METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for the effects of dietary TT supplementation in postmenopausal women, postmenopausal women aged 45 years and older with at least 1 year after menopause and bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip 2.5 or more below the reference values will be randomly assigned to 3 daily supplements: (1) placebo group receiving 860 mg olive oil, (2) low TT group receiving 430 mg of 70% pure TTs (containing 300 mg TT) and (3) high TT group receiving 860 mg of 70% pure TTs (600 mg TT). The primary outcome measure will be urinary N-terminal telopeptide. The secondary outcome measures will be serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and quality of life. At 0, 6 and 12 weeks, the following will be assessed: (1) primary and secondary outcome measures; (2) serum TT and tocopherol concentrations; (3) physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Liver function will be monitored every 6 weeks for safety. 'Intent-to-treat' principle will be employed for data analysis. A model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms will be applied. Analysis of covariance, χ2 analysis and regression will be used for comparisons.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in the areas of bone or nutrition and international conferences.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02058420; results.
METHODS: The hESCs were differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs), and NSC-DECM was extracted from confluent monolayers of NSCs through treatment with deionized water. DFSCs seeded on NSC-DECM, Geltrex, and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) were subjected to neural induction during a period of 21 days. Expression of early/intermediate (Musashi1, PAX6, NSE, and βIII-tubulin) and mature/late (NGN2, NeuN, NFM, and MASH1) neural markers by DFSCs was analyzed at the 7-, 14-, and 21-day time points with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunocytochemistry for detection of βIII-tubulin, PAX6, and NGN2 expression by DFSCs on day 7 of neural induction was also carried out.
RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of PAX6, Musashi1, βIII-tubulin, NSE, NGN2, and NFM by DFSCs was enhanced on NSC-DECM versus either the Geltrex or TCPS groups. Immunocytochemistry showed that DFSCs in the NSC-DECM group displayed more intense staining for βIII-tubulin, PAX6, and NGN2 expression, together with more neurite outgrowths and elongated morphology, as compared with either Geltrex or TCPS.
CONCLUSIONS: DECM derived from neurogenesis of hESCs can enhance the neurogenic potential of DFSCs.