Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Majid AM, Wong TW
    Int J Pharm, 2013 May 1;448(1):150-8.
    PMID: 23506957 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.03.008
    The conventional powder flow testers require sample volumes larger than 40g and are met with experimental hiccups due to powder cohesion. This study designed a gas-pressurized dispersive powder flow tester where a high velocity air is used to disaggregate powder (9g) and eliminate its cohesion. The pressurized gas entrained solid particles leaving an orifice where the distance, surface area, width and weight of particle dispersion thereafter are determined as flow index. The flow indices of seven lactose grades with varying size, size distribution, shape, morphology, bulk and tapped densities characteristics were examined. They were compared against Hausner ratio and Carr's index parameters of the same powder mass. Both distance and surface area attributes of particle dispersion had significant negative correlations with Hausner ratio and Carr's index values of lactose. The distance, surface area and ease of particle dispersion varied proportionately with circular equivalent, surface weighted mean and volume weighted mean diameters of lactose, and inversely related to their specific surface area and elongation characteristics. Unlike insensitive Hausner ratio and Carr's index, an increase in elongation property of lactose particles was detectable through reduced powder weight loss from gas-pressurized dispersion as a result of susceptible particle blockage at orifice. The gas-pressurized dispersive tester is a useful alternative flowability measurement device for low volume and cohesive powder.
  2. Bong Y, Shariff A, Majid A, Merican A
    Iran J Public Health, 2012;41(2):27-38.
    PMID: 23113132
    Reference charts are widely used in healthcare as a screening tool. This study aimed to produce reference growth charts for school children from West Malaysia in comparison with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) chart.
  3. Asif M, Jabeen Q, Abdul-Majid AM, Atif M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1811-7.
    PMID: 25362605
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.
  4. Majid AM, Smythe G, Denny WA, Wakelin LP
    Mol. Pharmacol., 2007 Apr;71(4):1165-78.
    PMID: 17251328
    Nitrogen mustard alkylating agents are important cancer drugs. Much interest has been focused on redirecting their covalent adducts from the N7 atoms of guanine in the major groove of DNA to the N3 atoms of adenine in the minor groove by attaching mustard groups to AT-selective minor groove binding ligands. Here we describe the use of electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the structure of the DNA complexes of two minor groove binding polybenzamide mustards, alkamin and alkamini; the former is a bis-half-mustard in which reactive groups are disposed at each end of the ligand, and the latter is its monofunctional analog. Alkamin is potently cytotoxic and active in experimental mouse tumor models, whereas alkamini is not. We have studied their interaction with the DNA dodecamer d(CGCGAATTCGCG)(2), designated A2T2, and we provide a detailed analysis of the observed DNA-ligand adduct ions and their fragmentation products. We find that alkamini alkylates A2T2 at guanine G4 and adenines A5 and A6 in a manner consistent with covalent attack on purine N3 atoms from the minor groove of the AT tract. Alkamin also forms monofunctional adducts at G4 and both adenines in which the second mustard arm is hydrolyzed but, in addition, forms a variety of interstrand cross-links between adenines A5/A6 and A5'/A6', an interstrand cross-link between G4 and A6', and an intrastrand cross-link between G4 and A6. We conclude that the marked cytotoxicity of alkamin and its experimental antitumor activity could be the consequence of its ability to cross-link cellular DNA at AT tract sequences.
  5. Aisha AF, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    BMC Biotechnol, 2014;14:23.
    PMID: 24674107 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-14-23
    O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect.
  6. Ng KW, Salhimi SM, Majid AM, Chan KL
    Planta Med, 2010 Jun;76(9):935-40.
    PMID: 20112179 DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1240813
    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation.
  7. Saghir SA, Sadikun A, Al-Suede FS, Majid AM, Murugaiyah V
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2016 6 6;17(10):915-25.
    PMID: 27262321
    BACKGROUND: Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a well-known plant in Malaysia which bears a great significance in traditional medicine.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect, antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of ripe and unripe fruits, leaves and stem of A. carambola.

    METHODS: Antihyperlipidemic activity was assessed in poloxamer-407 (P-407) induced acute hyperlipidemic rat's model. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, cytotoxicity of A. carambola extracts was assessed using MTS assay on four leukemic cell lines (human colon cancer, human promyeloid leukemia, erythroid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia) and one normal cell (human umbilical vein endothelial cells).

    RESULTS: Methanolic extract of leaves had the most potent antihyperlipidemic activity in P-407 model, whereby it significantly reduced serum levels of total cholesterol (P<0.01), triglycerides (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein (P<0.05), verylow- density lipoprotein (P<0.01) and atherogenic index (P<0.01). On the other hand, methanolic extracts of A. carambola stem and leaves showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts exhibited significant correlations with antioxidant but not with antihyperlipidemic activities. All plant parts showed no cytotoxic effect on the selected cancer or normal cell lines.

    CONCLUSION: Antihyperlipidemic activity of different parts of A. carambola is greatly affected by extraction solvents used. Methanolic extract of A. carambola leaves exhibited higher antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials compared to other parts of the plant.

  8. Hussein MA, Guan TS, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2015 Feb 05;136 Pt C:1335-48.
    PMID: 25456676 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.021
    Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.
  9. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Ahamed SA, Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Med Chem, 2015;11(5):473-81.
    PMID: 25553509
    Azolium (imidazolium and benzimidazolium) salts are known as stable precursors for the synthesis of Metal-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (M-NHC) complexes. Recently, some reports have been compiled indicating that benzimidazolium salts have anticarcinogenic properties. The current research is the further investigation of this phenomenon. Three ortho-xylene linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1-3) with octyl, nonyl and decyl terminal chain lengths have been synthesized. Each of the compounds was characterized using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular geometries of two of the salts (1-2) have been established using X-ray crystallographic technique. The compounds were tested for their cytotoxic properties against three cancerous cell lines namely, human colon cancer (HCT 116), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT- 29) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3-L1) was used as the model cell line of normal cells. The compounds showed selective anti-proliferative activities against the colorectal carcinoma cells. For HCT 116 and HT-29 cells, the IC50 values ranged 0.9-2.6 µM and 4.0-10.0 µM, respectively. The salts 1 and 3 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer (MCF-7) cells with IC50 58.2 and 13.3 µM, respectively. However, the salt 2 produced strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with IC50 4.4 µM. Interestingly, the compounds demonstrated poor cytotoxic effects towards the normal cells (3T3-L1) as the IC50 was found to be as high as 48.0 µM. Salts 2 and 3 demonstrated more pronounced anti-proliferative effect than the standard drugs used (5-Flourouracil and Tamoxifen).
  10. Saidan NH, Aisha AF, Hamil MS, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):23-31.
    PMID: 25598631 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147195
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
  11. Ali AQ, Teoh SG, Salhin A, Eltayeb NE, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 24607427 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.01.086
    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (k(b)=5.03-33.00×10(5) M(-1)) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47×10(4) M(-1)) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.
  12. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Siddiqui JM, Ghafar G, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 23842450 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-168
    Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.
  13. Haque RA, Salman AW, Budagumpi S, Abdullah AA, Majid AM
    Metallomics, 2013 Jun;5(6):760-9.
    PMID: 23645390 DOI: 10.1039/c3mt00051f
    Unsymmetrically substituted sterically tuned Pd(II)–NHC complexes of the general formula [PdCl2(NHC)2] (NHC = 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene, 7; 1-allyl-3-butylimidazol-2-ylidene, 8; 1-benzyl-3-butyl imidazolin-2-ylidene, 9) were prepared through transmetallation from their corresponding Ag(I)–NHC complexes. The Pd complexes were structurally characterized by different spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction methods. Complexes 7 and 9 adopted a trans–anti arrangement of the NHC ligands, whereas complex 8 adopted a cis–syn arrangement. Preliminary antibiogram studies using Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria showed that Ag(I)–NHC complexes demonstrate higher activity compared with Pd(I)–NHC complexes. Furthermore, Pd(II)–NHC complexes were evaluated for their anticancer potential using the human colorectal cancer cell line. A higher anticancer activity was observed for complexes 8 and 9, with 26.5 and 6.6 mM IC50 values, respectively.
  14. Muslim NS, Nassar ZD, Aisha AF, Shafaei A, Idris N, Majid AM, et al.
    PMID: 23126282 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-210
    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts.
  15. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    PMID: 22818000
    BACKGROUND: Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.
    METHODS: A xanthones extract (81% α-mangostin and 16% γ-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice.
    RESULTS: The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5 ± 1.0 μg/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and α-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of α-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate.
  16. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Mahmoud Nassar ZD
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Apr;5(4):294-8.
    PMID: 22449521 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60042-X
    OBJECTIVE: Toinvestigate the anti-angiogenic activity and antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (M. fragrans) (nutmeg) and Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia)(mengkudu) oils.

    METHODS: The nutmeg and megkudu essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antioxidant activities of both essential oils were determined by beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay and reducing power while the anti-angiogenic activity was investigated using rat aortic ring assay using various concentrations.

    RESULTS: The results showed that nutmeg oil has higher antioxidant activity than mengkudu oil. The nutmeg oil effectively inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid with (88.68±0.1)% while the inhibition percentage of oxidation of linoleic acid of the mengkudu oil is (69.44±0.4)%. The nutmeg oil and mengkudu oil showed reducing power with an EC(50) value of 181.4 μg/mL and 3 043.0 μg/mL, respectively. The antiangiogenic activity of nutmeg oil showed significant antiangiogenic activity with IC(50) of 77.64 μg/mL comparing to mengkudu oil which exhibits IC(50) of 109.30 μg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bioactive compound(s) will be isolated from the nutmeg essential oil to be developed as antiangiogenic drugs.

  17. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    Molecules, 2012;17(3):2939-54.
    PMID: 22402764 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17032939
    Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. α-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by α-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of α-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of α-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. α-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, α-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.
  18. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Majid AM
    J Pharm Sci, 2012 Feb;101(2):815-25.
    PMID: 22081501 DOI: 10.1002/jps.22806
    α-Mangostin is an oxygenated heterocyclic xanthone with remarkable pharmacological properties, but poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability hinder its therapeutic application. This study sought to improve the compound's solubility and study the mechanism underlying solubility enhancement. Solid dispersions of α-mangostin were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by solvent evaporation method and showed substantial enhancement of α-mangostin's solubility from 0.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 2743 ± 11 μg/mL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated interaction between α-mangostin and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed self-assembly of round anionic nanomicelles with particle size in the range 99-127 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated conversion of α-mangostin from crystalline into amorphous state, and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of highly porous powder. Studies using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed that the critical micellar concentration is about 77.4 ± 4 μg/mL. Cellular uptake of nanomicelles was found to be mediated via endocytosis and indicated intracellular delivery of α-mangostin associated with potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration of 8.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL). Improved solubility, self-assembly of nanomicelles, and intracellular delivery through endocytosis may enhance the pharmacological properties of α-mangostin, particularly antitumor efficacy.
  19. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Ismail S, Man CN
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Feb;92(3):593-7.
    PMID: 25520982
    In this study the chemical composition, antioxidant activities and cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) and Morinda citrifolia (mengkudu) were determined.
  20. Beh HK, Seow LJ, Asmawi MZ, Abdul Majid AM, Murugaiyah V, Ismail N, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2012;26(16):1492-7.
    PMID: 22292423 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2011.562208
    Morinda citrifolia L. has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves. Anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation were performed to identify the active constituent, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was then used to quantify the amount of this active constituent in the active extracts and fraction. The methanol extracts of fruits and leaves of M. citrifolia and the subsequent chloroform fraction of the fruit methanolic extract were found to have potential anti-angiogenic activity and were more potent compared to suramin. Scopoletin was identified as one of the chemical constituents that may be partly responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity of M. citrifolia fruits. The present findings further support the use of M. citrifolia in cancer or other pathological conditions related to angiogenesis.
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