Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Xian LJ, Chowdhury SR, Bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Cytotherapy, 2015 Mar;17(3):293-300.
    PMID: 25456581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.10.005
    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found to contain a high concentration of growth factors that are present during the process of healing. Studies conducted found that application of PRP accelerates wound healing. In this study, we characterized the skin cell suspension harvested using the co-isolation technique and evaluated the effects of PRP (10% and 20%, v/v) on co-cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts in terms of wound healing.
  2. Busra FM, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Dec;32(12):1311-2.
    PMID: 22159390
  3. Sulaiman SB, Keong TK, Cheng CH, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2013 Jun;137(6):1093-101.
    PMID: 23852290
    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering.
  4. Hamid AA, Idrus RB, Saim AB, Sathappan S, Chua KH
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):99-106.
    PMID: 22358233
    OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction.

    RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction.

    CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  5. Busra MF, Chowdhury SR, bin Ismail F, bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2016 Mar;29(3):120-9.
    PMID: 26866868 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000480556.78111.e4
    OBJECTIVE: When given in conjunction with surgery for treating cancer, radiation therapy may result in impaired wound healing, which, in turn, could cause skin ulcers. In this study, bilayer and monolayer autologous skin substitutes were used to treat an irradiated wound.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single dose of 30 Gy of linear electron beam radiation was applied to the hind limb of nude mice before creating the skin lesion (area of 78.6 mm). Monolayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (MTESSs) were prepared by entrapping cultured keratinocytes in fibrin matrix, and bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (BTESSs) were prepared by entrapping keratinocytes and fibroblasts in separate layers. Bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitute and MTESS were implanted to the wound area. Gross appearance and wound area were analyzed to evaluate wound healing efficiency. Skin regeneration and morphological appearance were observed via histological and electron microscopy. Protein expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skin regeneration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    RESULTS: Macroscopic observation revealed that at day 13, treatments with BTESS completely healed the irradiated wound, whereas wound sizes of 1.1 ± 0.05 and 6.8 ± 0.14 mm were measured in the MTESS-treated and untreated control groups, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) analysis showed formation of compact and organized epidermal and dermal layers in the BTESS-treated group, as compared with MTESS-treated and untreated control groups. Ultrastructural analysis indicates maturation of skin in BTESS-treated wound evidenced by formation of intermediate filament bundles in the dermal layer and low intercellular space in the epidermal layer. Expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and VEGF were also higher in BTESS-treated wounds, compared with MTESS-treated wounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that BTESS is the preferred treatment for irradiated wound ulcers.

  6. Maarof M, Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Khairoji KA, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Cytotechnology, 2016 Oct;68(5):1873-84.
    PMID: 26768914 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-015-9940-3
    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.
  7. Ubaidah MA, Chua KH, Ami M, Zainal A, Saim A, Saim L, et al.
    J Int Adv Otol, 2015 Apr;11(1):23-9.
    PMID: 26223713 DOI: 10.5152/iao.2015.539
    Loss of auditory hair cells is a major cause of deafness. The presence of auditory progenitor cells in the inner ear raises the hope for mammalian inner ear cell regeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of growth factor supplementations, namely a combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and beta (β)-fibroblast growth factor (βFGF), on the expression of hair cell-specific markers by cells harvested from the cochlear membrane. This would provide an insight into the capability of these cells to differentiate into hair cells.
  8. Idrus RB, Mohamad NB, Morat PB, Saim A, Abdul Kadir KB
    Steroids, 1996 Aug;61(8):448-52.
    PMID: 8870163
    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) in man and corticosterone (B) to 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in rats. 11 beta-OHSD has been identified in a wide variety of tissues. The differential distribution of 11 beta-OHSD suggests that this enzyme has locally defined functions that vary from region to region. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucocorticoids B and dexamethasone (DM), the mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and the inhibitors of 11 beta-OHSD glycyrrhizic acid (Gl) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GE) on 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity at the hypothalamus (HT) and anterior pituitary (AP). Male Wistar rats were treated with GI or were adrenalectomized (ADX) and treated with either B, DM, or DOC for 7 days. All treatments were in vivo except GE, which was used in vitro. At the end of treatment, homogenates of HT and AP were assayed for 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity, expressed as the percentage conversion of B to A in the presence of NADP, 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity is significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the AP compared with the HT. Adrenalectomy significantly increased the enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.05), an effect reversed by B or DM. ADX rats treated with DOC showed decreased enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.001) but increased the activity in the HT (P < 0.0001). Gl increased activity in both HT and AP, whereas GE decreased activity significantly. We conclude that the modulation of 11 beta-OHSD is both steroid specific and tissue specific.
  9. Lim J, Razi ZR, Law J, Nawi AM, Idrus RB, Ng MH
    Cytotherapy, 2016 12;18(12):1493-1502.
    PMID: 27727016 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.08.003
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied. In this study, hWJMSCs derived from three anatomical segments of the UC are compared.

    METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.

    RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.

    CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.

  10. Hasmad H, Yusof MR, Mohd Razi ZR, Hj Idrus RB, Chowdhury SR
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 2018 06;24(6):368-378.
    PMID: 29690856 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2017.0447
    Fabrication of composite scaffolds is one of the strategies proposed to enhance the functionality of tissue-engineered scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration. By combining multiple elements together, unique biomimetic scaffolds with desirable physical and mechanical properties can be tailored for tissue-specific applications. Despite having a highly porous structure, the utility of electrospun fibers (EF) as scaffold is usually hampered by their insufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to produce a mechanically competent scaffold with cell-guiding ability by fabricating aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) fibers on decellularized human amniotic membrane (HAM), known to possess favorable tensile and wound healing properties. Decellularization of HAM in 18.75 μg/mL of thermolysin followed by a brief treatment in 0.25 M sodium hydroxide efficiently removed the amniotic epithelium and preserved the ultrastructure of the underlying extracellular matrix. The electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLGA 50:50 polymer on HAM yielded beadless fibers with straight morphology. Subsequent physical characterization revealed that EF-HAM scaffold with a 3-min fabrication had the most aligned fibers with the lowest fiber diameter in comparison with EF-HAM 5- and 7-min scaffolds. Hydrated EF-HAM scaffolds with 3-min deposition had a greater tensile strength than the other scaffolds despite having thinner fibers. Nevertheless, wet HAM and EF-HAMs regardless of the fiber thicknesses had a significantly lower Young's modulus, and hence, a higher elasticity compared with dry HAM and EF-HAMs. Biocompatibility analysis showed that the viability and migration rate of skeletal muscle cells on EF-HAMs were similar to control and HAM alone. Skeletal muscle cells seeded on HAM were shown to display random orientation, whereas cells on EF-HAM scaffolds were oriented along the alignment of the electrospun PLGA fibers. In summary, besides having good mechanical strength and elasticity, EF-HAM scaffold design decorated with aligned fiber topography holds a promising potential for use in the development of aligned tissue constructs.
  11. Mohamad Buang ML, Seng HK, Chung LH, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Arch Med Res, 2012 Jan;43(1):83-8.
    PMID: 22374243 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.01.012
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tissue engineering strategy has been considered as an alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus due to lack of permanent pharmaceutical treatment and islet donors for transplantation. Various cell lines have been used to generate functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) including progenitor pancreatic cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCB-SCs), adult bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs).

    METHODS: Human ADSCs from lipoaspirated abdominal fat tissue was differentiated into IPCs following a two-step induction protocol based on a combination of alternating high and low glucose, nicotinamide, activin A and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for a duration of 3 weeks. During differentiation, histomorphological changes of the stem cells towards pancreatic β-islet characteristics were observed via light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Dithizone (DTZ) staining, which is selective towards IPCs, was used to stain the new islet-like cells. Production of insulin hormone by the cells was analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas its hormonal regulation was tested via a glucose challenge test.

    RESULTS: Histomorphological changes of the differentiated cells were noted to resemble pancreatic β-cells, whereas DTZ staining positively stained the cells. The differentiated cells significantly produced human insulin as compared to the undifferentiated ADSCs, and its production was increased with an increase of glucose concentration in the culture medium.

    CONCLUSIONS: These initial data indicate that human lipoaspirated ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional IPCs, and could be used as a therapy to treat diabetes mellitus in the future.

  12. Razali RA, Lokanathan Y, Yazid MD, Ansari AS, Saim AB, Hj Idrus RB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 16;20(14).
    PMID: 31315241 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20143492
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant dynamic process that causes changes in the phenotype of epithelial cells, changing them from their original phenotype to the mesenchymal cell phenotype. This event can be observed during wound healing process, fibrosis and cancer. EMT-related diseases are usually caused by inflammation that eventually leads to tissue remodeling in the damaged tissue. Prolonged inflammation causes long-term EMT activation that can lead to tissue fibrosis or cancer. Due to activation of EMT by its signaling pathway, therapeutic approaches that modulate that pathway should be explored. Olea europaea (OE) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects and abundant beneficial active compounds. These properties are presumed to modulate EMT events. This article reviews recent evidence of the effects of OE and its active compounds on EMT events and EMT-related diseases. Following evidence from the literature, it was shown that OE could modulate TGFβ/SMAD, AKT, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in EMT due to a potent active compound that is present therein.
  13. Vijakumaran U, Yazid MD, Hj Idrus RB, Abdul Rahman MR, Sulaiman N
    Front Pharmacol, 2021;12:663266.
    PMID: 34093194 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.663266
    Objective: Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol of olive plant is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. The aim of this systematic search is to highlight the scientific evidence evaluating molecular efficiency of HT in halting the progression of intimal hyperplasia (IH), which is a clinical condition arises from endothelial inflammation. Methods: A systematic search was performed through PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, based on pre-set keywords which are Hydroxytyrosol OR 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, AND Intimal hyperplasia OR Neointimal hyperplasia OR Endothelial OR Smooth muscles. Eighteen in vitro and three in vitro and in vivo studies were selected based on a pre-set inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Based on evidence gathered, HT was found to upregulate PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways and supresses inflammatory factors and mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in endothelial vascularization and functioning. Two studies revealed HT disrupted vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) cell cycle by dephosphorylating ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. Therefore, HT was proven to promote endothelization and inhibit vascular SMCs migration thus hampering IH development. However, none of these studies described the effect of HT collectively in both vascular endothelial cells (EC) and SMCs in IH ex vivo model. Conclusions: Evidence from this concise review provides an insight on HT regulation of molecular pathways in reendothelization and inhibition of VSMCs migration. Henceforth, we propose effect of HT on IH prevention could be further elucidated through in vivo and ex vivo model.
  14. Ng MH, Duski S, Tan KK, Yusof MR, Low KC, Rose IM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:345910.
    PMID: 25165699 DOI: 10.1155/2014/345910
    Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB) to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC) and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO). Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32), MIC (1.28 ± 0.24), and negative controls (0). Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1%) compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5%) and MIC (26% ± 5.2%). Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa) compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa) and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa). In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.
  15. Ude CC, Sulaiman SB, Min-Hwei N, Hui-Cheng C, Ahmad J, Yahaya NM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e98770.
    PMID: 24911365 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098770
    In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model.
  16. Idrus RB, Rameli MA, Low KC, Law JX, Chua KH, Latiff MB, et al.
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2014 Apr;27(4):171-80.
    PMID: 24637651 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000445199.26874.9d
    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns.
  17. Rohaina CM, Then KY, Ng AM, Wan Abdul Halim WH, Zahidin AZ, Saim A, et al.
    Transl Res, 2014 Mar;163(3):200-10.
    PMID: 24286920 DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2013.11.004
    The cornea can be damaged by a variety of clinical disorders or chemical, mechanical, and thermal injuries. The objectives of this study were to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to corneal lineage, to form a tissue engineered corneal substitute (TEC) using BMSCs, and to treat corneal surface defects in a limbal stem cell deficiency model. BMSCs were induced to corneal lineage using limbal medium for 10 days. Induced BMSCs demonstrated upregulation of corneal stem cell markers; β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, and p63, increased protein expression of CK3 and p63 significantly compared with the uninduced ones. For TEC formation, passage 1 BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on amniotic membrane in a transwell co-culture system and were grown in limbal medium. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were induced by alkaline injury, and the TEC was implanted for 8 weeks. Serial slit lamp evaluation revealed remarkable improvement in corneal regeneration in terms of corneal clarity and reduced vascularization. Histologic and optical coherence tomography analyses demonstrated comparable corneal thickness and achieved stratified epithelium with a compact stromal layer resembling that of normal cornea. CK3 and p63 were expressed in the newly regenerated cornea. In conclusion, BMSCs can be induced into corneal epithelial lineage, and these cells are viable for the formation of TEC, to be used for the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the limbal stem cell deficient model.
  18. Sha'ban M, Yoon SJ, Ko YK, Ha HJ, Kim SH, So JW, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2008;19(9):1219-37.
    PMID: 18727862 DOI: 10.1163/156856208785540163
    Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
  19. Salem SA, Hwei NM, Bin Saim A, Ho CC, Sagap I, Singh R, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2013 Aug;101(8):2237-47.
    PMID: 23349110 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34518
    The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction.
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