Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Khaw KY, Chong CW, Murugaiyah V
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2020 Dec;35(1):1433-1441.
    PMID: 32608273 DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2020.1786819
    Mangosteen is one of the best tasting tropical fruit widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to quantify xanthone content in different parts of Garcinia mangostana by LC-QTOF-MS and determine its influence on their cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The total xanthone content in G. mangostana was in the following order: pericarp > calyx > bark > stalk > stem > leaves > aril. The total xanthone content of pericarp was 100 times higher than the aril. Methanol extracts of the pericarp and calyx demonstrated the most potent inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 values of 0.90 and 0.37 µg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between xanthone content and cholinesterase inhibition. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed α-mangostin and γ-mangostin of pericarp as the key metabolites contributing to cholinesterase inhibition. Due to the increasing demand of mangosteen products, repurposing of fruit waste (pericarp) has great potential for enhancement of the cognitive health of human beings.
  2. Tan WN, Khairuddean M, Wong KC, Khaw KY, Vikneswaran M
    Fitoterapia, 2014 Sep;97:261-7.
    PMID: 24924287 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2014.06.003
    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge.
  3. Khor BK, Chear NJ, Azizi J, Khaw KY
    Molecules, 2021 Mar 09;26(5).
    PMID: 33803330 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26051489
    The leaves of Carica papaya (CP) are rich in natural antioxidants. Carica papaya has traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including skin diseases. This study aims to decipher the antioxidant effects and phytochemical content of different CP leaf extracts (CPEs) obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and conventional extraction methods. The antioxidant activities of CPEs were evaluated by cell-free (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric-reduced antioxidative power (FRAP)) and cell-based (H2O2) assay. Both C. papaya leaf scCO2 extract with 5% ethanol (CPSCE) and C. papaya leaf scCO2 extract (CPSC) exhibited stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than conventional extracts. In the FRAP assay, two hydrophilic extracts (C. papaya leaf ethanol extract (CPEE) and C. papaya freeze-dried leaf juice (CPFD)) showed relatively stronger reducing power compared to lipophilic extracts. Cell-based assays showed that CPFD significantly protected skin fibroblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative stress in both pre-and post-treatment. CPEE protected skin fibroblasts from oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner while CPSCE significantly triggered the fibroblast recovery after treatment with H2O2. GC-MS analysis indicated that CPSCE had the highest α-tocopherol and squalene contents. By contrast, both CP hydrophilic extracts (CPEE and CPFD) had a higher total phenolic content (TPC) and rutin content than the lipophilic extracts. Overall, CPEs extracted using green and conventional extraction methods showed antioxidative potential in both cell-based and cell-free assays due to their lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively.
  4. Khaw KY, Kumar P, Yusof SR, Ramanathan S, Murugaiyah V
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2020 Nov;353(11):e2000156.
    PMID: 32716578 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.202000156
    α-Mangostin has been reported to possess a broad range of pharmacological effects including potent cholinesterase inhibition, but the development of α-mangostin as a potential lead compound is impeded by its toxicity. The present study investigated the impact of simple structural modification of α-mangostin on its cholinesterase inhibitory activities and toxicity toward neuroblastoma and liver cancer cells. The dialkylated derivatives retained good acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 4.15 and 6.73 µM, but not butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, compared with α-mangostin, a dual inhibitor (IC50 : AChE, 2.48 µM; BChE, 5.87 µM). Dialkylation of α-mangostin produced AChE selective inhibitors that formed hydrophobic interactions at the active site of AChE. Interestingly, all four dialkylated derivatives of α-mangostin showed much lower cytotoxicity, being 6.4- to 9.0-fold and 3.8- to 5.5-fold less toxic than their parent compound on neuroblastoma and liver cancer cells, respectively. Likewise, their selectivity index was higher by 1.9- to 4.4-fold; in particular, A2 and A4 showed improved selectivity index compared with α-mangostin. Taken together, modification of the hydroxyl groups of α-mangostin at positions C-3 and C-6 greatly influenced its BChE inhibitory and cytotoxic but not its AChE inhibitory activities. These dialkylated derivatives are viable candidates for further structural modification and refinement, worthy in the search of new AChE inhibitors with higher safety margins.
  5. Dinh TN, Parat MO, Ong YS, Khaw KY
    Pharmacol Res, 2021 07;169:105666.
    PMID: 33989764 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105666
    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the common isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage or watercress. Preclinical studies report of its effectiveness in the prevention and treatment against several cancers. This review aims to report and discuss findings on anticancer activities of BITC and its modes of action against 14 types of cancer. A literature search was conducted using the keywords "BITC" and "anticancer" from PubMed, Google Scholar and CINAHL Plus to obtain relevant research articles. This review highlights the anticancer efficacy of BITC through modulation of various signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, metastasis, angiogenesis, autophagy and the effects of BITC in combination with other drugs. With the available pharmacology evidence, we conclude that further studies are needed to validate its effectiveness in humans for further development and translation into prophylaxis or therapy by promoting optimal therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity in cancer treatment.
  6. Chear NJ, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Lai CS
    J Food Drug Anal, 2016 04;24(2):358-366.
    PMID: 28911590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2015.12.005
    Stenochlaena palustris fronds are popular as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties and phytochemical profiles of the young and mature fronds of this plant. Both types of fronds were found to have selective inhibitory effect against butyrylcholinesterase compared with acetylcholinesterase. However, different sets of compounds were responsible for their activity. In young fronds, an antibutyrylcholinesterase effect was observed in the hexane extract, which was comprised of a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and phytosterols. In the mature fronds, inhibitory activity was observed in the methanol extract, which contained a series of kaempferol glycosides. Our results provided novel information concerning the ability of S. palustris to inhibit cholinesterase and its phytochemical profile. Further research to investigate the potential use of this plant against Alzheimer's disease is warranted, however, young and mature fronds should be distinguished due to their phytochemical differences.
  7. Khaw KY, Choi SB, Tan SC, Wahab HA, Chan KL, Murugaiyah V
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Sep 25;21(11):1303-9.
    PMID: 25172794 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.06.017
    Garcinia mangostana is a well-known tropical plant found mostly in South East Asia. The present study investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of G. mangostana extract and its chemical constituents using Ellman's colorimetric method. Cholinesterase inhibitory-guided approach led to identification of six bioactive prenylated xanthones showing moderate to potent cholinesterases inhibition with IC50 values of lower than 20.5 μM. The most potent inhibitor of AChE was garcinone C while γ-mangostin was the most potent inhibitor of BChE with IC50 values of 1.24 and 1.78 μM, respectively. Among the xanthones, mangostanol, 3-isomangostin, garcinone C and α-mangostin are AChE selective inhibitors, 8-deoxygartanin is a BChE selective inhibitor while γ-mangostin is a dual inhibitor. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests the importance of the C-8 prenyl and C-7 hydroxy groups for good AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. The enzyme kinetic studies indicate that both α-mangostin and garcinone C are mixed-mode inhibitors, while γ-mangostin is a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE. In contrast, both γ-mangostin and garcinone C are uncompetitive inhibitors, while α-mangostin is a mixed-mode inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking studies revealed that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin and garcinone C interacts differently with the five important regions of AChE and BChE. The nature of protein-ligand interactions is mainly hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding. These bioactive prenylated xanthones are worthy for further investigations.
  8. Kia Y, Osman H, Kumar RS, Murugaiyah V, Basiri A, Khaw KY, et al.
    Med Chem, 2014;10(5):512-20.
    PMID: 24138113
    A series of hitherto unreported piperidone embedded α,β-unsaturated ketones were synthesized efficiently in ionic solvent and evaluated for cholinesterase inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good enzyme inhibition; therein compounds 7i and 7f displayed significant activity against AChE with IC50 values of 1.47 and 1.74 µM, respectively. Compound 6g showed the highest BChE inhibitory potency with IC50 value of 3.41 µM, being 5 times more potent than galanthamine. Molecular modeling simulation was performed using AChE and BChE receptors extracted from crystal structure of human AChE and human BChE to determine the amino acid residues involved in the binding interaction of synthesized compounds and their relevant receptors.
  9. Kong YR, Tay KC, Su YX, Wong CK, Tan WN, Khaw KY
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 30;26(3).
    PMID: 33573300 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030728
    Alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites that can be derived from plants, fungi and marine sponges. They are widely known as a continuous source of medicine for the management of chronic disease including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, galanthamine and huperzine A are alkaloid derivatives currently being used for the symptomatic management of neurodegenerative disease. The etiology of neurodegenerative diseases is polygenic and multifactorial including but not limited to inflammation, oxidative stress and protein aggregation. Therefore, natural-product-based alkaloids with polypharmacology modulation properties are potentially useful for further drug development or, to a lesser extent, as nutraceuticals to manage neurodegeneration. This review aims to discuss and summarise recent developments in relation to naturally derived alkaloids for neurodegenerative diseases.
  10. Yeong KY, Khaw KY, Takahashi Y, Itoh Y, Murugaiyah V, Suzuki T
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 01;94:103403.
    PMID: 31711765 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103403
    Studies have suggested that sirtuin inhibition may have beneficial effects on several age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Garcinia mangostana is a well-known tropical plant found mostly in South East Asia with several positive health effects. Some of its phytochemicals such as α-mangostin was found to be able to modulate sirtuin activity in mice and was implicated with inflammation, diabetes and obesity. However, comprehensive studies on sirtuin activity by the prenylated xanthones extracted from Garcinia mangostana have yet to be reported. The present study led to the discovery and identification of γ-mangostin as a potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitor. It was demonstrated that γ-mangostin was able to increase the α-tubulin acetylation in MDA-MD-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. It was also found to possess potent antiproliferative activity against both cell lines. In addition, it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in the N2a cells.
  11. Wan Othman WNN, Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Litaudon M, Awang K
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2016 09 15;24(18):4464-4469.
    PMID: 27492195 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.07.043
    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia among older adults. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are two enzymes involved in the breaking down of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Inhibitors for these enzymes have potential to prolong the availability of acetylcholine. Hence, the search for such inhibitors especially from natural products is needed in developing potential drugs for Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigates the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from three Cryptocarya species towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Nine alkaloids were isolated; (+)-nornantenine 1, (-)-desmethylsecoantofine 2, (+)-oridine 3, (+)-laurotetanine 4 from the leaves of Cryptocarya densiflora BI., atherosperminine 5, (+)-N-methylisococlaurine 6, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine 7 from the bark of Cryptocarya infectoria Miq., 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 and (+)-reticuline 9 from the bark of Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. In general, most of the alkaloids showed higher inhibition towards BChE as compared to AChE. The phenanthrene type alkaloid; 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8, exhibited the most potent inhibition against BChE with IC50 value of 3.95μM. Analysis of the Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plot of BChE activity over a range of substrate concentration suggested that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 exhibited mixed-mode inhibition with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.72μM. Molecular docking studies revealed that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 docked well at the choline binding site and catalytic triad of hBChE (butyrylcholinesterase from Homo sapiens); hydrogen bonding with Tyr 128 and His 438 residues respectively.
  12. Cheow YQ, Arasu K, Wong SY, Khaw KY, Chong CW, Weaver CM, et al.
    Nutr Health, 2023 Oct 06.
    PMID: 37801559 DOI: 10.1177/02601060231204634
    Background: Adequate calcium intake at an early age is crucial to achieving peak bone mass. Nevertheless, low calcium intake is common in Malaysian children. Aim: This study examined the calcium food sources and factors associated with low calcium intake among 243 children aged 9-11 years in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: Diet histories and bone density were measured. Results: The mean calcium intake was 370 ± 187 mg/day. The main contributors to calcium intake were beverages (19.2%), cereal (18.6%), milk and dairy (13.0%), meat and poultry (12.9%), and fish and seafood (10.1%). Within each food group, calcium-contributing foods tend to be from low bioavailability sources such as rice, cocoa-based and malted drinks, and chicken rather than milk. Children who practised regular meals, ate breakfast and snacks and consumed milk more than one serving daily have a higher calcium intake. Conclusion: In conclusion, public health strategies to improve the status of low calcium intake and poor choices of calcium-rich foods are needed to optimise bone health in this population.
  13. Wee AS, Nhu TD, Khaw KY, Tang KS, Yeong KY
    Curr Neuropharmacol, 2023;21(10):2036-2048.
    PMID: 36372924 DOI: 10.2174/1570159X21999221111102343
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more prevalent with ageing and cause a substantial global socio-economic burden. The biology of these two conditions is well elaborated, but whether AD and type 2 DM arise from coincidental roots in ageing or are linked by pathophysiological mechanisms remains unclear. Research findings involving animal models have identified mechanisms shared by both AD and type 2 DM. Deposition of β-amyloid peptides and formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are pathological hallmarks of AD. Type 2 DM, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Several studies show that improving type 2 DM can delay or prevent the development of AD, and hence, prevention and control of type 2 DM may reduce the risk of AD later in life. Alpha-glucosidase is an enzyme that is commonly associated with hyperglycaemia in type 2 DM. However, it is uncertain if this enzyme may play a role in the progression of AD. This review explores the experimental evidence that depicts the relationship between dysregulation of glucose metabolism and AD. We also delineate the links between alpha-glucosidase and AD and the potential role of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in treating AD.
  14. Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Looi CY, Wong YL, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jan 15;22(1):45-8.
    PMID: 25636869 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.003
    Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 μM. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 μM.
  15. Yoon YK, Ali MA, Wei AC, Choon TS, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2013 Aug;49:33-9.
    PMID: 23886696 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2013.06.008
    Two series of novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors containing benzimidazole core structure were synthesized by a four-step reaction pathway starting from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as the basic compound. The structure of the novel benzimidazoles was characterized and confirmed by the elemental and mass spectral analyses as well as (1)H NMR spectroscopic data. Of the 34 novel synthesized compounds, three benzimidazoles revealed AChE inhibition with IC50<10 μM. The highest inhibitory activity (IC50=5.12 μM for AChE and IC50=8.63 μM for BChE) corresponds to the compound 5IIc (ethyl 1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate). The relationship between lipophilicity and the chemical structures as well as their limited structure-activity relationship was discussed.
  16. Kong CK, Low LE, Siew WS, Yap WH, Khaw KY, Ming LC, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:552453.
    PMID: 33679383 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.552453
    Snowdrop is an iconic early spring flowering plant of the genus Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae). Galanthus species (Galanthus spp.) are economically important plants as ornaments. Galanthus spp has gained significance scientific and commercial interest due to the discovery of Galanthamine as symptomatic treatment drug for Alzhiermer disease. This review aims to discuss the bioactivities of Galanthus spp including anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer potential of the extracts and chemical constituents of Galanthus spp. This review highlights that Galanthus spp. as the exciting sources for drug discovery and nutraceutical development.
  17. Ooi BK, Phang SW, Yong PVC, Chellappan DK, Dua K, Khaw KY, et al.
    Life Sci, 2021 Aug 01;278:119658.
    PMID: 34048809 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119658
    AIMS: Maslinic acid (MA) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene known to exert cardioprotective effects. This study aims to investigate the involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for MA-mediated anti-inflammatory effects in atheroma pathogenesis in vitro, including evaluation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte recruitment, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced scavenger receptors expression, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) macrophages.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro monocyte recruitment model utilizing THP-1 and HUVECs was developed to evaluate TNF-α-induced monocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration. To study the role of Nrf2 for MA-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 was used as the pharmacological inhibitor. The expression of Nrf2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and scavenger receptor type A (SR-A) in HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages were investigated using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The NF-κB activity was determined using NF-κB (p65) Transcription Factor Assay Kit.

    KEY FINDINGS: The results showed opposing effects of MA on Nrf2 expression in HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. MA suppressed TNF-α-induced Nrf2 expression in HUVECs, but enhanced its expression in THP-1 macrophages. Combined effects of MA and ML385 suppressed MCP-1, VCAM-1, and SR-A expressions. Intriguingly, at the protein level, ML385 selectively inhibited SR-A but enhanced CD36 expression. Meanwhile, ML385 further enhanced MA-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in HUVECs. This effect, however, was not observed in THP-1 macrophages.

    SIGNIFICANCE: MA attenuated foam cell formation by suppressing VCAM-1, MCP-1, and SR-A expression, as well as NF-κB activity, possibly through Nrf2 inhibition. The involvement of Nrf2 for MA-mediated anti-inflammatory effects however differs between HUVECs and macrophages. Future investigations are warranted for a detailed evaluation of the contributing roles of Nrf2 in foam cells formation.

  18. Hassan LE, Dahham SS, Fadul SM, Umar MI, Majid AS, Khaw KY, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 20.
    PMID: 27553975 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.023
    Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) DC (Leguminosae) has been used in folk medicine in Arabian countries to treat inflammatory disorders. The plant has been described to treat swelling, bone fracture, bronchitis, cough, earache and wounds.
  19. Husna Hasnan MH, Sivasothy Y, Khaw KY, Nafiah MA, Hazni H, Litaudon M, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2023 Jun 27;24(13).
    PMID: 37445877 DOI: 10.3390/ijms241310699
    Studies have been conducted over the last decade to identify secondary metabolites from plants, in particular those from the class of alkaloids, for the development of new anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drugs. The genus Alseodaphne, comprising a wide range of alkaloids, is a promising source for the discovery of new cholinesterase inhibitors, the first-line treatment for AD. With regard to this, a phytochemical investigation of the dichloromethane extract of the bark of A. pendulifolia Gamb. was conducted. Repeated column chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatography led to the isolation of a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, N-methyl costaricine (1), together with costaricine (2), hernagine (3), N-methyl hernagine (4), corydine (5), and oxohernagine (6). Their structures were elucidated by the 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were more-potent BChE inhibitors than galantamine with IC50 values of 3.51 ± 0.80 µM and 2.90 ± 0.56 µM, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 1 and 2 indicated they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Compounds 1 and 2 have the potential to be employed as lead compounds for the development of new drugs or medicinal supplements to treat AD.
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