The antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Melastoma malabathricum (MME) was investigated using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot-plate test in mice. It was demonstrated that the extract (30-300 mg/kg, i.p.) strongly and dose-dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing with an ED(50) of 100 (78-160) mg/kg i.p. It also significantly increased the response latency period to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of the extract in both tests, suggesting that M. malabathricum may act both at peripheral and central levels.
The effects of an aqueous supernatant of haruan (ASH) (Channa striatus) fillet extract on various antinociception receptor system activities were examined using a mouse abdominal-constriction model. Mice that were pretreated with distilled water, s.c., followed 10 min later by administration of 25%, 50%, and 100% concentration ASH, s.c., produced a significant concentration-dependent antinociceptive activity (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with naloxone (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg body mass), 10 min before ASH administration, failed to block the extract antinociception. Pretreatment of the 100% concentration ASH with mecamylamine (5 mg/kg), pindolol (10 mg/kg), and haloperidol (1 mg/kg) also did not cause any significant change in its antinociception. However, pretreatment with atropine (5 mg/kg), bicuculline (10 mg/kg), phenoxybenzamine (10 mg/kg), and methysergide (5 mg/kg) were found to reverse ASH antinociception. Based on the above findings, the ASH is suggested to contain different types of bioactive compounds that act synergistically on muscarinic, GABAA, alpha-adrenergic, and serotonergic receptor systems to produce the observed antinociception.
An experiment was conducted with the objective to enhance mucosal immunity against ovalbumin (OVA) by co-administration of OVA with an aqueous extract from the fruit of Solanum torvum (STE). Five groups of female ICR mice aged approximately 8 weeks at the commencement of the experiment were caged in groups of eight and received various treatments. The treatments included OVA alone, OVA with cholera toxin (CT), and OVA with various doses of STE. Mice were primed intraperitoneally with 500 microg of OVA alone or co-administered with 0.1 microg CT, or with 1 microg STE. All mice were boosted orally via gastric intubation 14 days after priming with 10 mg OVA alone, or co-administered with 10 microg CT or with 10 mg, 1 mg or 0.1 mg STE. One week later all mice were killed and organs obtained for analysis of the immune response. Intestinal, faecal and pulmonary OVA-specific sIgA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice that received booster combinations of OVA/CT and OVA with all extract doses (p<0.05). Specific serum IgG titres did not differ significantly between groups. It is concluded that STE can significantly enhance secretory immunity in the intestine to OVA with mucosal homing to the lungs. The adjuvant effect of STE is comparable to that of CT.
A sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS) method for the quantification of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BHMC) in rat plasma was developed and validated. BHMC and the internal standard, harmaline, were extracted from plasma samples by a simple liquid-liquid extraction using 95% ethyl acetate and 5% methanol. Plasma concentration of BHMC and internal standard were analyzed by reversed phase chromatography using a C₁₈ column (150 × 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 µm) and elution with a gradient mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection of BHMC and internal standard was done at a wavelength of 380 nm. The limit of quantification was 0.02 µg/mL. The calibration curves was linear (R² > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-2.5 µg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 2% coefficient of variation. The validated method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats by intravenous administration of BHMC at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life, maximum plasma concentration, volume of distribution, clearance and elimination rate constant for BHMC were calculated.
Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In vitro studies evaluated the inhibitory effects of 3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMPF-1), a synthetic chalcone analogue, upon inflammation in the A549 lung epithelial cell line. DMPF-1 selectively inhibited TNF-α-stimulated CC chemokine secretion (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) without any effect upon CXC chemokine (GRO-α and IL-8) secretion. Western blot analysis further demonstrated that the inhibitory activity resulted from disruption of p65NF-κB nuclear translocation without any effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged BALB/c mice with DMPF-1 (0.2-100 mg/kg) demonstrated significant reduction in the secretion and gene expression of CC chemokines (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). Furthermore, DMPF-1 treatment inhibited eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, peripheral blood total IgE, and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the potential of DMPF-1, a nonsteroidal compound, as an antiasthmatic agent for further pharmacological evaluation.
Itraconazole and fluconazole are oral antifungal drugs, which have a wide spectrum antifungal activity and better efficacy than the older drugs. However, both drugs have been associated with hepatotoxicity in susceptible patients. The mechanism of antifungal drug-induced hepatotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to investigate and compare the hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs in vivo. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with itraconazole or fluconazole either single (0, 10, 100 and 200 mg/kg) or subchronic (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day for 14 days) doses. Plasma and liver samples were taken at the end of the study. A statistically significant and dose dependent increase of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were detected in the subchronic itraconazole-treated group. In addition, dose-dependent hepatocellular necrosis, degeneration of periacinar and mizonal hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis and giant cell granuloma were observed histologically in the same group. Interestingly, fluconazole treated rats had no significant increase in transaminases for both single and subchronic groups. In the subchronic fluconazole treated rats, only mild degenerative changes of centrilobular hepatocytes were observed. These results demonstrated that itraconazole was a more potent hepatotoxicant than fluconazole in vivo in rats.
Channa (C.) striatus (Malay-Haruan), is a fresh water snakehead fish, consumed as a rejuvenating diet in post-parturition period in local Malay population. The aqueous extract of C. striatus fillet (AECSF) was reported to act through serotonergic receptor system in a previous study. There is no scientific report on neuropharmacological effects of C. striatus. Based on these data, the antidepressant-like effect of C. striatus was evaluated in mice models of depression.
The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.
Ficus deltoidea (Family Moraceae) leaves have been used traditionally by the Malays to treat ailments such as wounds, sores, and rheumatism. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaf (FDA) using acute and chronic inflammatory models. FDA, in the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally in rats (n = 6) before the animals were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, and formalin test. The first two tests represent acute and chronic models of inflammation, respectively. The first and second phases of the formalin test represent neurogenic pain and inflammatory-mediated pain, respectively; thus, only the second phase was measured in the present study. Results showed that FDA exerted significant (p < .05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, with dose-response effects seen in the paw edema and formalin tests. In conclusion, the leaf of F. deltoidea possesses anti-inflammatory activity against acute and chronic inflammatory responses and against pain-associated inflammatory response. These findings justify the traditional uses of F. deltoidea leaves for treatment of inflammatory-mediated ailments.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of inflammation. However, despite their effectiveness, most NSAIDs cause various side effects that negatively affect the management of inflammation and, in part, pain. Thus, there is a need to search for new anti-inflammatory agents with few, or no, side effects. Natural products of plant, animal, or microorganism origin have been good sources of new bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests, respectively. The effect of the essential oil on inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain was also assessed using the formalin test. Essential oil of Z. zerumbet, at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally to rats. The substance exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity both in acute and chronic animal models. The essential oil also inhibited inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain when assessed using the formalin test. In conclusion, the essential oil of Z. zerumbet possessed anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to its antinociceptive activity, which may explain its traditional uses to treat inflammatory-related ailments.
In a previous communication we showed that atrovirinone, a 1,4-benzoquinone isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis, was able to inhibit several major proinflammatory mediators of inflammation. In this report we show that atrovirinone inhibits NO and PGE(2) synthesis through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also show that atrovirinone inhibits the secretion of IL-1beta and IL-6 in a dose dependent fashion whereas the secretion of IL-10, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, was enhanced. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. We also showed that atrovirinone prevented phosphorylation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation as demonstrated by expression analysis. We conclude that atrovirinone is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets both the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathway.
Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), locally known to the Malays as "lengkuas ranting", is native to Peninsular Malaysia. The Malays traditionally used it to treat infection and rashes, and as a health drink. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic activity was elucidated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test, while the anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema. The extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) exhibited antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all tests used. The range of percentage of analgesia obtained for all doses of extract in the writhing test was 50-92%, and in the early and late phases of the formalin test was 25-62% and 63-98%, respectively. In addition, naloxone (5 mg/kg) given subcutaneously (s.c.) was found to reverse the extract (300 mg/kg)-induced antinociceptive activity in the writhing, hot plate, and formalin tests. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes possessed a peripheral and central antinociceptive activity that was mediated, in part, via the opioid receptor, as well as anti-inflammatory activity.
The ethanolic extract of Alpinia conchigera Griff. leaves (EACL) was evaluated for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in several in vivo experimental models. Antinociceptive activity was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, the hot plate test and the formalin test. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p.) was found to possess significant, dose-dependent inhibitory activity in all test models. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of the extract in the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests was reversed by naloxone, suggesting that this activity is mediated through activation of the opioid system. These findings suggest that EACL presents notable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, which support its folkloric use for painful and inflammatory conditions.
The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.
We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
Trigonopleura malayana L. (Euphorbiaceae) resin, locally known as Gambir Sarawak, has been used traditionally to alleviate pain associated with insect bites, muscle ache, toothache and minor injuries. The present study was carried out using various animal models to determine the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of the T. malayana resin aqueous extract. Antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests, while antiinflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract, obtained after 24 h of soaking the dried resin in distilled water, was prepared in doses of 0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg and administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to the assays. The mechanism of action was also determined by prechallenging with naloxone (10 mg/kg), a nonselective opioid antagonist. The extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities; naloxone failed to inhibit the former activity. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of T. malayana resin possesses nonopioid antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities, thus supporting previous claims regarding its traditional use by the Malays to treat various ailments, particularly those related to pain.
The present study was carried out to explore the antinociceptive as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (EESJ) using 3 models of nociception and 2 models of inflammation in experimental animals.