RESULTS: CTNNB1 gene of HEK 293T cells was knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9. This was confirmed by sequencing and western blotting. Methylthiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays indicated that deletion of β-catenin significantly weakened adhesion ability and inhibited proliferation rate (P
RESULTS: Except for two tuberous deciduous species and a species with upright stems, a majority of Sino-Vietnamese limestone Begonia (SVLB), including sect. Coelocentrum (19 species sampled) and five species of sect. Diploclinium, Leprosae, and Petermannia, are rhizomatous and grouped in a strongly supported and yet internally poorly resolved clade (Clade SVLB), suggesting a single evolutionary origin of the adaptation to limestone substrates by rhizomatous species, subsequent species radiation, and a strong tendency to retain their ancestral niche. Divergence-time estimates indicate a late Miocene diversification of Clade SVLB, coinciding with the onset of the East Asian monsoon and the period of extensive karstification in the area.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our phylogenetic study, Begonia sect. Coelocentrum is recircumscribed and expanded to include other members of the Clade SVLB (sect. Diploclinium: B. cavaleriei, B. pulvinifera, and B. wangii; sect. Leprosae: B. cylindrica and B. leprosa; sect. Petermannia: B. sinofloribunda). Because species of Clade SVLB have strong niche conservatism to retain in their ancestral habitats in cave-like microhabitats and Begonia are generally poor dispersers prone to diversify allopatrically, we propose that extensive and continuous karstification of the Sino-Vietnamese limestone region facilitated by the onset of East Asian monsoon since the late Miocene has been the major driving force for species accumulation via geographic isolation in Clade SVLB. Morphologically species of Clade SVLB differ mainly in vegetative traits without apparent adaptive value, suggesting that limestone Begonia radiation is better characterized as non-adaptive, an underappreciated speciation mode crucial for rapid species accumulations in organisms of low vagility and strong niche conservatism.
AIMS: This study was designed to assess the moderating role of social support in the relation between strain and suicidality.
METHODS: A sample of 1,051 employees were recruited in Beijing, the capital of China, through an online survey. Moderation analysis was performed using SPSS PROCESS Macro. Social support was measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and strains were assessed with the Psychological Strains Scale.
RESULTS: Psychological strains are a good predictor of suicidality, and social support, a basic need for each human being, moderates and decreases the effects of psychological strains on suicidality.
LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional survey limited the extent to which conclusions about causal relationships can be drawn. Furthermore, the results may not be generalized to the whole of China because of its diversity.
CONCLUSION: Social support has a tendency to mitigate the effects of psychological strains on suicidality.
RESULTS: A total of 21 distinct metabolic differences between HAE patients and healthy individuals were identified, and they are associated with perturbations in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Furthermore, the present results showed that the Fischer ratio, which is the molar ratio of branched-chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids, was significantly lower (P