Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

  1. Dugina VB, Shagieva GS, Shakhov AS, Alieva IB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jul 22;22(15).
    PMID: 34360602 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22157836
    The primary function of the endothelial cells (EC) lining the inner surface of all vessels is to regulate permeability of vascular walls and to control exchange between circulating blood and tissue fluids of organs. The EC actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Actin cytoskeleton reorganization result in EC contraction and provides a structural basis for the increase in vascular permeability, which is typical for many diseases. Actin cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells presented two actin isoforms: non-muscle β-cytoplasmic and γ-cytoplasmic actins (β-actins and γ-actins), which are encoded by ACTB and ACTG1 genes, respectively. They are ubiquitously expressed in the different cells in vivo and in vitro and the β/γ-actin ratio depends on the cell type. Both cytoplasmic actins are essential for cell survival, but they perform various functions in the interphase and cell division and play different roles in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we briefly summarize the research results of recent years and consider the features of the cytoplasmic actins: The spatial organization in close connection with their functional activity in different cell types by focusing on endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/metabolism*
  2. Andriana BB, Kanai Y, Kimura J, Fukuta K, Hayashi Y, Kurohmaru M
    Anat Histol Embryol, 2005 Jun;34(3):171-5.
    PMID: 15929732
    Leydig and Sertoli cells of the immature lesser mouse deer testes, obtained in East Malaysia, were observed using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The testes were fixed in 5% glutaraldehyde, post-fixed in 1% OsO4, dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in Araldite M. Serial semi-thin sections were cut, stained with toluidine blue and observed using light microscopy. Serial ultra-thin sections were cut, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and examined using TEM. As a result, ultrastructurally, two types of underdeveloped filament bundles were infrequently recognized in Leydig cells, but not in other testicular cells. One type was the underdeveloped bundles of actin filaments (approximately 5 nm in diameter), which were found in the nucleus of Leydig cells. The other type was the underdeveloped bundles of intermediate filaments (approximately 10 nm in diameter), which were found in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. A multivesicular nuclear body (MNB)--specifically present in the Sertoli cell nucleus of ruminant testes--was infrequently observed. The MNB is situated in the vicinity of nuclear membrane, still in an underdeveloped stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/ultrastructure
  3. Hamad Ali Hamad, Cheah, Yoke Kqueen, Nur Fariesha MD Hashim
    High invasive cancer cells are thought to recruit specialised actin-rich protrusions for invasion in metastasis process. These protrusions are termed invadopodia. To study invadopodia formation, one of the first challenges faced by researchers has been to optimise the cell line passage number in order to be used for the invadopodia assay. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of the passage number on invadopodia formation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Invadopodia assay was used to achieve the aim of the study. The results provided evidence that invadopodia formation is affected by the high passage number. The cells were also tested with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) a hypoxic mimicking agent which is known to be an invadopodia inducer, the results showed that the cells in low passage number (P7) treated with DMOG increase the cells forming invadopodia, while the cells with high passage number (P35) showed that DMOG fails to stimulate the cells to form invadopodia. Furthermore, the cells with high passage number after passage 15 are starting to lose the ability to degrade the gelatin. In conclusion, this study suggests that only cells with a low passage number, less than passage 15 should be used in the study of invadopodia formation to obtain the results in the search for molecular targets and signaling at invadopodia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  4. Sadat Mohajer F, Parvizpour S, Razmara J, Shahir Shamsir M
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2019 Feb;37(2):372-382.
    PMID: 29338614 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2018.1427630
    Congenital myopathy is a broad category of muscular diseases with symptoms appearing at the time of birth. One type of congenital myopathy is Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion (CFTD), a severely debilitating disease. The G48D and G48C mutations in the D-loop and the actin-myosin interface are the two causes of CFTD. These mutations have been shown to significantly affect the structure and function of muscle fibers. To the author's knowledge, the effects of these mutations have not yet been studied. In this work, the power stroke structure of the head domain of myosin and the wild and mutated types of actin were modeled. Then, a MD simulation was run for the modeled structures to study the effects of these mutations on the structure, function, and molecular dynamics of actin. The wild and mutated actins docked with myosin showed differences in hydrogen bonding patterns, free binding energies, and hydrogen bond occupation frequencies. The G48D and G48C mutations significantly impacted the conformation of D-loops because of their larger size compared to Glycine and their ability to interfere with the polarity or hydrophobicity of this neutralized and hydrophobic loop. Therefore, the mutated loops were unable to fit properly into the hydrophobic groove of the adjacent G-actin. The abnormal structure of D-loops seems to result in the abnormal assembly of F-actins, giving rise to the symptoms of CFTD. It was also noted that G48C and G48D did not form hydrogen bonds with myosin in the residue 48 location. Nevertheless, in this case, muscles are unable to contract properly due to muscle atrophy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/genetics*; Actins/chemistry*
  5. Dasiman R, Rahman NS, Othman S, Mustafa MF, Yusoff NJ, Jusoff WH, et al.
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res, 2013;19:258-66.
    PMID: 24092420 DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.884019
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitrification and slow freezing on actin, tubulin, and nuclei of in vivo preimplantation murine embryos at various developmental stages using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/metabolism
  6. Soon CF, Youseffi M, Berends RF, Blagden N, Denyer MC
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2013 Jan 15;39(1):14-20.
    PMID: 22809522 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.032
    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/analysis
  7. Vadivelu J, Vellasamy KM, Thimma J, Mariappan V, Kang WT, Choh LC, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 01;11(1):e0005241.
    PMID: 28045926 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005241
    BACKGROUND: During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure.

    METHODS: We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    RESULTS: TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei.

    CONCLUSION: B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/metabolism
  8. Hamirah NK, Kamsani YS, Mohamed Nor Khan NA, Ab Rahim S, Rajikin MH
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res, 2017 Dec 08;23:373-379.
    PMID: 29217815
    BACKGROUND Cytoskeletal structures, in particular actin and tubulin, provide a fundamental framework in all cells, including embryos. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, which is a source of oxidative stress, and subsequent supplementation with Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on actin and tubulin of 2- and 8-cell murine embryos. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty female Balb/C mice were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 received: subcutaneous (sc) injection of 0.9% NaCl; Group 2 received sc injection of 3.0 nicotine mg/kg bw/day; Group 3 received 3.0 sc injection of nicotine mg/kg bw/day +60 mg/kg bw/day TRF; and Group 4 received 60 sc injection of TRF mg/kg bw/day for 7 consecutive days. The animals were superovulated with 5 IU PMSG followed by 5 IU hCG 48 h later. Animals were cohabited with fertile males overnight and euthanized through cervical dislocation at 24 h post coitum. Embryos at the 2- and 8-cell stages were harvested, fixed, and stained to visualize actin and tubulin distributions by using CLSM. RESULTS Results showed that at 2-cell stage, actin intensities were significantly reduced in the nicotine group compared to that of the control group (p<0.001). In Group 3, the intensity of actin significantly increased compared to that of the nicotine group (p<0.001). At 8-cell stage, actin intensity of the nicotine group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.001). The intensities of actin in Group 3 were increased compared to that of nicotine treatment alone (p<0.001). The same trend was seen in tubulin at 2- and 8-cell stages. Interestingly, both actin and tubulin structures in the TRF-treated groups were enhanced compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that TRF prevents the deleterious effects of nicotine on the cytoskeletal structures of 2- and 8-cell stages of pre-implantation mice embryos in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/drug effects
  9. Polat OK, Uno M, Maruyama T, Tran HN, Imamura K, Wong CF, et al.
    J Am Soc Nephrol, 2019 09;30(9):1587-1603.
    PMID: 31266820 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2018070756
    BACKGROUND: TRPC6 is a nonselective cation channel, and mutations of this gene are associated with FSGS. These mutations are associated with TRPC6 current amplitude amplification and/or delay of the channel inactivation (gain-of-function phenotype). However, the mechanism of the gain-of-function in TRPC6 activity has not yet been clearly solved.

    METHODS: We performed electrophysiologic, biochemical, and biophysical experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of TRPC6. To address the pathophysiologic contribution of CDI, we assessed the actin filament organization in cultured mouse podocytes.

    RESULTS: Both lobes of CaM helped induce CDI. Moreover, CaM binding to the TRPC6 CaM-binding domain (CBD) was Ca2+-dependent and exhibited a 1:2 (CaM/CBD) stoichiometry. The TRPC6 coiled-coil assembly, which brought two CBDs into adequate proximity, was essential for CDI. Deletion of the coiled-coil slowed CDI of TRPC6, indicating that the coiled-coil assembly configures both lobes of CaM binding on two CBDs to induce normal CDI. The FSGS-associated TRPC6 mutations within the coiled-coil severely delayed CDI and often increased TRPC6 current amplitudes. In cultured mouse podocytes, FSGS-associated channels and CaM mutations led to sustained Ca2+ elevations and a disorganized cytoskeleton.

    CONCLUSIONS: The gain-of-function mechanism found in FSGS-causing mutations in TRPC6 can be explained by impairments of the CDI, caused by disruptions of TRPC's coiled-coil assembly which is essential for CaM binding. The resulting excess Ca2+ may contribute to structural damage in the podocytes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/ultrastructure
  10. Sha'ban M, Yoon SJ, Ko YK, Ha HJ, Kim SH, So JW, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2008;19(9):1219-37.
    PMID: 18727862 DOI: 10.1163/156856208785540163
    Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/genetics; Actins/metabolism
  11. Choo KK, Chong PP, Ho AS, Yong PV
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2015 Dec;34(12):2421-7.
    PMID: 26463450 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2497-4
    The purpose of this investigation was to characterise the interactions of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian host alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, with emphasis on the roles of the cryptococcal capsule and the host cell cytoskeletons. The adherence and internalisation of C. neoformans into mammalian lung cells and the roles of host cell cytoskeletons in host-pathogen interactions were studied using in vitro models coupled with a differential fluorescence assay, fluorescence staining, immunofluorescence and drug inhibition of actin and microtubule polymerisation. Under conditions devoid of opsonin and macrophage activation, C. neoformans has a high affinity towards MH-S alveolar macrophages, yet associated poorly to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Acapsular C. neoformans adhered to and internalised into the mammalian cells more effectively compared to encapsulated cryptococci. Acapsular C. neoformans induced prominent actin reorganisation at the host-pathogen interface in MH-S alveolar macrophages, but minimally affected actin reorganisation in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Acapsular C. neoformans also induced localisation of microtubules to internalised cryptococci in MH-S cells. Drug inhibition of actin and microtubule polymerisation both reduced the association of acapsular C. neoformans to alveolar macrophages. The current study visualises and confirms the interactions of C. neoformans with mammalian alveolar cells during the establishment of infection in the lungs. The acapsular form of C. neoformans effectively adhered to and internalised into alveolar macrophages by inducing localised actin reorganisation, relying on the host's actin and microtubule activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  12. Siar CH, Rahman ZA, Tsujigiwa H, Mohamed Om Alblazi K, Nagatsuka H, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Sep;45(8):591-8.
    PMID: 26752341 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12417
    BACKGROUND: Cell migration and invasion through interstitial tissues are dependent upon several specialized characteristics of the migratory cell notably generation of proteolytic membranous protrusions or invadopodia. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behaviour. Cortactin and MMT1-MMP are two invadopodia proteins implicated in its local invasiveness. Other invadopodia regulators, namely N-WASP, WIP and Src kinase remain unclarified. This study addresses their roles in ameloblastoma.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eighty-seven paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases (20 unicystic, 47 solid/multicystic, 3 desmoplastic and 17 recurrent) were subjected to immunohistochemistry for expression of cortactin, N-WASP, WIP, Src kinase and F-actin, and findings correlated with clinicopathological parameters.

    RESULTS: Invadopodia proteins (except Src kinase) and F-actin were widely detected in ameloblastoma (cortactin: n = 73/87, 83.9%; N-WASP: n = 59/87; 67.8%; WIP: n = 77/87; 88.5%; and F-actin: n = 87/87, 100%). Protein localization was mainly cytoplasmic and/or membranous, and occasionally nuclear for F-actin. Cortactin, which functions as an actin-scaffolding protein, demonstrated significantly higher expression levels within ameloblastoma tumoral epithelium than in stroma (P < 0.05). N-WASP, which coordinates actin polymerization and invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix degradation, was overexpressed in the solid/multicystic subtype (P < 0.05). WIP, an upstream regulator of N-WASP, and F-actin were significantly upregulated along the tumour invasive front compared to tumour centres (P < 0.05). Except for males with cortactin overexpression, other clinical parameters (age, ethnicity and anatomical site) showed no significant correlations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Present results suggest that local invasiveness of ameloblastoma is dependent upon the migratory potential of its tumour cells as defined by their distribution of cortactin, N-WASP and WIP in correlation with F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Actins/analysis; Actins/biosynthesis; Actins/physiology
  13. Ajura Abdul Jalil, Lukman Md Auzair, Hin, Lau Shin
    Congenital epulis is a fairly rare soft tissue tumour occurring exclusively on the alveolar ridge of newborns. The exact origin of congenital epulis is still debatable. The objective of the study is to determine the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical findings of congenital epulis. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the clinicopathological features of congenital epulis, diagnosed histologically in the main oral histopathology laboratory in Malaysia from 1967 to 2014. Immunostaining using vimentin, muscle specific actin, smooth muscle antigen, desmin, S100, CD34, CD68 and CD1a was carried out. Twelve cases of congenital epulis were reviewed. All of the patients were females and the presentation age ranged from 2 to 90 days. The patients comprised of 6 Malays, 3 Chinese, 2 Indians and 1 Orang Asli. Most of the cases (n=7) involved the maxillary ridge and presented as pedunculated well-defined lumps (n=8). Excisional biopsy was performed in all cases. Via immunohistochemistry, vimentin expression was observed in all cases; but negative for CD34, muscle specific actin, smooth muscle antigen, and desmin. CD1a and S100 positivity was seen in five cases. The interstitial cells were highlighted by CD68. Although congenital epulis has been first described 130 years ago, the exact nature of its histogenesis remains a mystery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  14. Noor Liza Ishak, Primuharsa Putra Sabir Athar Husin, Suria Hayati Md Pauzi, Isa Mohd Rose, Mohd Razif Mohamad Yunus
    Solitary fibrous tumours of the head and neck region are
    extremely rare. The clinical diagnosis is often difficult to
    establish, and this lesion may be indistinguishable from other
    soft tissue neoplasms. An 18-year old Chinese gentleman
    presented with a painless right submandibular swelling which
    was increasing in size for eight months. A computed
    tomography scan showed a well-defined solid mass measuring
    about 2.0 x 2.96 cm in the submandibular region. The tumour
    was resected and was confined within its capsule.
    Immunohistochemical staining was strongly positive for CD34,
    CD 99, and vimentin and negative for desmin, smooth muscle
    actin (SMA), cytokeratin, S100 and CD68. The microscopic and
    immunohistochemical profile were compatible with solitary
    fibrous tumour. Distinguishing solitary fibrous tumours from
    various spindle neoplasms can be difficult. In view of the
    resemblance, immunohistochemical staining can help
    differentiate solitary fibrous tumour from spindle neoplasm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  15. Liew JWK, Fong MY, Lau YL
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3577.
    PMID: 28761783 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3577
    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been an integral part of characterizing the immunity of Anopheles mosquitoes towards Plasmodium invasion. Two anti-Plasmodium factors of Anopheles, thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), play a role in the refractoriness of Anopheles towards Plasmodium infection and are generally expressed during infection. However, these are less studied in Anopheles dirus, a dominant malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, most studies used a single reference gene for normalization during gene expression analysis without proper validation. This may lead to erroneous quantification of expression levels. Therefore, the present study characterized and investigated the expression profiles of TEP1 and NOS of Anopheles dirus during P. berghei infection. Prior to that, the elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1), actin 1 (Act) and ribosomal protein S7 (S7) genes were validated for their suitability as a set of reference genes. TEP1 and NOS expressions in An. dirus were found to be significantly induced after P. berghei infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  16. Sarah, S.A., Amin, I., Mokhtar, N.F.K., Sazili, A.Q., Karsani S.A.
    Different heat treatments, (1) chilled, 4°C (2) boiled at 100°C for 30 min and (3) autoclaved at 121°C at 15 psi for 20 min were employed on goat meat to mimic domestic and industrial cooking. The effects on intensity of actin proteins was observed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis where significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the spot intensity between chilled and boiled samples, similarly in chilled and autoclaved samples. However, no significant difference was observed between boiled and autoclaved samples. The slight changes observed in the cooking of meat confirmed that actin protein is susceptible to denaturation cause by heat. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis revealed the peptide-mass fingerprint between positions 21 – 374 that not affected by heat treatment. Peptides from this position merit the candidature of actin as putative thermostable marker for detecting goat meat (chevon) in food product.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  17. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020 Sep;23(9):1155-1163.
    PMID: 32963737 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.45296.10545
    Objectives: Since bisphenol A (BPA) induces bone loss and phytoestrogens enhance the osteoblastogenesis by binding to the non-classical and classical oestrogen receptors, respectively, the present study was aimed to observe the osteoprotective effect of phytoestrogens on BPA-induced osteoblasts in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    Materials and Methods: All groups of hFOB 1.19 cells were induced with 12.5 μg/ml of BPA except the control (Ctrl) group. Meanwhile, treated groups received phytoestrogens; Daidzein (Dz), Genistein (Gt), Equol (Eq) and 17β-oestradiol (Est) in different concentrations for 24 hr duration.

    Results: We found that the protein expression of non-classical oestrogen-related receptor (ERRG) was highly expressed in BPA group, whereas classical oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were relatively increased with phytoestrogens treatment under BPA exposure. The dense actin cytoskeletal filaments were also observed. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) expressions; significant down-regulation of ERRG and up-regulation of ERα and ERβ were observed in phytoestrogens-treated cells, which was supported by the increased expressions of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2).

    Conclusion: Phytoestrogens improved the deteriorative effect of BPA via down-regulation of ERRG in hFOB 1.19 cells. This study showed that the efficacy of consumption of phytoestrogens in rendering them as potential therapeutic strategy in combating the adverse bone effects of BPA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  18. Ismail SI, Rahim NA, Zulperi D
    Plant Dis, 2020 Dec 21.
    PMID: 33349005 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1371-PDN
    Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is widely cultivated in Malaysia and commonly used for culinary purposes. In March 2019, necrotic lesions were observed on the inflorescences of Thai basil plants with a disease incidence of 60% in Organic Edible Garden Unit, Faculty of Agriculture in the Serdang district (2°59'05.5"N 101°43'59.5"E) of Selangor province, Malaysia. Symptoms appeared as sudden, extensive brown spotting on the inflorescences of Thai basil that coalesced and rapidly expanded to cover the entire inflorescences. Diseased tissues (4×4 mm) were cut from the infected lesions, surface disinfected with 0.5% NaOCl for 1 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates and incubated at 25°C under 12-h photoperiod for 5 days. A total of 8 single-spore isolates were obtained from all sampled inflorescence tissues. The fungal colonies appeared white, turned grayish black with age and pale yellow on the reverse side. Conidia were one-celled, hyaline, subcylindrical with rounded end and 3 to 4 μm (width) and 13 to 15 μm (length) in size. For fungal identification to species level, genomic DNA of representative isolate (isolate C) was extracted using DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, USA). Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, calmodulin (CAL), actin (ACT), and chitin synthase-1 (CHS-1) were amplified using ITS5/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), CL1C/CL2C (Weir et al. 2012), ACT-512F/783R, and CHS-79F/CHS-345R primer sets (Carbone and Kohn 1999), respectively. A BLAST nucleotide search of ITS, CHS-1, CAL and ACT sequences showed 100% similarity to Colletotrichum siamense ex-type cultures strain C1315.2 (GenBank accession nos. ITS: JX010171 and CHS-1: JX009865) and isolate BPDI2 (CAL: FJ917505, ACT: FJ907423). The ITS, CHS-1, CAL and ACT sequences were deposited in GenBank as accession numbers MT571330, MW192791, MW192792 and MW140016. Pathogenicity was confirmed by spraying a spore suspension (1×106 spores/ml) of 7-day-old culture of isolate C onto 10 healthy inflorescences on five healthy Thai basil plants. Ten infloresences from an additional five control plants were only sprayed with sterile distilled water and the inoculated plants were covered with plastic bags for 2 days and maintained in a greenhouse at 28 ± 1°C, 98% relative humidity with a photoperiod of 12-h. Blossom blight symptoms resembling those observed in the field developed after 7 days on all inoculated inflorescences, while inflorescences on control plants remained asymptomatic. The experiment was repeated twice. C. siamense was successfully re-isolated from the infected inflorescences fulfilling Koch's postulates. C. siamense has been reported causing blossom blight of Uraria in India (Srivastava et al. 2017), anthracnose on dragon fruit in India and fruits of Acca sellowiana in Brazil (Abirami et al. 2019; Fantinel et al. 2017). This pathogen can cause a serious threat to cultivation of Thai basil and there is currently no effective disease management strategy to control this disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blossom blight caused by C. siamense on Thai basil in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  19. Busra FM, Lokanathan Y, Nadzir MM, Saim A, Idrus RBH, Chowdhury SR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):33-43.
    PMID: 28894402 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.5
    INTRODUCTION: Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds.

    METHODS: This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions.

    RESULTS: The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions.

    CONCLUSION: OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
  20. Mahmodi F, Kadir JB, Wong MY, Nasehi A, Puteh A, Soleimani N
    Plant Dis, 2013 Jun;97(6):841.
    PMID: 30722625 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0944-PDN
    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most economically important crops in the world, and anthracnose is known to infect soybean in most countries. Colletotrichum truncatum is the common pathogen causing anthracnose of soybean. However, at least five species of Colletotrichum have been reported on soybean worldwide (2). In July 2010, anthracnose symptoms were observed on soybean in the experimental fields of the agriculture station in Ladang Dua, University Putra Malaysia located in Selangor state of Malaysia. Symptoms were initially observed on a few plants randomly within one field, but after 4 weeks, the disease was found in two additional fields scattered across an area of 1 km2. Pinkish-brown lesions were observed on the pods, and the formation of dark lesions on the leaves and stems was sometimes followed by stem girdling, dieback, and distorted growth. At later stages, numerous epidermal acervuli developed in the lesions, and mucilaginous conidial masses appeared during periods of high relative humidity. Conidia produced in acervuli were straight, cylindric, hyaline, and aseptate, with both ends rounded. Conidia measured (mean ± SD) 14.2 ± 0.6 × 3.6 ± 0.7 μm, and the L/W ratio was 3.95 μm. Six isolates of the fungus were obtained and identified as C. gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characterization (3). The isolates were deposited in the University Putra of Malaysia Culture Collection (UPMCC). PDA cultures were white at first and subsequently became grayish to pink to reddish-brown. Amplification and sequence analysis of coding and none-coding regions of the ITS-rDNA (GenBank JX669450), actin (JX827430), β-tubulin (JX827454), histone (JX827448), chitin synthase (JX827436), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (JX827442) obtained from the representative isolate, CGM50, aligned with deposited sequences from GenBank and revealed 99 to 100% sequence identity with C. gloeosporioides strains (JX258757, JX009790, GQ849434, HM575301, JQ005413, and JX00948 from GenBank). One representative isolate, CGM50, was used for pathogenicity testing. Four non-infected detached leaves and pods of 24-day-old G. max var. Palmetto were surface-sterilized and inoculated by placing 10 μl of a conidial suspension (106 conidia ml-1) using either the wound/drop or non-wound/drop method (4), with 10 μl distilled water as a negative control. Leaves and pods were incubated at 25°C, 98% RH. The experiment was repeated twice. Five days after inoculation, the development of typical field symptoms, including acervuli formation, occurred on the leaves and pods of inoculated plants, but not on the negative controls. A fungus with the same colony and conidial morphology as CGM50 was recovered from the lesions on the inoculated leaves and pods. Anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides on soybean plants has been reported previously in different countries, but not in Malaysia (3). Geographically, the climate of Malaysia is highly conducive to maintain and cause outbreaks of anthracnose all year round; thus, the development of management recommendations will be inevitable for anthracnose control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose on soybean in Malaysia. References: (1) U. Damm et al. Fungal Diversity 39:45, 2009. (2) S. L. Chen et al. J. Phytopathol. 154:654, 2006. (3) B. C. Sutton. The Genus Glomerella and its Anamorph Colletotrichum. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (4) P. P. Than et al. Plant Pathol. 57:562, 2008. ERRATUM: A correction was made to this Disease Note on May 19, 2014. The author N. Soleimani was added.
    Matched MeSH terms: Actins
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