Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 244 in total

  1. Tiong, C.P., Loke, A.C., Mohamed, Z., Zainal, N.Z.
    Objective: This study investigates the relationship between antidepressant response to escitalopram and polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) in multi ethnic Malaysian patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Methods: An eight weeks prospective study of treatment response to escitalopram was conducted on 29 Malaysian patients with Major Depressive Disorder. The severity and improvement of depression were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients were also genotyped for long (L) and short (S) polymorphisms in 5-HTTLPR using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Response to escitalopram treatment was more frequent in patients with 5-HTTLPR SS genotype than in those with LL or LS genotypes (p = 0.04, OR = 10.0, 95% CI = 1.05-95.2). The favourable allelic variant for response was S allele (p
  2. Islam MM, Mohamed Z
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:731292.
    PMID: 26579539 DOI: 10.1155/2015/731292
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and highly selective permeable interface between central nervous system (CNS) and periphery that regulates the brain homeostasis. Increasing evidences of neurological disorders and restricted drug delivery process in brain make BBB as special target for further study. At present, neurovascular unit (NVU) is a great interest and highlighted topic of pharmaceutical companies for CNS drug design and delivery approaches. Some recent advancement of pharmacology and computational biology makes it convenient to develop drugs within limited time and affordable cost. In this review, we briefly introduce current understanding of the NVU, including molecular and cellular composition, physiology, and regulatory function. We also discuss the recent technology and interaction of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics for drug design and step towards personalized medicine. Additionally, we develop gene network due to understand NVU associated transporter proteins interactions that might be effective for understanding aetiology of neurological disorders and new target base protective therapies development and delivery.
  3. Apalasamy YD, Mohamed Z
    Hum Genet, 2015 Apr;134(4):361-74.
    PMID: 25687726 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-015-1533-x
    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that occurs as a result of the interaction between "obesogenic" environmental factors and genetic components. Although the genetic component of obesity is clear from the heritability studies, the genetic basis remains largely elusive. Successes have been achieved in identifying the causal genes for monogenic obesity using animal models and linkage studies, but these approaches are not fruitful for polygenic obesity. The developments of genome-wide association approach have brought breakthrough discovery of genetic variants for polygenic obesity where tens of new susceptibility loci were identified. However, the common SNPs only accounted for a proportion of heritability. The arrival of NGS technologies and completion of 1000 Genomes Project have brought other new methods to dissect the genetic architecture of obesity, for example, the use of exome genotyping arrays and deep sequencing of candidate loci identified from GWAS to study rare variants. In this review, we summarize and discuss the developments of these genetic approaches in human obesity.
  4. Sanus,M,A,, Nordin,M,A,, Rusli,M,R,, Mohamed,Z,N,h,
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2020;7(1):13-19.
    Objectives: This study aimed to assess intra- and inter-examiner reliability of International Caries Detection
    and Assessment System (ICDAS) and modified epidemiology ICDAS (MOD) code by undergraduate dental
    students with different clinical experiences.
    Methods: A total of 150 dental undergraduate students with varying clinical experiences (0, 1 and 2 years of
    clinical experience) were recruited. Participants received training through a theoretical lecture on ICDAS criteria
    by an experienced National Benchmark Group (NBG) examiner and underwent e-learning program prior to
    ICDAS calibration. Visual examination on extracted permanent teeth (N= 45) with different location and stages
    of caries progression ranging from ICDAS scores 0 to 6, was performed using the ICDAS criteria. The
    assessments were repeated after one hour. The data were analysed to evaluate inter-examiner and
    intra-examiner reliability in the form of kappa scores using SPSS 23 Software.
    Results: Mean kappa values for intra- and inter-examiner reliability for ICDAS code, were between 0.41 to
    0.60, and 0.61 to 0.80 respectively. For MOD code, mean kappa values for intra- and inter-examiner reliability
    were between 0.61 to 0.80. Good intra-examiner agreement (>0.61) was observed in both ICDAS and MOD
    code for all groups.
    Conclusion: All students performed similar agreement, therefore, clinical experience within 2 years does not
    influence the performance of visual inspection in detecting caries using ICDAS. The results of the study shows
    that ICDAS and modified epidemiology ICDAS codes has good reproducibility and is feasible to be used as a
    tool in clinical practice as well as patient education.
  5. Subramaniam, K.S., Wong, M.S., Woo, Y.L., Mat Adenan, N.A., Mohamed, Z., Chung, I., et al.
    JUMMEC, 2013;16(1):1-5.
    Genetic mutations in endometrial cancer (EC) have been extensively studied in the Western population but not much in Asian cohorts. This study has demonstrated that PTEN and PIK3CA mutations are commonly found in EC among Malaysian women. Following RNA extraction from 20 cancerous and 18 non-cancerous tissues, the presence of mutations in 9 exons of PTEN and 3 exons of PIK3CA genes were detected using real-time PCR, accompanied by High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis. Sequencing confirmed specificity of each PCR product. The mutations for both genes were detected in the samples with varying frequencies. Notably, all samples expressed mutation of PTEN at exon 7 but none in exon 4. Further analysis demonstrated that strong concurrent mutations occurred between exons 7 of PTEN with exon 20 region 1 of PIK3CA gene (90%). Our data showed mutations are present in EC and not the non-cancerous tissues. Larger samples are being collected to validate this observation.
  6. Asiah K, Hanifah YA, Norzila MZ, Hasniah L, Rusanida A
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2006 Apr;42(4):217-8.
    PMID: 16630326
    We report a 17-year-old Malay boy with cystic fibrosis who over a 14-month period experienced worsening respiratory symptoms and deteriorating lung function. Burkholderia pseudomallei was eventually isolated from his sputum. He improved clinically following treatment for meliodosis and his lung function returned to normal.
  7. Mohamed Z, Newton JM, McKenna L
    Int Nurs Rev, 2014 Mar;61(1):124-30.
    PMID: 24512262 DOI: 10.1111/inr.12078
    The need to belong has been proposed as the most basic need for human psychological well-being. Lack of belongingness has been associated with stress, anxiety and lack of esteem. Social and psychological functioning in the workplace has been linked to nurses' interconnection with others and their perceptions of belongingness.
  8. Islam MM, Aktaruzzaman M, Mohamed Z
    Bioinformation, 2015;11(2):67-72.
    PMID: 25848166 DOI: 10.6026/97320630011067
    Normal blood glucose level depends on the availability of insulin and its ability to bind insulin receptor (IR) that regulates the downstream signaling pathway. Insulin sequence and blood glucose level usually vary among animals due to species specificity. The study of genetic variation of insulin, blood glucose level and diabetics symptoms development in Aves is interesting because of its optimal high blood glucose level than mammals. Therefore, it is of interest to study its evolutionary relationship with other mammals using sequence data. Hence, we compiled 32 Aves insulin from GenBank to compare its sequence-structure features with phylogeny for evolutionary inference. The analysis shows long conserved motifs (about 14 residues) for functional inference. These sequences show high leucine content (20%) with high instability index (>40). Amino acid position 11, 14, 16 and 20 are variable that may have contribution to binding to IR. We identified functionally critical variable residues in the dataset for possible genetic implication. Structural models of these sequences were developed for surface analysis towards functional representation. These data find application in the understanding of insulin function across species.
  9. Alfarisi, H. A. H., Ibrahim, M.,, Mohamed, Z. B. H., Hamdan, A. H., Che Mohamad, C. A.
    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute a major pathogenic mechanism
    for the development of atherosclerosis. In the present work, the antioxidant potential of
    Trihoney was investigated in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Thirty-six male New Zealand
    white (NZW) rabbits were grouped into: normal diet (C), normal diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of
    Trihoney (C+H), 1% cholesterol diet (HCD), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.3 g/kg/day of
    Trihoney (HCD+H1
    ), 1% cholesterol diet with 0.6 g/kg/day of Trihoney (HCD+H2
    ), and 1%
    cholesterol diet with 2 mg/kg/day of atorvastatin (HCD+At.). Animals were sacrificed following 12 weeks of treatment, and their serum was analysed for oxidised-low density lipoprotein
    (Ox-LDL). Serum and aortic tissue homogenate were assayed for superoxide dismutase
    (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Hypercholesterolemia
    caused a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in serum Ox-LDL and a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in serum of the HCD group. Trihoney induced a significant (p < 0.05) increase in antioxidant enzyme activities in serum as compared to the HCD
    group. The high cholesterol diet suppressed both antioxidant enzymes in aortic homogenate.
    Trihoney significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced both antioxidant enzymes in aortic homogenate.
    Hypercholesterolemia induced a significant (p < 0.05) elevation of serum lipid peroxidation in
    the HCD group. Trihoney caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of lipid peroxidation in
    aortic homogenate. These results demonstrated that Trihoney has the potential to ameliorate
    oxidative stress systemically, as well as locally in the atherosclerotic aorta.
  10. Zain SM, Mohamed Z, Mohamed R
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2015 Jan;30(1):21-7.
    PMID: 25167786 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12714
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although studies have suggested that rs780094, a common variant in the glucokinase regulatory (GCKR) gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and their related traits, the genetic basis of the association between GCKR rs780094 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still being examined. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect strength caused by GCKR rs780094 on NAFLD.
    METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for relevant articles published up to April 2014. Data were extracted, and summary estimates of the association between GCKR rs780094 and NAFLD were examined. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined.
    RESULTS: This meta-analysis incorporated a total of 2091 NAFLD cases and 3003 controls from five studies. Overall, the pooled result indicated that the GCKR rs780094 was significantly associated with increased risk of NAFLD (additive: odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.36, P 
  11. Rothan HA, Huy TS, Mohamed Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:514835.
    PMID: 25147851 DOI: 10.1155/2014/514835
    This study was established to test the hypothesis of whether the codon optimization of fish growth hormone gene (FGH) based on P. pastoris preferred codon will improve the quantity of secreted rFGH in culture supernatant that can directly be used as fish feed supplements. The optimized FGH coding sequence (oFGH) and native sequence (nFGH) of giant grouper fish (Epinephelus lanceolatus) were cloned into P. pastoris expression vector (pPICZαA) downstream of alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) for efficient induction of extracellular rFGH by adding 1% of absolute methanol. The results showed that recombinant P. pastoris was able to produce 2.80 ± 0.27 mg of oFGH compared to 1.75 ± 0.25 of nFGH in one litre of culture supernatant. The total body weight of tiger grouper fingerlings fed with oFGH increased significantly at third (P < 0.05) and fourth weeks (P < 0.01) of four-week experiment period compared to those fed with nFGH. Both oFGH and nFGH significantly enhanced the final biomass and fish survival percentage. In conclusion, codon optimization of FGH fragment was useful to increase rFGH quantity in the culture supernatant of P. pastoris that can be directly used as fish feed supplements. Further studies are still required for large scale production of rFGH and practical application in aquaculture production.
  12. Mohamed Z, Newton JM, Lau R
    Int J Nurs Pract, 2014 Apr;20(2):187-193.
    PMID: 24713015 DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12125
    This study sought to explore the impact of Malaysian nurses' perceptions, knowledge and experiences in preterm infant skin care practices using a descriptive approach. Questionnaires were distributed to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. A knowledge gap was revealed among nurses in both theoretical and practical knowledge of preterm infant skin. Nurses working for more than 5 years in NICU or having a Neonatal Nursing Certificate (NNC) were not predictors of having adequate knowledge of preterm infants' skin care. The results highlight the complex issue of providing effective skin care to preterm infants. However, a specific finding related to nurses' confidence provides some direction for future practice and research initiatives. Clear clinical evidence-based guidelines and Continuing Nursing Education on relevant topics of preterm infants' care may provide the required knowledge for the nurses.
  13. Pandy V, Narasingam M, Mohamed Z
    PMID: 23082808 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-186
    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing).
  14. Abdul-Nasir AS, Mashor MY, Mohamed Z
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2012;2012:637360.
    PMID: 23082089 DOI: 10.1155/2012/637360
    Malaria is one of the serious global health problem, causing widespread sufferings and deaths in various parts of the world. With the large number of cases diagnosed over the year, early detection and accurate diagnosis which facilitates prompt treatment is an essential requirement to control malaria. For centuries now, manual microscopic examination of blood slide remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis. However, low contrast of the malaria and variable smears quality are some factors that may influence the accuracy of interpretation by microbiologists. In order to reduce this problem, this paper aims to investigate the performance of the proposed contrast enhancement techniques namely, modified global and modified linear contrast stretching as well as the conventional global and linear contrast stretching that have been applied on malaria images of P. vivax species. The results show that the proposed modified global and modified linear contrast stretching techniques have successfully increased the contrast of the parasites and the infected red blood cells compared to the conventional global and linear contrast stretching. Hence, the resultant images would become useful to microbiologists for identification of various stages and species of malaria.
  15. Teh SH, Fong MY, Mohamed Z
    Genet Mol Biol, 2011 Jul;34(3):464-70.
    PMID: 21931521 DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011005000022
    The Pichia pastoris expression system was used to produce recombinant human erythropoietin, a protein synthesized by the adult kidney and responsible for the regulation of red blood cell production. The entire recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) gene was constructed using the Splicing by Overlap Extension by PCR (SOE-PCR) technique, cloned and expressed through the secretory pathway of the Pichia expression system. Recombinant erythropoietin was successfully expressed in P. pastoris. The estimated molecular mass of the expressed protein ranged from 32 kDa to 75 kDa, with the variation in size being attributed to the presence of rhEPO glycosylation analogs. A crude functional analysis of the soluble proteins showed that all of the forms were active in vivo.
  16. Yeng C, Osman E, Mohamed Z, Noordin R
    Electrophoresis, 2010 Dec;31(23-24):3843-9.
    PMID: 21080484 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201000038
    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women may result in abortion and foetal abnormalities, and may be life-threatening in immunocompromised hosts. To identify the potential infection markers of this disease, 2-DE and Western blot methods were employed to study the parasite circulating antigens and host-specific proteins in the sera of T. gondii-infected individuals. The comparisons were made between serum protein profiles of infected (n=31) and normal (n=10) subjects. Antigenic proteins were identified by immunoblotting using pooled sera and monoclonal anti-human IgM-HRP. Selected protein spots were characterised using mass spectrometry. Prominent differences were observed when serum samples of T. gondii-infected individuals and normal controls were compared. A significant up-regulation of host-specific proteins, α(2)-HS glycoprotein and α(1)-B glycoprotein, was also observed in the silver-stained gels of both active and chronic infections. However, only α(2)-HS glycoprotein and α(1)-B glycoprotein in the active infection showed immunoreactivity in Western blots. In addition, three spots of T. gondii proteins were detected, namely (i) hypothetical protein chrXII: 3984434-3 TGME 49, (ii) dual specificity protein phosphatase, catalytic domain TGME 49 and (iii) NADPH-cytochrome p450 reductase TGME 49. Thus, 2-DE approach followed by Western blotting has enabled the identification of five potential infection markers for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: three are parasite-specific proteins and two are host-specific proteins.
  17. Achanna S, Mohamed Z, Krishnan M
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2006 Jun;32(3):341-5.
    PMID: 16764627
    Acute puerperal uterine inversion is a life-threatening and unpredictable obstetric emergency. If overlooked, it could lead to a maternal death. Although the precise cause is unknown, it is postulated to be caused by the mismanagement of the third stage of labor with premature traction of the umbilical cord and fundal pressure before placental separation. At the Ipoh General Hospital in Malaysia there were 31 394 deliveries and four acute uterine inversions occurring from 1 January 2002 to 30 June 2005. The four patients were between 25 and 36 years of age and their parities were between two and three. When manual repositioning of the uterus failed, successful correction was accomplished by the O'Sullivan's hydrostatic method. One case had to undergo subtotal hysterectomy after repositioning because of massive hemorrhage secondary to placenta accreta. Early diagnosis, immediate treatment of shock, and replacement are essential.
  18. Chellian R, Pandy V, Mohamed Z
    Front Pharmacol, 2016;7:72.
    PMID: 27065863 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00072
    Alpha (α)-asarone is one of the main psychoactive compounds, present in Acorus species. Evidence suggests that the α-asarone possess an antidepressant-like activity in mice. However, the exact dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity are not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and the underlining mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity of α-asarone in the mouse model of tail suspension test (TST). In this study, the acute effect of α-asarone per se at different doses (10-100 mg/kg, i.p.) on immobility in the TST was studied. Additionally, the possible mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like effect of α-asarone was studied using its interaction with noradrenergic and serotonergic neuromodulators in the TST. The present results reveal that the acute treatment of α-asarone elicited biphasic responses on immobility such that the duration of the immobility time is significantly reduced at lower doses (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) but increased at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST. Besides, α-asarone at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with noradrenergic neuromodulators such as AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p., a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and with serotonergic neuromodulators such as PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for four consecutive days, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor,) and WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) significantly reversed the anti-immobility effect of α-asarone (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, our results suggest that the acute treatment with α-asarone elicited biphasic actions in the TST in which antidepressant-like effect was seen at relatively lower doses (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and depressive-like activity at relatively higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, it has been revealed that the antidepressant-like effect of α-asarone could be mediated through both noradrenergic (α1 and α2 adrenoceptors) and serotonergic (particularly, 5-HT1A receptors) systems.
  19. Hajissa K, Zakaria R, Suppian R, Mohamed Z
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:315.
    PMID: 26062975 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0932-0
    Serological investigation remains the primary approach to achieve satisfactory results in Toxoplasma gondii identification. However, the accuracy of the native antigen used in the current diagnostic kits has proven to be insufficient as well as difficult to standardize, so significant efforts have been made to find alternative reagents as capture antigens. Consequently, multi-epitope peptides are promising diagnostic markers, with the potential for improving the accuracy of diagnostic kits. In this study, we described a simple, inexpensive and improved strategy to acquire such diagnostic markers. The study was aimed at producing novel synthetic protein consisting of multiple immunodominant epitopes of several T. gondii antigens.
  20. Phua AC, Abdullah RB, Mohamed Z
    J. Reprod. Dev., 2003 Aug;49(4):307-11.
    PMID: 14967923
    Sex determination of livestock is performed to achieve the objectives of livestock breeding programmes. Techniques for sex determination have evolved from karyotyping to detecting Y-specific antigens and recently to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which appears to be the most sensitive, accurate, rapid and reliable method to date. In this study, a PCR-based sex determination method for potential application in goat breeding programmes was developed. Primers were designed to amplify a portion of the X amelogenin gene (Aml-X) on the X chromosome to give a 300 bp product and Sry gene on the Y chromosome to give a 116 bp product. PCR optimization was performed using DNA template extracted from a whole blood sample of Jermasia goats (German Fawn x Katjang) of both sexes. It was possible to identify the sex chromosomes by amplifying both male- and female-specific genes simultaneously in a duplex reaction with males yielding two bands and females yielding one band. The Aml-X primer set, which served as an internal control primer, did not interfere with amplification of the Y-specific sequence even when a low amount of DNA (1 ng) was used. The duplex reaction subjected to a blind test showed 100% (14/14) concordance, proving its accuracy and reliability. The primer sets used were found to be highly specific and were suitable for gender selection of goats.
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