KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.
SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ionic liquid-Graviola fruit pulp extract (IL-GPE) on the metabolomics behavior of colon cancer (HT29) by using an untargeted GC-TOFMS-based metabolic profiling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multivariate data analysis was used to determine the metabolic profiling, and the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to predict the altered canonical pathways after treating the HT29 cells with crude IL-GPE and Taxol (positive control).
RESULTS: The principal components analysis (PCA) identified 44 metabolites with the most reliable factor loading, and the cluster analysis (CA) separated three groups of metabolites: metabolites specific to the non-treated HT29 cells, metabolites specific to the treated HT29 cells with the crude IL-GPE and metabolites specific to Taxol treatment. Pathway analysis of metabolomic profiles revealed an alteration of many metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism, aerobic glycolysis, urea cycle and ketone bodies metabolism that contribute to energy metabolism and cancer cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: The crude IL-GPE can be one of the promising anticancer agents due to its selective inhibition of energy metabolism and cancer cell proliferation.
METHODS: α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated from C. arborescens and its cell death mechanism was investigated. AM-induced cytotoxicity was observed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and annexin V were used to detect cells in early phases of apoptosis. High-content screening was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. The role of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9, reactive oxygen species, Bcl-2 and Bax expression, and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. To determine the role of the central apoptosis-related proteins, a protein array followed by immunoblot analysis was conducted. Moreover, the involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was also analyzed.
RESULTS: Apoptosis was confirmed by the apoptotic cells stained with annexin V and increase in chromatin condensation in nucleus. Treatment of cells with AM promoted cell death-transducing signals that reduced MMP by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, triggering cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by the executioner caspase-3/7 and then cleaved the PARP protein. Increase of caspase-8 showed the involvement of extrinsic pathway. AM treatment significantly arrested the cells at the S phase (P<0.05) concomitant with an increase in reactive oxygen species. The protein array and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of HSP70. Moreover, AM significantly blocked the induced translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus.
CONCLUSION: Together, the results demonstrate that the AM isolated from C. arborescens inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was suggested to occur through both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways with involvement of the NF-κB and HSP70 signaling pathways.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the initiation phase, the mice received a single dose of 100µl/100 µg DMBA (group I-V) or 100µl acetone (group VI) topically on the dorsal shaved skin area followed by the promotion phase involving treatment with the respective test solutions (100 µl of acetone, 10 mg/kg curcumin or MEMM (30, 100 and 300mg/kg)) for 30 min followed by the topical application of tumour promoter (100µl croton oil). Tumors were examined weekly and the experiment lasted for 15 weeks.
RESULTS: MEMM and curcumin significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tumour burden, tumour incidence and tumour volume, which were further supported by the histopathological findings.
CONCLUSION: MEMM demonstrated chemoprevention possibly via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the action of flavonoids like quercitrin.