METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2011 to March 2012. S. maltophilia isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the epsilometer test (E-test) and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In the synergy test, the isolates were tested against six different antimicrobial combinations.
RESULTS: In total, 84 S. maltophilia isolates were collected and analysed. According to the E-test, the antimicrobial susceptibility of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin was 100%, 91.1%, and 88.9% respectively. The antimicrobial combination of TMP-SMX and ceftazidime showed the highest synergistic effect.
CONCLUSION: TMP-SMX remains the antimicrobial of choice to treat S. maltophilia infection. TMP-SMX and ceftazidime was the most effective combination in vitro.
METHODS: In this study, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on clinical B. pseudomallei isolates collected from Kelantan state of Malaysia, patients' clinical data were reviewed and then genotype-risk correlations were investigated.
RESULTS: Genotyping of 83 B. pseudomallei isolates revealed 32 different STs, of which 13(40%) were novel. The frequencies of the STs among the 83 isolates ranged from 1 to 12 observations, and ST54, ST371 and ST289 were predominant. All non-novel STs reported in this study have also been identified in other Asian countries. Based on the MLST data analysis, the phylogenetic tree showed clustering of the STs with each other, as well as with the STs from Southeast Asia and China. No evidence for associations between any of B. pseudomallei STs and clinical melioidosis presentation was detected. In addition, the bacterial genotype clusters in relation with each clinical outcome were statistically insignificant, and no risk estimate was reported. This study has expanded the data for B. pseudomallei on MLST database map and provided insights into the molecular epidemiology of melioidosis in Peninsular Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: This study concurs with previous reports concluding that infecting strain type plays no role in determining disease presentation.