METHODS: A total of 12 PD bags (3 for each type of solution) containing ceftazidime and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 120 hours, and then at 25°C for 6 hours, and finally at 37°C for 12 hours. An aliquot was withdrawn after predefined time points and analyzed for the concentration of ceftazidime and heparin using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Samples were assessed for pH, color changes, particle content, and anticoagulant activity of heparin.
RESULTS: Ceftazidime and heparin retained more than 91% of their initial concentration when stored at 4°C for 120 hours followed by storage at 25°C for 6 hours and then at 37°C for 12 hours. Heparin retained more than 95% of its initial activity throughout the study period. Particle formation was not detected at any time under the storage conditions. The pH and color remained essentially unchanged throughout the study.
CONCLUSIONS: Ceftazidime-heparin admixture retains its stability over long periods of storage at different temperatures, allowing its potential use for PDAP treatment in outpatient and remote settings.
PURPOSE: This work aimed to develop and characterize chitosan (CS)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended electrospun multifunctional nanofiber loaded with curcumin (CUR) and zinc oxide (ZnO) to accelerate diabetic wound healing in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
RESULTS: In-vitro characterization results revealed that nanofiber was fabricated successfully using the electrospinning technique. SEM results confirmed the smooth surface with web-like fiber nanostructure diameter ranging from 200 - 250 nm. An in-vitro release study confirmed the sustained release of CUR and ZnO for a prolonged time. In-vitro cell-line studies demonstrated significantly low cytotoxicity of nanofiber in HaCaT cells. Anti-bacterial studies demonstrated good anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities of nanofiber. In-vivo animal studies demonstrated an excellent wound-healing efficiency of the nanofibers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the ELISA assay revealed that the optimized nanofiber membrane terminated the inflammatory phases successfully by downregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-9) in wound healing. In-vitro and in-vivo studies conclude that the developed nanofiber loaded with bioactive material can promote diabetic wound healing efficiently via multifunction action such as the sustained release of bioactive molecules for a prolonged time of duration, proving anti-bacterial/anti-biofilm properties and acceleration of cell migration and proliferation process during the wound healing.
DISCUSSION: CUR-ZnO electrospun nanofibers could be a promising drug delivery platform with the potential to be scaled up to treat diabetic foot ulcers effectively.