatric wards in Malaysia to determine the distribution of various species of cockroaches and to examine their gut contents for bacteria. Cockroaches were trapped from food dispensing areas (kitchens), store rooms, cupboards and open wards. 104 cockroaches were caught, consisting of Periplaneta americana (67.3%), Blattella germanica (26%), P. brunnea (4.8%), and Supella longipalpa (1.9%). Bacteria were isolated from all cockroaches except 3 P. americana. Many bacterial species were identified, including the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic species Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebseilla oxytoca, K. ozaena and Serratia marcescens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification
  7. Tiruvayipati S, Bhassu S
    Gut Pathog, 2016;8:23.
    PMID: 27231485 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-016-0105-5
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium which is found largely in estuarine and coastal waters. The bacteria has been a main focus in gastro-intestinal infections caused primarily due to the consumption of contaminated seafood. It was shown to survive in magnesium concentrations as high as 300 mM which are toxic to various other micro-organisms. Several genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied, among which gbpA (N-acetyl glucosamine binding protein) was reported in Vibrio cholerae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Gram-Negative Bacteria
  8. Sirajuddin SA, Sundram S
    Braz J Microbiol, 2020 Sep;51(3):919-929.
    PMID: 32078730 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-020-00241-0
    Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can take up exogenous DNA when they are in a competent state either naturally or artificially. However, the thick peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria's cell wall is considered as a possible barrier to DNA uptake. In the present work, two transformation techniques have been evaluated in assessing the protocol's ability to introduce foreign DNA, pBBRGFP-45 plasmid which harbors kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes into a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus EB2. B. cereus EB2 is an endophytic bacterium, isolated from oil palm roots. A Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EB35 was used as a control sample for both transformation protocols. The cells were made competent using respective chemical treatment to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and kanamycin concentration in the selective medium was also optimized. Preliminary findings using qualitative analysis of colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-GFP indicated that the putative positive transformants for B. cereus EB2 were acquired using the second transformation protocol. The positive transformants were then verified using molecular techniques such as observation of putative colonies on specific media under UV light, plasmid extraction, and validation analyses, followed by fluorescence microscopy. Conversely, both transformation protocols were relatively effective for introduction of plasmid DNA into P. aeruginosa EB35. Therefore, this finding demonstrated the potential of chemically prepared competent cells and the crucial step of heat-shock in foreign DNA transformation process of Gram-positive bacterium namely B. cereus was required for successful transformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics; Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development; Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects; Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics; Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
  9. Chin VK, Yong VC, Chong PP, Amin Nordin S, Basir R, Abdullah M
    Mediators Inflamm, 2020;2020:9560684.
    PMID: 32322167 DOI: 10.1155/2020/9560684
    Human gut is home to a diverse and complex microbial ecosystem encompassing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and other microorganisms that have an undisputable role in maintaining good health for the host. Studies on the interplay between microbiota in the gut and various human diseases remain the key focus among many researchers. Nevertheless, advances in sequencing technologies and computational biology have helped us to identify a diversity of fungal community that reside in the gut known as the mycobiome. Although studies on gut mycobiome are still in its infancy, numerous sources have reported its potential role in host homeostasis and disease development. Nonetheless, the actual mechanism of its involvement remains largely unknown and underexplored. Thus, in this review, we attempt to discuss the recent advances in gut mycobiome research from multiple perspectives. This includes understanding the composition of fungal communities in the gut and the involvement of gut mycobiome in host immunity and gut-brain axis. Further, we also discuss on multibiome interactions in the gut with emphasis on fungi-bacteria interaction and the influence of diet in shaping gut mycobiome composition. This review also highlights the relation between fungal metabolites and gut mycobiota in human homeostasis and the role of gut mycobiome in various human diseases. This multiperspective review on gut mycobiome could perhaps shed new light for future studies in the mycobiome research area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism
  10. Yusof NY, Muhammad Yusoff F, Muhammad Harish S, Ahmad MN, Khalid MF, Mohd Nor F, et al.
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2019 Jul 11;8(28).
    PMID: 31296668 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.00015-19
    The Gram-negative pathogenic spirochetal bacteria Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis in humans and livestock animals. Leptospira kmetyi strain LS 001/16 was isolated from a soil sample associated with a leptospirosis patient in Kelantan, which is among the states in Malaysia with a high reported number of disease cases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Leptospira kmetyi strain LS 001/16.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Gram-Negative Bacteria
  11. Wengert PC, Wong NH, Barton HA, Gan HM, Hudson AO, Savka MA
    BMC Res Notes, 2021 May 08;14(1):175.
    PMID: 33964980 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-021-05589-6
    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the bacterial community of Wind Cave's Madison aquifer through whole-genome sequencing, and to better understand the bacterial ecology by identifying genes involved in acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum-sensing (QS) systems.

    RESULTS: Genome-based taxonomic classification revealed the microbial richness present in the pristine Madison aquifer. The strains were found to span eleven genera and fourteen species, of which eight had uncertain taxonomic classifications. The genomes of strains SD129 and SD340 were found to contain the archetypical AHL QS system composed of two genes, luxI and luxR. Surprisingly, the genomes of strains SD115, SD129, SD274 and SD316 were found to contain one to three luxR orphans (solos). Strain SD129, besides possessing an archetypical AHL QS luxI-luxR pair, also contained two luxR solos, while strain SD316 contained three LuxR solos and no luxI-luxR pairs. The ligand-binding domain of two LuxR solos, one each from strains SD129 and SD316, were found to contain novel substitutions not previously reported, thus may represent two LuxR orphans that detection and response to unknown self-produced signal(s), or to signal(s) produced by other organisms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/genetics; Bacterial Proteins/genetics
  12. Jing H, Liu Z, Kuan SH, Chieng S, Ho CL
    Molecules, 2021 May 21;26(11).
    PMID: 34064160 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113084
    Recently, microbial-based iron reduction has been considered as a viable alternative to typical chemical-based treatments. The iron reduction is an important process in kaolin refining, where iron-bearing impurities in kaolin clay affects the whiteness, refractory properties, and its commercial value. In recent years, Gram-negative bacteria has been in the center stage of iron reduction research, whereas little is known about the potential use of Gram-positive bacteria to refine kaolin clay. In this study, we investigated the ferric reducing capabilities of five microbes by manipulating the microbial growth conditions. Out of the five, we discovered that Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus outperformed the other microbes under nitrogen-rich media. Through the biochemical changes and the microbial behavior, we mapped the hypothetical pathway leading to the iron reduction cellular properties, and found that the iron reduction properties of these Gram-positive bacteria rely heavily on the media composition. The media composition results in increased basification of the media that is a prerequisite for the cellular reduction of ferric ions. Further, these changes impact the formation of biofilm, suggesting that the cellular interaction for the iron(III)oxide reduction is not solely reliant on the formation of biofilms. This article reveals the potential development of Gram-positive microbes in facilitating the microbial-based removal of metal contaminants from clays or ores. Further studies to elucidate the corresponding pathways would be crucial for the further development of the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Positive Bacteria/metabolism*
  13. Halib N, Ahmad I, Grassi M, Grassi G
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jul 20;566:631-640.
    PMID: 31195074 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.06.017
    Cellulose is a natural homopolymer, composed of β-1,4- anhydro-d-glucopyranose units. Unlike plant cellulose, bacterial cellulose (BC), obtained from species belonging to the genera of Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Sarcina through various cultivation methods and techniques, is produced in its pure form. BC is produced in the form of gel-like, never dry sheet with tremendous mechanical properties. Containing up to 99% of water, BC hydrogel is considered biocompatible thus finding robust applications in the health industry. Moreover, BC three-dimensional structure closely resembles the extracellular matrix (ECM) of living tissue. In this review, we focus on the porous BC morphology particularly suited to host oxygen and nutrients thus providing conducive environment for cell growth and proliferation. The remarkable BC porous morphology makes this biological material a promising templet for the generation of 3D tissue culture and possibly for tissue-engineered scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/metabolism*
  14. Alswat AA, Ahmad MB, Saleh TA, Hussein MZB, Ibrahim NA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:505-511.
    PMID: 27524047 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.028
    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development*
  15. Khor SY, Jegathesan M
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):85-9.
    PMID: 609352
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects*
  16. Nurfarahin AH, Mohamed MS, Phang LY
    Molecules, 2018 May 01;23(5).
    PMID: 29723959 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23051049
    Surfactants are compounds that can reduce the surface tension between two different phases or the interfacial tension of the liquid between water and oil, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Biosurfactants have traits that have proven to be advantageous over synthetic surfactants, but these compounds do not compete economically with synthetic surfactants. Different alternatives increase the yield of biosurfactants; development of an economical production process and the usage of cheaper substrates during process have been employed. One of the solutions relies on the suitable formulation of a production medium by including alternative raw materials sourced from agro-wastes, hydrocarbons, or by-products of a process might help in boosting the biosurfactant production. Since the nutritional factors required will be different among microorganisms, the establishment of a suitable formulation for biosurfactant production will be challenging. The present review describes various nutrients and elements considered in the formulation of a production medium with an approach focusing on the macronutrient (carbon, nitrogen source, and C/N ratio), minerals, vitamins, metabolic regulators, and salinity levels which may aid in the study of biosurfactant production in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development*
  17. Ganesan S, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jan;296:122341.
    PMID: 31711905 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122341
    Anammox bacteria can easily undergo starvation due to fluctuations in feed flowrate and concentration in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different types of storage conditions (presence of ammonium (Ra), nitrite (Rn), hydrazine (Rh), and no substrate (Rc)) in aiding the viability of anammox bacteria during starvation and recovery. After starvation, the bacteria were subjected to a 15-week recovery period. Anammox bacteria showed better results during starvation and recovery in Rh as compared to other conditions. Decay rate values obtained after starvation in Ra, Rn, Rh, and Rc were 0.032/day, 0.042/day, 0.019/day, and 0.037/day, respectively. Meanwhile, µmax values obtained in Rh, Ra, Rn, and Rc on the 15th week of recovery were 0.092, 0.075, 0.011, and 0.067 d-1, respectively. This indicated that the availability of hydrazine helps to reduce the mortality rate of anammox bacteria during starvation and enhances the recovery of anammox process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria, Anaerobic*
  18. Chang JS, Chong MN, Poh PE, Ocon JD, Md Zoqratt MZH, Lee SM
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Apr;259:113867.
    PMID: 31896479 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113867
    This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of morphological-controlled ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities during real wastewater treatment in an aerobic-photocatalytic system. Results showed that the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoarchitectures were significantly more overwhelming than their photocatalytic properties. The inhibition of microbial activities in activated sludge by ZnO nanoarchitectures entailed an adverse effect on wastewater treatment efficiency. Subsequently, the 16S sequencing analysis were conducted to examine the impacts of ZnO nanoarchitectures on aerobic microbial communities, and found the significantly lower microbial diversity and species richness in activated sludge treated with 1D-ZnO nanorods as compared to other ZnO nanoarchitectures. Additionally, 1D-ZnO nanorods reduced the highest proportion of Proteobacteria phylum in activated sludge due to its higher proportion of active polar surfaces that facilitates Zn2+ ions dissolution. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the experimental data obtained from COD removal efficiency and bacterial log reduction were statistically significant (p-value 
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects
  19. Sha'arani S, Azizan SNF, Md Akhir FN, Muhammad Yuzir MA, Othman N, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2019 Nov;80(9):1787-1795.
    PMID: 32039910 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2019.433
    Staphylococcus sp. as Gram-positive and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative are bacterial pathogens and can cause primary bloodstream infections and food poisoning. Coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes could be a reliable treatment for bacterial removal because suspended, colloidal, and soluble particles can be removed. Chemical coagulants, such as alum, are commonly used. However, these chemical coagulants are not environmentally friendly. This present study evaluated the effectiveness of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes for removing Staphylococcus sp. and E. coli using diatomite with standard jar test equipment at different pH values. Staphylococcus sp. demonstrated 85.61% and 77.23% significant removal in diatomite and alum, respectively, at pH 5. At pH 7, the removal efficiency decreased to 79.41% and 64.13% for Staphylococcus sp. and E. coli, respectively. At pH 9, there was a decrease in Staphylococcus sp. after adding diatomite or alum compared with that of E. coli. The different removal efficiencies of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria could be owing to the membrane composition and different structures in the bacteria. This study indicates that diatomite has higher efficiency in removing bacteria at pH 5 and can be considered as a potential coagulant to replace alum for removing bacteria by the coagulation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria; Gram-Positive Bacteria
  20. Al Farraj DA, Hadibarata T, Yuniarto A, Syafiuddin A, Surtikanti HK, Elshikh MS, et al.
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Jun;42(6):963-969.
    PMID: 30888502 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-019-02096-8
    Polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and toxic pollutants that are dangerous to humans and living organism in aquatic environment. Normally, PAHs has lower molecular weight such as phenanthrene and naphthalene that are easy and efficient to degrade, but high-molecular-weight PAHs such as chrysene and pyrene are difficult to be biodegraded by common microorganism. This study investigated the isolation and characterization of a potential halophilic bacterium capable of utilizing two high-molecular-weight PAHs. At the end of the experiment (25-30 days of incubation), bacterial counts have reached a maximum level (over 40 × 1016 CFU/mL). The highest biodegradation rate of 77% of chrysene in 20 days and 92% of pyrene in 25 days was obtained at pH 7, temperature 25 °C, agitation of 150 rpm and Tween 80 surfactant showing to be the most impressive parameters for HMWPAHs biodegradation in this research. The metabolism of initial compounds revealed that Hortaea sp. B15 utilized pyrene to form phthalic acid while chrysene was metabolized to form 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The result showed that Hortaea sp. B15 can be promoted for the study of in situ biodegradation of high molecular weight PAH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development*
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