Nosocomial infection is a common problem in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and a knowledge of the pattern of nosocomial infection will contribute greatly to the intensification of infection control measures and the development of antibiotic policies in the NICU. This study aims to compare the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonates with nosocomial infection in NICU of both Kuala Terengganu Hospital (HKT) and Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM). Neonates who had both clinical signs of sepsis and positive blood cultures, 48 hours after admission to NICU, from 1(st) January to 31(st) December 1998, in both hospitals were retrospectively studied. Among neonates admitted to NICU, 30 (5.4%) in HKT and 65 (3.6%) in HUSM had nosocomial infection (p = 0.07). The mean duration of hospitalisation was shorter (HUSM 37 days, HKT 49 days; p = 0.02), and the number of neonates with predisposing factors for infection is higher (HUSM 100%, HKT 73.3%; p < 0.001) in HUSM compared with HKT. There were no differences in gestation, mean age of onset of infection and mortality between both hospitals. The most common organism isolated from the blood in HKT was Klebsiella pneumoniae (33.3%), and in HUSM Klebsiella aerogenes (24.6%). Half of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were resistant to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in HKT and a similar number of Klebsiella aerogenes isolates were resistant to piperacillin and aminoglycosides in HUSM. In conclusion nosocomial infection is a common problem in both hospitals. Except for more frequent predisposing factors for infection in HUSM, and a longer duration of hospital stay among neonates in HKT, the clinical characteristics of neonates with nosocomial infection in both hospitals were similar.
The development of food products using composite flour has increased and is attracting much attention from researchers, especially in the production of bakery products and pastries. This article focuses on the use of composite flour to produce food products, namely bread, biscuits, and pasta, with looks at on its impact, following some improvements made, on the sensory quality, rheology characteristics, and nutritional values as well as its overall acceptance. The blending of wheat flour with various sources of tubers, legumes, cereals and fruit flour in different percentages to produce variety of food products are also reported in this review. It was found that composite flour used to produce food products is still able to maintain similar characteristics to products made from full-wheat flour. The positive effects of the use of composite flour can be seen in the final product related to the functional and physicochemical properties and health benefits of raw blended flour along with percentage blending. Overall, composite flour is a good new approach to utilizing uncommon food products as the application of composite flour produced products with different characteristics and quality, depending on the types and percentage of wheat flour used in the formulation.
The title compounds, C14H12O, (I), and C15H11BrO2, (II), were prepared and characterized as part of our studies of potential new photo-acid generators. In (I), which crystallizes in the ortho-rhom-bic space group Pca21, compared to P21/n for the previously known monoclinic polymorph [Cornella & Martin (2013 ▸). Org. Lett. 15, 6298-6301], the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 4.35 (6)° and the OH group is disordered over two sites in a 0.795 (3):0.205 (3) ratio. In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯π inter-actions involving both the major and minor -OH disorder components, generating  chains as part of the herringbone packing motif. The asymmetric unit of (II) contains two mol-ecules with similar conformations (weighted r.m.s. overlay fit = 0.183 Å). In the crystal of (II), both mol-ecules form carboxyl-ate inversion dimers linked by pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating R 2 (2)(8) loops in each case. The dimers are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form  chains.
Sixty-five patients with "Snuffbox" arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis were reviewed. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure. It was done as a "standby" procedure for 41.5% of patients with Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. 58.5% of patients had the procedure done for primary hemodialysis. Patency was assessed as presence of an engorged vein and presence of thrill. This was assessed routinely at 4 to 6 weeks after the procedure. Patency rate was noted to be 83%. The commonest complication was thrombosis of the arteriovenous anastomosis. Some patients required repeated procedure at a more proximal site. Further study to determine the blood flow rate provided by the anastomosis, and comparison with other anatomical sites is necessary.
Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia.
From August till November 1998, the Paediatric and Anaesthetic Units of Hospital Kuala Terengganu managed three patients from Kuala Terengganu District who were ventilated for respiratory diphtheria. Their ages were 5, 4 and 7 years old and their immunisation for diphtheria were not complete. All three patients presented with respiratory distress and were ventilated for upper airway obstruction. Their treatment included intravenous penicillin and diphtheria antitoxin. One patient died of cardiogenic shock with secondary pneumonia. Pharyngeal and tonsillar swabs of all three patients grew toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis. There were 765 throat cultures taken from contacts. The confirmed positive cultures grew 2 toxigenic and 3 non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis and surprisingly, 10 non-toxigenic biotype gravis. A prevalence study is needed to document the endemicity of diphtheria in Kuala Terengganu and to determine the carrier rate of both biotypes. Steps have been taken to increase the immunisation coverage in children. The giving of regular booster doses of diphtheria toxoid to the adult population should be considered.
Sixty-one free flaps performed in 59 patients from April 1983 to April 1995 were analysed. Various factors that might have affected the outcome of the surgery were studied. These included the patient's age, history of smoking, pre-existing medical problems such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the type of free flaps, flap infection, use of postoperative anticoagulation, postoperative anaemia and re-exploration. The infection rate was 16.4% and this had a strong correlation with the free flap failure in our study population. Postoperative anaemia could adversely affect the tissue oxygenation of the free flap and delay the re-exploration due to the high anaesthetic risk. Dextran was routinely used for postoperative anticoagulation. There were also rescue attempts using heparin infusion when needed. The overall failure rate was 13.1%. Besides good anaesthetic support, a well-prepared protocol is necessary both for the preoperative planning of free flap surgery as well as salvaging a failure.
A 27-year old male sustained a 60 per cent TBSA burn with inhalation injury following a road traffic accident. He developed respiratory distress on day 3 postburn, and was intubated and ventilated. He was noted to have greenish aspirate from his trachea on day 17 of ventilation. He succumbed from sepsis and died on day 21 post injury. At post-mortem, a large tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) was found at the level of the cuff of the nasotracheal tube.
Based on data collected by the population-based Singapore Cancer Registry over the period 1968 to 1982, baseline epidemiological characteristics and incidence trends of primary liver cancer were described. This will facilitate the interpretation of future trends, especially in the light of new interventions such as hepatitis B immunisation. The primary liver cancer incidence is four times higher in males than in females, with the incidence peaked in the seventh decade. The incidence rate was higher in the Chinese than in Malays and Indians and marginally higher among foreign born than Singapore born Chinese. A general declining trend in liver cancer incidence was especially notable in the local born Chinese. Misclassification of metastatic carcinomas in the earlier years of cancer registration may have contributed to the initial higher incidence. Definitive decrease in incidence as a result of hepatitis immunisation will only be seen in another two to three decades.
We report a case of Tetralogy of Fallot with severe cyanosis who underwent a successful right ventricular outflow tract stenting. Follow-up echocardiography revealed moderate aortic regurgitation due to the impingement of the stent on the aortic valve. The patient underwent successful surgical correction at which time the stent was removed completely with a resolution of the aortic regurgitation.
In this population-based study, we determined the incidence rates of hip fracture among Singapore residents aged 50 years and above. Information was obtained from a centralized database system which captured admissions with the primary diagnosis of a closed hip fracture (ICD-9 codes 820, 820.0, 820.2 and 820.8, n = 12,927) from all health care establishments in the country from 1991 to 1998 inclusive. After removing duplicates, hospital transfers, readmissions and non-acute care admissions, the total number of hip fractures was 9406. Based on the national population census 1990 (n = 464,100) and yearly population estimates, the age-adjusted hip fracture rates for 1991-1998 (per 100,000) were 152 in men and 402 in women. This was 1.5 and over 5 times higher than corresponding rates in the 1960s. From 1991 to 1998, these hip fracture rates tended to increase by 0.7% annually in men and by 1.2% annually in women. Among the three major racial groups, in men, the Chinese had significantly higher age-adjusted hip fracture rates (per 100,000): 168 (95% confidence interval (CI) 158-178) compared with 128 (95% CI 105-152) for Indians and 71 (95% CI 54-88) for Malays. A similar pattern occurred in women: 410 (95% CI 395-425), for Chinese compared with 361 (95% CI 290-432) for Indians and 264 (95% CI 225-303) for Malays. Since the 1960s, the main increases in hip fracture rates have been seen in the Chinese and Malays, with the rates in Indians appearing to decrease. Hip fracture incidence rates in Singapore have risen rapidly over the past 30-40 years, particularly in women, and are now among the highest in Asia. Significant racial differences in hip fracture rates occur within the same community. Time trends in hip fracture rates differed between races.
Purpose: To characterise labial articulatory pattern variability using the spatiotemporal index (STI) in speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) across different speaking rates and syllable-sentence conditions compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Method: Ten speakers with mild-severe idiopathic PD and 10 controls produced "pa" and the Rainbow Passage at slow, typical and fast speech rates. Upper lip and lower lip kinematics were digitised during a motion capture system. Data were analysed using linear mixed modelling. Result: Regardless of the participant group, a high STI value was observed in the fast speech rate for the "pa" syllable condition, particularly for movements of the lower lip. As utterance rate increased, the control group showed the highest variability, followed by PD OFF and PD ON conditions. Syllable "pa" showed a greater STI value compared to both the first and second utterance of Rainbow Passage. Conclusion: PD manifests sufficient residual capacity to achieve near-normal motor compensation to preserve the consistency of lower lip movements during speech production. The lack of a significant difference in lip STI values between ON-OFF medication states suggests that dopaminergic treatment does not influence stability of speech for individuals with mild-moderate stage PD.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the depth of knowledge about osteoporosis (OP) among the public in Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to attendees of selected health-related public forums in the Klang Valley and Seremban between the months of May to October 2005. Results: 483 questionnaires were returned from 600 given out (80.5%). There were 139 (28.8%) male, 338 (70%) female respondents and 6 (1.2%) not stated. 87.1% respondents had heard of OP. Significantly more women than men had heard of OP (p = 0.015). Mean age was 50.15 ± 14.6 years, 56.7% in the range of 45-64 years. There was no significant difference in the ages of those who had heard of OP and those who had not. 180/338 (53.3%) were postmenopausal females. Those with >10 years of schooling were more likely to have heard of OP (p RM 1000/month (US$270) were more likely to have heard of OP (p =0.022). 22.6% had a positive family history of OP. 63.1% exercised regularly at an average of 4.26 ± 2.78 hours/week. 4.8% were smokers with a median of 10 cigarettes/day. 24.4% drank alcohol with a median of 1 drink/week. However, 70.9% of respondents said that OP led to falls. 89.6% were concerned about osteoporosis. 90.7% agreed that osteoporosis would make daily activities more difficult. The majority obtained their information about osteoporosis from the printed word; newspapers 55.7%, magazines 46.4%, posters/brochures 30.2%, followed by public talks 30%, relatives 29.6%, television 22.8%, medical clinic 22.6% and internet 11.4%. The majority would ask for more information on osteoporosis from their general practitioner 30.6%, followed by other medical specialists such as orthopaedic surgeons 28.4%, hospital specialists 23.8%, rheumatologists 22.4%, followed by friends 15.9%, relatives 14.3% and pharmacists 11.4%. In this self-selected population, knowledge of OP was better among women, the better educated and those earning a higher level of income. Almost 90% of respondents were concerned about getting OP. Their knowledge of OP was obtained from the printed word, which is an important consideration when considering health promotion activities. General practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons need to have a good knowledge of OP.
Fournier's gangrene is a severe life-threatening infection involving the perianal area, perineum, and external genitalia. It demands prompt recognition, critical care therapy, surgical therapy, and a combination of antibiotics. The infection commonly spreads via the fascial planes and causes superficial vascular thrombosis within the Colles' fascia around the external genitalia. It can extend cephalad to involve the Scarpa's fascia and Camper's fascia in the abdominal wall. The treatment would include multiple debridements, which would result in disfiguring scars of the perineum and might lead to significant physical and psychological complications. We describe a case of a 58-years-old man presenting with Fournier's gangrene resulting from an infection of an impacted urethral stone. The patient previously had obstructive voiding symptoms for 1 month but chose to neglect them. The resultant infection was severe and caused penile and right testicular gangrene. He underwent multiple wound debridements, which included a total penectomy and right orchiectomy. Psychological and rehabilitative support was necessary for him to overcome his loss and disfigurement.
Few previous studies in Western populations have reported an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and prehypertension. However, no previous study has examined this association in Asians. We examined individuals who were free of hypertension from two independent population-based studies in Singapore: the Singapore Prospective Study Programme (SP2, n=2843 Chinese, Malay and Indians aged 24 years) and the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES, n=957 Malays, aged 40-80 years). Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg. CRP was analyzed as categories (<1, 1-3, >3 mg l(-1)). The prevalence of prehypertension increased with increasing categories of CRP in both cohorts (P for trend <0.05 in both cohorts). After adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index (BMI), smoking and diabetes, persons with higher levels of CRP were more likely to have prehypertension in both SP2 (compared with CRP <1 mg l(-1), odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48 for CRP 1-3 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.10 for >3 mg l(-1)) and SiMES (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.01 and OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27) respectively. In conclusion, data from two population-based Asian cohorts suggest that elevated serum CRP levels are associated with prehypertension.