Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

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  1. Zaman WS, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua KH
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2014 Jan;8(1):67-76.
    PMID: 22552847 DOI: 10.1002/term.1501
    In the field of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine, clinical application is the ultimate goal. However, one major concern is: does in vitro manipulation during culture expansion increases tumourigenicity risk on the prepared cells? Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term in vitro expansion on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). The ASCs were harvested from lipo-aspirate samples and cultured until passage 20 (P20), using standard culture procedures. ASCs at P5, P10, P15 and P20 were analysed for morphological changes, DNA damage (Comet assay), tumour suppressor gene expression level (quantitative PCR), p53 mutation, telomerase activity, telomere length determination and in vivo tumourigenicity test. Our data showed that ASCs lost their fibroblastic feature in long-term culture. The population doubling time of ASCs increased with long-term culture especially at P15 and P20. There was an increase in DNA damage at later passages (P15 and P20). No significant changes were observed in both p53 and p21 genes expression throughout the long-term culture. There was also no p53 mutation detected and no significant changes were recorded in the relative telomerase activity (RTA) and mean telomere length (TRF) in ASCs at all passages. In vivo implantation of ASCs at P15 and P20 into the nude mice did not result in tumour formation after 4 months. The data showed that ASCs have low risk of tumourigenicity up to P20, with a total population doubling of 42 times. This indicates that adipose tissue should be a safe source of stem cells for cell-based therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  2. Choi JR, Yong KW, Wan Safwani WKZ
    Cell Mol Life Sci, 2017 07;74(14):2587-2600.
    PMID: 28224204 DOI: 10.1007/s00018-017-2484-2
    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) are an ideal cell source for regenerative medicine due to their capabilities of multipotency and the readily accessibility of adipose tissue. They have been found residing in a relatively low oxygen tension microenvironment in the body, but the physiological condition has been overlooked in most studies. In light of the escalating need for culturing hASCs under their physiological condition, this review summarizes the most recent advances in the hypoxia effect on hASCs. We first highlight the advantages of using hASCs in regenerative medicine and discuss the influence of hypoxia on the phenotype and functionality of hASCs in terms of viability, stemness, proliferation, differentiation, soluble factor secretion, and biosafety. We provide a glimpse of the possible cellular mechanism that involved under hypoxia and discuss the potential clinical applications. We then highlight the existing challenges and discuss the future perspective on the use of hypoxic-treated hASCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  3. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Musa S, Kasim NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(4):391-403.
    PMID: 24669199 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7697
    Human adipose stem cells (ASCs) has been in the limelight since its discovery as a suitable source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine. Currently, two major techniques are used to isolate ASCs, namely liposuction and tissue biopsy. These two methods are relatively risk-free but the question as to which method could give a more efficient output remains unclear. Thus, this study was carried out to compare and contrast the output generated in regards to growth kinetics, differentiation capabilities in vitro, and gene expression profiling. It was found that ASCs from both isolation methods were comparable in terms of growth kinetics and tri-lineage differentiation. Furthermore, ASCs from both populations were reported as CD44(+), CD73(+), CD90(+), CD166(+), CD34(-), CD45(-) and HLA-DR(-). However, in regards to gene expression, a group of overlapping genes as well as distinct genes were observed. Distinct gene expressions indicated that ASCs (liposuction) has endoderm lineage propensity whereas ASCs (biopsy) has a tendency towards mesoderm/ectoderm lineage. This information suggests involvement in different functional activity in accordance to isolation method. In conclusion, future studies to better understand these gene functions should be carried out in order to contribute in the applicability of each respective cells in regenerative therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  4. Chua KH, Zaman Wan Safwani WK, Hamid AA, Shuhup SK, Mohd Haflah NH, Mohd Yahaya NH
    Cytotherapy, 2014 May;16(5):599-611.
    PMID: 24290076 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.08.013
    The use of retropatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (RFMSCs) for cell-based therapy, particularly for cartilage repair, has been reported by several investigators in recent years. However, the effects of the donor's age and medical condition on the characteristics of RFMSCs have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether age and medical condition can reduce the multipotential of stem cells isolated from the retropatellar fat pad.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  5. Hamid AA, Ruszymah BH, Aminuddin BS, Sathappan S, Chua KH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:9-10.
    PMID: 19024959
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSC) have demonstrated the capacity of differentiating into bone depending on the specific induction stimuli and growth factors. However, investigation on stem cell characteristic after osteogenic differentiation is still lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate the differential expression of sternness and osteogenic genes in non-induced HADSC compared with HADSC after osteogenic induction using quantitative Real Time RT-PCR. Our results showed that OCT-4, REX-1, FZD9, OSC, RUNX, and ALP were up regulated after osteogenic induction. This may indicated that HADSCs after osteogenic induction still possessed some stemness properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  6. Yong KW, Wan Safwani WK, Xu F, Wan Abas WA, Choi JR, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Biopreserv Biobank, 2015 Aug;13(4):231-9.
    PMID: 26280501 DOI: 10.1089/bio.2014.0104
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold many advantages over embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and other somatic cells in clinical applications. MSCs are multipotent cells with strong immunosuppressive properties. They can be harvested from various locations in the human body (e.g., bone marrow and adipose tissues). Cryopreservation represents an efficient method for the preservation and pooling of MSCs, to obtain the cell counts required for clinical applications, such as cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. Upon cryopreservation, it is important to preserve MSCs functional properties including immunomodulatory properties and multilineage differentiation ability. Further, a biosafety evaluation of cryopreserved MSCs is essential prior to their clinical applications. However, the existing cryopreservation methods for MSCs are associated with notable limitations, leading to a need for new or improved methods to be established for a more efficient application of cryopreserved MSCs in stem cell-based therapies. We review the important parameters for cryopreservation of MSCs and the existing cryopreservation methods for MSCs. Further, we also discuss the challenges to be addressed in order to preserve MSCs effectively for clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  7. Higuchi A, Wang CT, Ling QD, Lee HH, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:10217.
    PMID: 25970301 DOI: 10.1038/srep10217
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, indicating various genotypes and differentiation abilities. The isolated hADSCs can possess different purity levels and divergent properties depending on the purification methods used. We developed a hybrid-membrane migration method that purifies hADSCs from a fat tissue solution with extremely high purity and pluripotency. A primary fat-tissue solution was permeated through the porous membranes with a pore size from 8 to 25 μm, and the membranes were incubated in cell culture medium for 15-18 days. The hADSCs that migrated from the membranes contained an extremely high percentage (e.g., >98%) of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers and showed almost one order of magnitude higher expression of some pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Nanog) compared with cells isolated using the conventional culture method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  8. Lin HR, Heish CW, Liu CH, Muduli S, Li HF, Higuchi A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 10;7:40069.
    PMID: 28071738 DOI: 10.1038/srep40069
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are easily isolated from fat tissue without ethical concerns, but differ in purity, pluripotency, differentiation ability, and stem cell marker expression, depending on the isolation method. We isolated hADSCs from a primary fat tissue solution using: (1) conventional culture, (2) a membrane filtration method, (3) a membrane migration method where the primary cell solution was permeated through membranes, adhered hADSCs were cultured, and hADSCs migrated out from the membranes. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers and pluripotency genes, and osteogenic differentiation were compared for hADSCs isolated by different methods using nylon mesh filter membranes with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 80 μm. hADSCs isolated by the membrane migration method had the highest MSC surface marker expression and efficient differentiation into osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation ability of hADSCs and MSC surface marker expression were correlated, but osteogenic differentiation ability and pluripotent gene expression were not.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  9. Goh BS, Che Omar SN, Ubaidah MA, Saim L, Sulaiman S, Chua KH
    Acta Otolaryngol, 2017 Apr;137(4):432-441.
    PMID: 27900891 DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1257151
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue.

    OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation.

    METHODS: Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days.

    RESULTS: According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen. The results showed HADSCs test groups (cultured with TGF-β3) displayed chondrocytes-like cells morphology with typical lacunae structure compared to the control group without TGF-β3 after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HADSCs test groups increased in cell viability; an increase in expression of chondrocytes-specific genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, SOX 9 and elastin) compared to the control. This study found that human auricular chondrocytes cells and growth factor had a positive influence in inducing HADSCs chondrogenic effects, in terms of chondrogenic differentiate of feature, increase of cell viability, and up-regulated expression of chondrogenic genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  10. Wan Safwani WKZ, Choi JR, Yong KW, Ting I, Mat Adenan NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Cryobiology, 2017 04;75:91-99.
    PMID: 28108309 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2017.01.006
    Cryopreservation is the only existing method of storage of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for clinical use. However, cryopreservation has been shown to be detrimental to ASCs, particularly in term of cell viability. To restore the viability of cryopreserved ASCs, it is proposed to culture the cells in a hypoxic condition. To this end, we aim to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the cryopreserved human ASCs in terms of not only cell viability, but also their growth and stemness properties, which have not been explored yet. In this study, human ASCs were cultured under four different conditions: fresh (non-cryopreserved) cells cultured in 1) normoxia (21% O2) and 2) hypoxia (2% O2) and cryopreserved cells cultured in 3) normoxia and 4) hypoxia. ASCs at passage 3 were subjected to assessment of viability, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of stemness markers and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). We found that hypoxia enhances the viability and the proliferation rate of cryopreserved ASCs. Further, hypoxia upregulates HIF-1α in cryopreserved ASCs, which in turn activates chondrogenic genes to promote chondrogenic differentiation. In conclusion, hypoxic-preconditioned cryopreserved ASCs could be an ideal cell source for cartilage repair and regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  11. Wilson N, Steadman R, Muller I, Draman M, Rees DA, Taylor P, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 May 31;20(11).
    PMID: 31151314 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112675
    Hyaluronan (HA), an extra-cellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, may play a role in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to fat but results using murine models and cell lines are conflicting. Our previous data, illustrating decreased HA production during human adipogenesis, suggested an inhibitory role. We have investigated the role of HA in adipogenesis and fat accumulation using human primary subcutaneous preadipocyte/fibroblasts (PFs, n = 12) and subjects of varying body mass index (BMI). The impact of HA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression was analysed following siRNA knockdown or HA synthase (HAS)1 and HAS2 overexpression. PFs were cultured in complete or adipogenic medium (ADM) with/without 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU = HA synthesis inhibitor). Adipogenesis was evaluated using oil red O (ORO), counting adipogenic foci, and measurement of a terminal differentiation marker. Modulating HA production by HAS2 knockdown or overexpression increased (16%, p < 0.04) or decreased (30%, p = 0.01) PPARγ transcripts respectively. The inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly enhanced ADM-induced adipogenesis with 1.52 ± 0.18- (ORO), 4.09 ± 0.63- (foci) and 2.6 ± 0.21-(marker)-fold increases compared with the controls, also increased PPARγ protein expression (40%, (p < 0.04)). In human subjects, circulating HA correlated negatively with BMI and triglycerides (r = -0.396 (p = 0.002), r = -0.269 (p = 0.038), respectively), confirming an inhibitory role of HA in human adipogenesis. Thus, enhancing HA action may provide a therapeutic target in obesity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  12. Zakaria N, Yahaya BH
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:83-95.
    PMID: 31916234 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2019_464
    INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in cancer therapy as vehicles to deliver therapeutic materials such as drugs, apoptosis inducers and cytokines due to their ability to migrate and home at the tumour site. Furthermore, MSCs have been genetically engineered to produce anticancer molecules such as TRAIL that can induce apoptosis of cancer cells. However, MSCs' presence in the tumour microenvironment has shown to be involved in promoting tumour growth and progression. Therefore, the roles of MSCs either promoting or suppressing tumorigenesis need to be investigated.

    METHODS: Human adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and A549 cells are co-cultured together in indirect co-culture system using Transwell insert. Following co-culture, both cells were analysed in terms of growth rate, migration ability, apoptosis and gene expression for genes involved in migration and stemness characteristics.

    RESULTS: The result shows that Ad-MSCs promoted the growth of A549 cells when indirectly co-cultured for 48 and 72 h. Furthermore, Ad-MSCs significantly enhanced the migration rate of A549 cells. The increased in migration rate was in parallel with the significant increase of MMP9. There are no significant changes observed in the expression of TWIST2, CDH2 and CDH1, genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Ad-MSCs also protect A549 cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis and increase the survival of cancer cells.

    CONCLUSION: Secretion of soluble factors from Ad-MSCs has been shown to promote the growth and metastatic characteristics of A549 cancer cells. Therefore, the use of Ad-MSCs in cancer therapy needs to be carefully evaluated in the long-term aspect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  13. Abdul Halim NS, Fakiruddin KS, Ali SA, Yahaya BH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(9):15044-60.
    PMID: 25162825 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150915044
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold tremendous potential for therapeutic use in stem cell-based gene therapy. Ex vivo genetic modification of MSCs with beneficial genes of interest is a prerequisite for successful use of stem cell-based therapeutic applications. However, genetic manipulation of MSCs is challenging because they are resistant to commonly used methods to introduce exogenous DNA or RNA. Herein we compared the effectiveness of several techniques (classic calcium phosphate precipitation, cationic polymer, and standard electroporation) with that of microporation technology to introduce the plasmid encoding for angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT-1) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into human adipose-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs). The microporation technique had a higher transfection efficiency, with up to 50% of the viable hAD-MSCs being transfected, compared to the other transfection techniques, for which less than 1% of cells were positive for eGFP expression following transfection. The capability of cells to proliferate and differentiate into three major lineages (chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteocytes) was found to be independent of the technique used for transfection. These results show that the microporation technique is superior to the others in terms of its ability to transfect hAD-MSCs without affecting their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Therefore, this study provides a foundation for the selection of techniques when using ex vivo gene manipulation for cell-based gene therapy with MSCs as the vehicle for gene delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  14. Safwani WK, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua KH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2012 Apr;166(8):2101-13.
    PMID: 22391697 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-9637-4
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have generated a great deal of excitement in regenerative medicine. However, their safety and efficacy issue remain a major concern especially after long-term in vitro expansion. The aim of this study was to investigate the fundamental changes of ASCs in long-term culture by studying the morphological feature, growth kinetic, surface marker expressions, expression level of the senescence-associated genes, cell cycle distribution and ß-galactosidase activity. Human ASCs were harvested from lipoaspirate obtained from 6 patients. All the parameters mentioned above were measured at P5, P10, P15 and P20. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test to determine significance difference (P < 0.05). The data showed that growth of ASCs reduced in long-term culture and the ß-galactosidase activity was significantly increased at later passage (P20). The morphology of ASCs in long-term culture showed the manifestation of senescent feature at P15 and P20. Significant alteration in the senescence-associated genes expression levels was observed in MMP1, p21, Rb and Cyclin D1 at P15 and P20. Significant increase in CD45 and HLA DR DQ DP surface marker was observed at P20. While cell cycle analysis showed significant decrease in percentage of ASCs at S and G2/M phase at later passage (P15). Our data showed ASCs cultured beyond P10 favours the senescence pathway and its clinical usage in cell-based therapy may be limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  15. Ude CC, Shamsul BS, Ng MH, Chen HC, Norhamdan MY, Aminuddin BS, et al.
    Tissue Cell, 2012 Jun;44(3):156-63.
    PMID: 22402173 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2012.02.001
    Tracking of transplanted cells has become an important procedure in cell therapy. We studied the in vitro dye retention, survival and in vivo tracking of stem cells with PKH26 dye. Sheep BMSCs and ADSCs were labeled with 2, 4 and 8 μmol of PKH26 and monitored for six passages. Labeled BMSCs and ADSCs acquired mean cumulative population doubling of 12.7±0.4 and 14.6±0.5; unlabeled samples had 13.8±0.5 and 15.4±0.6 respectively. Upon staining with 2, 4 and 8 μmol PKH26, BMSCs had retentions of 40.0±5.8, 60.0±2.9 and 95.0±2.9%, while ADSCs had 92.0±1.2, 95.0±1.2 and 98.0±1.2%. ADSCs retentions were significantly higher at 2 and 4 μmol. On dye retention comparison at 8 μmol and 4 μmol for BMSCs and ADSCs; ADSCs were significantly higher at passages 2 and 3. The viability of BMSCs reduced from 94.0±1.2% to 90.0±0.6% and ADSCs from 94.0±1.2% to 52.0±1.2% (p<0.05) after 24h. BMSCs had significant up regulation of the cartilage genes for both the labeled and the unlabeled samples compared to ADSCs (p<0.05). PKH26 fluorescence was detected on the resected portions of the regenerated neo-cartilage. The recommended concentration of PKH26 for ADSCs is 2 μmol and BMSCs is 8 μmol, and they can be tracked up to 49 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  16. Wan Safwani WK, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua KH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2011 Jul-Aug;58(4):261-70.
    PMID: 21838801 DOI: 10.1002/bab.38
    One of the advantages of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine is that they can be harvested in abundance. However, the stemness biomarkers, which marked the safety and efficacy of ASCs in accordance with the good manufacturing practice guidelines, is not yet well established. This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term culture on the stemness properties of ASCs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results showed the growth rate of ASCs was at its peak when they reached P10 (population doubling; PD = 26) but started to decrease when they were expanded to P15 (PD = 36) and P20 (PD = 46). The ASCs can be culture expanded with minimal alteration in the stemness genes and cluster of differentiation (CD) markers expression up to P10. Expression level of Sox2, Nestin, and Nanog3 was significantly decreased at later passage. CD31, CD45, CD117, and human leukocyte antigen DR, DQ, and DP were lowly expressed at P5 and P10 but their expressions increased significantly at P15 or P20. The differentiation ability of ASCs (adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and neurogenesis) also decreased in long-term culture. Our findings suggested that P10 (PD = 26) should be the "cutoff point" for clinical usage because ASCs at passage 15 onward showed significant changes in the stemness genes, CD markers expression, and differentiation capability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  17. Abu Kasim NH, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Musa S, Pradeep PJ, Srijaya TC, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2015 Dec;9(12):E252-66.
    PMID: 23229816 DOI: 10.1002/term.1663
    The discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from a myriad of tissues has triggered the initiative of establishing tailor-made stem cells for disease-specific therapy. Nevertheless, lack of understanding on the inherent differential propensities of these cells may restrict their clinical outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive study was done to compare the proliferation, differentiation, expression of cell surface markers and gene profiling of stem cells isolated from different sources, viz. bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, adipose tissue and dental pulp. We found that although all MSCs were phenotypically similar to each other, Wharton's jelly (WJ) MSCs and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were highly proliferative as compared to bone marrow (BM) MSCs and adipose tissue (AD) MSCs. Moreover, indistinguishable cell surface characteristics and differentiation capacity were confirmed to be similar among all cell types. Based on gene expression profiling, we postulate that BM-MSCs constitutively expressed genes related to inflammation and immunodulation, whereas genes implicated in tissue development were highly expressed in AD-MSCs. Furthermore, the transcriptome profiling of WJ-MSCs and DPSCs revealed an inherent bias towards the neuro-ectoderm lineage. Based on our findings, we believe that there is no unique master mesenchymal stem cell that is appropriate to treat all target diseases. More precisely, MSCs from different sources exhibit distinct and unique gene expression signatures that make them competent to give rise to specific lineages rather than others. Therefore, stem cells should be subjected to rigorous characterization and utmost vigilance needs to be adopted in order to choose the best cellular source for a particular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  18. Rozila I, Azari P, Munirah S, Wan Safwani WK, Gan SN, Nur Azurah AG, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2016 Feb;104(2):377-87.
    PMID: 26414782 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35573
    The osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) co-cultured with human osteoblasts (HOBs) using selected HADSCs/HOBs ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively, is evaluated. The HADSCs/HOBs were seeded on electrospun three-dimensional poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) blended with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Monocultures of HADSCs and HOBs were used as control groups. The effects of PHB-BHA scaffold on cell proliferation and cell morphology were assessed by AlamarBlue assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic-related gene expression of co-culture HADSCs/HOBs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin Red S assay, and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that co-culture of HADSCs/HOBs, 1:1 grown into PHB-BHA promoted better cell adhesion, displayed a significant higher cell proliferation, higher production of ALP, extracellular mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression of run-related transcription factor, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin compared to other co-culture groups. This result also suggests that the use of electrospun PHB-BHA in a co-culture HADSCs/HOBs system may serve as promising approach to facilitate osteogenic differentiation activity of HADSCs through direct cell-to-cell contact with HOBs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
  19. Yong KW, Pingguan-Murphy B, Xu F, Abas WA, Choi JR, Omar SZ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:9596.
    PMID: 25872464 DOI: 10.1038/srep09596
    Cryopreservation represents an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and allows pooling of cells via long-term storage for clinical applications, e.g., cell-based therapies. It is crucial to reduce freezing injury during the cryopreservation process by loading the ASCs with the optimum concentration of suitable cryoprotective agents (CPAs). In this study, human ASCs were preserved for 3 months in different combinations of CPAs, including 1) 0.25 M trehalose; 2) 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 3) 10% DMSO; 4) 5% DMSO + 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS); 5) 10% DMSO + 20% FBS; 6) 10% DMSO + 90% FBS. Interestingly, even with a reduction of DMSO to 5% and without FBS, cryopreserved ASCs maintained high cell viability comparable with standard cryomedium (10% DMSO + 90% FBS), with normal cell phenotype and proliferation rate. Cryopreserved ASCs also maintained their differentiation capability (e.g., to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes) and showed an enhanced expression level of stemness markers (e.g., NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2 and REX-1). Our findings suggest that 5% DMSO without FBS may be an ideal CPA for an efficient long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs. These results aid in establishing standardized xeno-free long-term cryopreservation of human ASCs for clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology*
  20. Ude CC, Chen HC, Norhamdan MY, Azizi BM, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2017 Sep;18(3):355-367.
    PMID: 28667462 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-017-9638-1
    In our quest to standardize our formula for a clinical trial, transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-β3) alone and in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) were evaluated for their effectiveness in cartilage differentiation. Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSCs) and Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) were induced to chondrogenic lineage using two different media. Native chondrocytes served as positive control. ADSCs and BMSCs proved multipotency by tri-lineage differentiations. ADSC has significantly higher growth kinetics compare to Chondrocyte only p ≤ 0.05. Using TGF-β3 alone, BMSC revealed higher expressions for hyaline cartilage genes compare to ADSCs. Chondrocyte has significantly higher early chondrogenic markers expression to ADSCs and BMSCs, while BMSCs was only higher to ADSC at chondroadherin, p ≤ 0.0001. On mature chondrogenic markers, chondrocytes were significantly higher to ADSCs and BMSCs for aggrecan, collagen IX, sry (sex determining region y)-box9, collagen II and fibromodullin; and only to ADSC for collagen XI. BMSC was higher to ADSC for aggrecan and collagen IX, p ≤ 0.0001. The combination of TGF-β3 + BMP-6 revealed increased gene expressions on both BMSCs and ADSCs for early and mature chondrogenic markers, but no significance difference. For dedifferentiation markers, ADSC was significantly higher to chondrocyte for collagen I. Glycosaminoglycan evaluations with both formulas revealed that chondrocytes were significantly higher to ADSCs and BMSCs, but none was significant to each other, p ≤ 0.0001. Combination of 10 ng TGF-β3 with 10 ng of BMP-6 enhanced chondrogenic potentials of BMSCs and ADSCs compare to TGF-β3 alone. This could be the ideal cocktail for either cell's chondrogenic induction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue/cytology
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