Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 256 in total

  1. Khan R, Haider S, Khan MUA, Haider A, Razak SIA, Hasan A, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 Dec 31;253(Pt 5):127169.
    PMID: 37783243 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.127169
    The development of advanced multifunctional wound dressings remains a major challenge. Herein, a novel multilayer (ML) electrospun nanofibers (NFs) wound dressing based on diethylenetriamine (DETA) functionalized polyacrylonitrile (PAN), TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) coating (Ct), and bioderived gelatin (Gel) was developed for potential applications in wound healing. The ML PAN-DETA-Ct-Gel membrane was developed by combining electrospinning, chemical functionalization, synthesis, and electrospray techniques, using a layer-by-layer method. The ML PAN-DETA-Ct-Gel membrane is comprised of an outer layer of PAN-DETA as a barrier to external microorganisms and structural support, an interlayer TiO2 NPs (Ct) as antibacterial function, and a contact layer (Gel) to improve biocompatibility and cell viability. The NFs membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface profilometry, BET analysis, and water contact angle techniques to investigate their morphology, surface roughness, porosity, and wettability. The ML PAN-DETA-Ct-Gel wound dressing exhibited good surface roughness, porosity, and better wettability. Cell morphology, proliferation, and viability were determined using fibroblasts (3T3), and antibacterial assays were performed against six pathogens. The ML PAN-DETA-Ct-Gel NFs membrane showed good cell morphology, proliferation, viability, and antibacterial activity compared with other membranes. This new class of ML NFs membranes offers a multifunctional architecture with adequate biocompatibility, cell viability, and antibacterial activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  2. Chin JY, Ahmad AL, Low SC
    J Environ Manage, 2023 Oct 01;343:118231.
    PMID: 37247545 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.118231
    The surge in the use of antibiotics, especially in aquaculture, has led to development of antibiotic resistance genes, which will harm environmental and public health. One of the most commonly used antibiotics in aquaculture is oxytetracycline (OTC). Employing photocatalysis, this study compared OTC degradation efficiency of two different types of common photocatalysts, TiO2 and graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) in terms of their photochemical properties and underlying photocatalytic mechanism. For reference purpose, self-synthesized GCN from urea precursor (GCN-Urea) and commercial GCN (GCN-Commercial) were both examined. OTC adsorption-photocatalysis removal rates in pure OTC solution by TiO2, GCN-Urea and GCN-Commercial were attained at 95%, 60% and 40% respectively. Photochemical properties evaluated included light absorption, band gap, valence and conduction band positions, photoluminescence, cyclic voltammetry, BET surface area and adsorption capability of the photocatalysts. Through the evaluations, this study provides novel insights towards current state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalytic processes. The electron-hole recombination examined by photoluminescence is not the key factor influencing the photocatalytic efficacies as commonly discussed. On the contrary, the dominating factors governing the higher OTC degradation efficiency of TiO2 compared to GCN are the high mobility of electrons that leads to high redox capability and the high pollutant-photocatalyst affinity. These claims are proven by 86% and 40% more intense anodic and cathodic cyclic voltammetry curve peaks of TiO2 as compared to both GCNs. OTC also demonstrated 1.7 and 2.3 times higher affinity towards TiO2 than GCN-Urea and GCN-Commercial. OTC removal by TiO2 in real aquaculture wastewater only achieved 50%, due to significant inhibition effect by dissolved solids, dissolved organic matters and high ionic contents in the wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  3. Nouri A, Ang WL, Mahmoudi E, Chua SF, Mohammad AW, Benamor A, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 May;322:138219.
    PMID: 36828108 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138219
    Decorating nanomaterials on graphene oxide (GO) can enhance its adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of water pollutants. In this study, for the first time, nano-sized polylactic acid (PLA) has been successfully decorated on the surface of GO through a facile synthesis approach. The adsorptive efficiency of GO-PLA for removing methylene blue (MB) and tetracycline (TC) from an aqueous solution was examined. The characterization confirmed the successful decoration of PLA on GO nanosheets with the nano size of PLA. It was hypothesized that the PLA was decorated on the surface of GO through covalent bonding between oxygen-containing functional groups and lactide molecules. The optimum adsorption parameters determined were at the adsorbent dose of 0.5 g L-1, pH 4, contact time of 120 min, and temperature of 318 K. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the contaminants' adsorption behaviour, and the intraparticle diffusion model revealed that both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion controlled the adsorption process. Langmuir isotherm model best described the adsorption behaviour of the pollutants on GO-PLA and demonstrated the maximum monolayer uptake capacities of MB (332.5 mg g-1) and TC (223.7 mg g-1). The adsorption results indicated that the uptake capacities of GO-PLA in comparison to GO have increased by approximately 70% and 110% for MB and TC, respectively. These observations reflect the remarkable role of nano-sized PLA that enhanced the adsorption capacity due to its additional functional group and larger surface area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  4. Azizan A, Samsudin AA, Shamshul Baharin MB, Dzulkiflee MH, Rosli NR, Abu Bakar NF, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Feb;30(7):16779-16796.
    PMID: 35084685 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-18515-5
    Cellulosic fiber (CF) in nanoform is emergingly finding its way for COVID-19 solution for instance via nanocomposite/nanoparticle from various abundant biopolymeric waste materials, which may not be widely commercialized when the pandemic strikes recently. The possibility is wide open but needs proper collection of knowledge and research data. Thus, this article firstly reviews CF produced from various lignocellulosic or biomass feedstocks' pretreatment methods in various nanoforms or nanocomposites, also serving together with metal oxide (MeO) antimicrobial agents having certain analytical reporting. CF-MeO hybrid product can be a great option for COVID-19 antimicrobial resistant environment to be proposed considering the long-established CF and MeO laboratory investigations. Secondly, a preliminary pH investigation of 7 to 12 on zinc oxide synthesis discussing on Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) functional groups and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are also presented, justifying the knowledge requirement for future stable nanocomposite formulation. In addition to that, recent precursors suitable for zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis with emergingly prediction to serve as COVID-19 purposes via different products, aligning with CFs or nanocellulose for industrial applications are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  5. Singh P, Pandey P, Arya DK, Anjum MM, Poonguzhali S, Kumar A, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2023 Mar 27;18(3).
    PMID: 36921352 DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/acc4a1
    The morbidity rate following a surgical procedure increasing rapidly in the cases associated with surgical site infections. Traditional sutures lack the ability to deliver drugs as the incorporation of the drug in their structure would hamper their mechanical properties. To prevent such infections, we developed an extracellular matrix mimicking electrospun nanofibrous yarns of poly-(D,L)-lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol loaded with vancomycin and ferulic acid, prepared by uniaxial electrospinning technique.In-vitrocharacterization such as scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, tensile strength testing, degradation studies, and antimicrobial studies along within-vivoevaluation done with help of incision wound healing rat model and simultaneous testing of microbial load in the incised tissue. Thein-vitrostudies indicated the nanofiber yarns have size range 200-300 nm with a tensile strength of 7.54 ± 0.58 MPa. The dual drug-loaded yarn showed sustained drug release over a period of 48 h.In-vitrowater uptake and biodegradation data indicated optimum results suitable for suturing applications. Antimicrobial study showed excellent antimicrobial activity against bothS. aureus and E. coli.Results obtained fromin-vivostudy suggested excellent wound healing potential of nanofiber yarns as compared with commercial silk sutures. The histopathological studies confirmed restoring ability of nanofiber yarn to the normal skin structure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study revealed the downregulation of inflammatory markers i.e. TNF-alpha and IL-6, making nanofibers sutures suitable for surgical wound healing applications. Overall, the present study may conclude that the developed dual drug-loaded nanofiber yarns have excellent potential in surgical wound healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  6. Al-Mijalli SH, El Hachlafi N, Jeddi M, Abdallah EM, Assaggaf H, Qasem A, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2023 Nov;167:115609.
    PMID: 37801906 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2023.115609
    Cupressus sempervirens is a known traditional plant used to manage various ailments, including cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases. In this investigation, we aimed to explore the chemical profile of Cupressus sempervirens essential oil (CSEO) as well as their antibacterial mode of action. The volatile components were characterized using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results revealed remarkable antibacterial properties of EO derived from C. sempervirens. GC-MS analysis indicated that C. sempervirens EO characterized by δ-3-carene (47.72%), D-limonene (5.44%), β-pinene (4.36%), β-myrcene (4.02%). The oil exhibited significant inhibitory effects against a range of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 13048, Bacillus cereus (Clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. These inhibitory effects surpassed those of conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, the EO demonstrated low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), indicating its bactericidal nature (MBC/MIC < 4.0). Time-kill kinetics analysis showed that CSEO was particularly effective at 2 × MIC doses, rapidly reduced viable count of B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa within 8 h. This suggests that the oil acts quickly and efficiently. The cell membrane permeability test further demonstrated the impact of CSEO on the relative conductivity of B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa, both at 2 × MIC concentrations. These observations suggest that EO disrupts the bacterial membrane, thereby influencing their growth and viability. Additionally, the cell membrane integrity test indicated that the addition of CSEO to bacterial cultures resulted in the significant release of proteins from the bacterial cells. This suggests that EO affects the structural integrity of the bacterial cells. Furthermore, the anti-biofilm assay confirmed the efficacy of CSEO as a potent anti-biofilm agent. It demonstrated the oil's ability to inhibit quorum sensing, a crucial mechanism for biofilm formation, and its competitive performance compared to the tested antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  7. Mohammadi P, Taghavi E, Foong SY, Rajaei A, Amiri H, de Tender C, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 Jul 01;242(Pt 2):124841.
    PMID: 37182628 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.124841
    Depending on its physicochemical properties and antibacterial activities, chitosan can have a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, medicine, cosmetics, agriculture, and aquaculture. In this experimental study, chitosan was extracted from shrimp waste through conventional extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and conventional extraction under microwave process conditions. The effects of the heating source on the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity were investigated. The results showed that the heating process parameters affected the physicochemical properties considerably. The conventional procedure yielded high molecular weight chitosan with a 12.7 % yield, while the microwave extraction procedure yielded a porous medium molecular weight chitosan at 11.8 %. The conventional extraction under microwave process conditions led to medium molecular weight chitosan with the lowest yield (10.8 %) and crystallinity index (79 %). Antibacterial assessment findings revealed that the chitosan extracted using the conventional method had the best antibacterial activity in the agar disk diffusion assay against Listeria monocytogenes (9.48 mm), Escherichia coli. (8.79 mm), and Salmonella Typhimurium (8.57 mm). While the chitosan obtained by microwave-assisted extraction possessed the highest activity against E. coli. (8.37 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.05 mm), with comparable antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium (7.34 mm) and L. monocytogenes (6.52 mm). Moreover, the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration assays demonstrated that among the chitosan samples investigated, the conventionally-extracted chitosan, followed by the chitosan extracted by microwave, had the best antibacterial activity against the target bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  8. Balaraman P, Balasubramanian B, Liu WC, Kaliannan D, Durai M, Kamyab H, et al.
    Environ Res, 2022 Mar;204(Pt C):112278.
    PMID: 34757031 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112278
    Recently, the phyco-synthesis of nanoparticles has been applied as a reliable approach to modern research field, and it has yielded a wide spectrum of diverse uses in fields such as biological science and environmental science. This study used marine natural resource seaweed Sargassum myriocystum due to their unique phytochemicals and their significant attributes in giving effective response on various biomedical applications. The response is created by their stress-tolerant environmental adaptations. This inspired us to make an attempt using the above-mentioned charactersitics. Therfore, the current study performed phycosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) utilising aqueous extracts of S. myriocystum. The TiO2-NPs formation was confirmed in earlier UV-visible spectroscopy analysis. The crystalline structure, functional groups (phycomolecules), particle morphology (cubic, square, and spherical), size (∼50-90 nm), and surface charge (negative) of the TiO2-NPs were analysed and confirmed by various characterisation analyses. In addition, the seaweed-mediated TiO2-NPs was investigated, which showed potential impacts on antibacterial activity and anti-biofilm actions against pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Additionally, some evaluations were performed on larvicidal activities of TiO2-NPs in oppose to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitos and the environmental effects of photocatalytic activities against methylene blue and crystal violet under sunlight irradiation. The highest percent of methylene blue degradation was observed at 92.92% within 45 min. Overall, our findings suggested that S. myriocystum mediates TiO2-NPs to be a potent disruptive material for bacterial pathogens and mosquito larvae and also to enhance the photocatalytic dye degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  9. Hussein-Al-Ali SH, Abudoleh SM, Abualassal QIA, Abudayeh Z, Aldalahmah Y, Hussein MZ
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2022 May;16(3):92-101.
    PMID: 35332980 DOI: 10.1049/nbt2.12081
    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have shown potential applications in drug delivery. In this study, the AgNPs was prepared from silver nitrate in the presence of alginate as a capping agent. The ciprofloxacin (Cipro) was loaded on the surface of AgNPs to produce Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposite. The characteristics of the Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposite were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infra-red analysis (FT-IR) and zeta potential analyses. The XRD of AgNPs and Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposite data showed that both have a crystalline structure in nature. The FT-IR data indicate that the AgNPs have been wrapped by the alginate and loaded with the Cipro drug. The TEM image showed that the Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites have an average size of 96 nm with a spherical shape. The SEM image for AgNPs and Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites confirmed the needle-lumpy shape. The zeta potential for Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites exhibited a positive charge with a value of 6.5 mV. The TGA for Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites showed loss of 79.7% in total mass compared to 57.6% for AgNPs which is due to the Cipro loaded in the AgNPs. The release of Cipro from Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites showed slow release properties which reached 98% release within 750 min, and followed the Hixson-Crowell kinetic model. In addition, the toxicity of AgNPs and Cipro-AgNPs nanocomposites was evaluated using normal (3T3) cell line. The present work suggests that Cipro-AgNPs are suitable for drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  10. Ibrahim D, Hong LS, Kuppan N
    Nat Prod Commun, 2013 Apr;8(4):493-6.
    PMID: 23738462
    The antibacterial efficiency of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. was investigated against pathogenic bacteria responsible for common infections of skin, and urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against all the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. The results obtained suggested that at higher concentrations the extract would eradicate the growth of bacterial cells. The bacterial cells, after exposure to the extract, showed complete alteration in their morphology, followed by collapse of the cells beyond repair. The study revealed that the methanolic extract of P. niruri may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections since the extract exhibited significant antimicrobial potency, comparable with that of the standard antibiotic chloramphenicol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  11. Sivasothy Y, Ibrahim H, Paliany AS, Alias SA, Awang K
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2013 Dec 1;23(23):6280-5.
    PMID: 24144849 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.09.082
    The rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis Ridley yielded a new bis-labdanic diterpene for which the name pahangensin A (1) was proposed along with a new labdane diterpene, pahangensin B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including, 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Pahangensin A (1) was found to be an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values less than 100 μg/mL, respectively. Pahangensin B (2) exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC <100 μg/mL) against B. cereus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry*
  12. Azmana M, Mahmood S, Hilles AR, Rahman A, Arifin MAB, Ahmed S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Aug 31;185:832-848.
    PMID: 34237361 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.023
    Over the last few years, several attempts have been made to replace petrochemical products with renewable and biodegradable components. The most challenging part of this approach is to obtain bio-based materials with properties and functions equivalent to those of synthetic products. Various naturally occurring polymers such as starch, collagen, alginate, cellulose, and chitin represent attractive candidates as they could reduce dependence on synthetic products and consequently positively impact the environment. Chitosan is also a unique bio-based polymer with excellent intrinsic properties. It is known for its anti-bacterial and film-forming properties, has high mechanical strength and good thermal stability. Nanotechnology has also applied chitosan-based materials in its most recent achievements. Therefore, numerous chitosan-based bionanocomposites with improved physical and chemical characteristics have been developed in an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach. This review discusses various sources of chitosan, its properties and methods of modification. Also, this work focuses on diverse preparation techniques of chitosan-based bionanocomposites and their emerging application in various sectors. Additionally, this review sheds light on future research scope with some drawbacks and challenges to motivate the researchers for future outstanding research works.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry*
  13. Qamer S, Romli MH, Che-Hamzah F, Misni N, Joseph NMS, Al-Haj NA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 20;26(16).
    PMID: 34443644 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26165057
    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antibacterial activities has provided enormous data on populations, geographical areas, and experiments with bio silver nanoparticles' antibacterial operation. Several peer-reviewed publications have discussed various aspects of this subject field over the last generation. However, there is an absence of a detailed and structured framework that can represent the research domain on this topic. This paper attempts to evaluate current articles mainly on the biosynthesis of nanoparticles or antibacterial activities utilizing the scientific methodology of big data analytics. A comprehensive study was done using multiple databases-Medline, Scopus, and Web of Sciences through PRISMA (i.e., Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The keywords used included 'biosynthesis silver nano particles' OR 'silver nanoparticles' OR 'biosynthesis' AND 'antibacterial behavior' OR 'anti-microbial opposition' AND 'systematic analysis,' by using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, Boolean operator's parenthesis, or truncations as required. Since their effectiveness is dependent on particle size or initial concentration, it necessitates more research. Understanding the field of silver nanoparticle biosynthesis and antibacterial activity in Gulf areas and most Asian countries also necessitates its use of human-generated data. Furthermore, the need for this work has been highlighted by the lack of predictive modeling in this field and a need to combine specific domain expertise. Studies eligible for such a review were determined by certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study contributes to the existence of theoretical and analytical studies in this domain. After testing as per inclusion criteria, seven in vitro studies were selected out of 28 studies. Findings reveal that silver nanoparticles have different degrees of antimicrobial activity based on numerous factors. Limitations of the study include studies with low to moderate risks of bias and antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. The study also reveals the possible use of silver nanoparticles as antibacterial irrigants using various methods, including a qualitative evaluation of knowledge and a comprehensive collection and interpretation of scientific studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry*
  14. Teow SY, Wong MM, Yap HY, Peh SC, Shameli K
    Molecules, 2018 06 06;23(6).
    PMID: 29882775 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061366
    Nanoparticles (NPs) are nano-sized particles (generally 1⁻100 nm) that can be synthesized through various methods. The wide range of physicochemical characteristics of NPs permit them to have diverse biological functions. These particles are versatile and can be adopted into various applications, particularly in biomedical field. In the past five years, NPs’ roles in biomedical applications have drawn considerable attentions, and novel NPs with improved functions and reduced toxicity are continuously increasing. Extensive studies have been carried out in evaluating antibacterial potentials of NPs. The promising antibacterial effects exhibited by NPs highlight the potential of developing them into future generation of antimicrobial agents. There are various methods to synthesize NPs, and each of the method has significant implication on the biological action of NPs. Among all synthetic methods, green technology is the least toxic biological route, which is particularly suitable for biomedical applications. This mini-review provides current update on the antibacterial effects of NPs synthesized by green technology using plants. Underlying challenges in developing NPs into future antibacterials in clinics are also discussed at the present review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  15. Al-Mijalli SH, Mrabti NN, Ouassou H, Sheikh RA, Assaggaf H, Bakrim S, et al.
    Molecules, 2022 Oct 28;27(21).
    PMID: 36364152 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27217329
    The purposes of this investigatory study were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Origanum compactum from two Moroccan regions (Boulemane and Taounate), as well as the evaluation of their biological effects. Determining EOs' chemical composition was performed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of EOs was evaluated using free radical scavenging ability (DPPH method), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed in vitro using the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition test and in vivo using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Finally, the antibacterial effect was evaluated against several strains using the disk-diffusion assay and the micro-dilution method. The chemical constituent of O. compactum EO (OCEO) from the Boulemane zone is dominated by carvacrol (45.80%), thymol (18.86%), and α-pinene (13.43%). However, OCEO from the Taounate zone is rich in 3-carene (19.56%), thymol (12.98%), and o-cymene (11.16%). OCEO from Taounate showed higher antioxidant activity than EO from Boulemane. Nevertheless, EO from Boulemane considerably inhibited 5-LOX (IC50 = 0.68 ± 0.02 µg/mL) compared to EO from Taounate (IC50 = 1.33 ± 0.01 µg/mL). A similar result was obtained for tyrosinase inhibition with Boulemane EO and Taounate EO, which gave IC50s of 27.51 ± 0.03 μg/mL and 41.83 ± 0.01 μg/mL, respectively. The in vivo anti-inflammatory test showed promising effects; both EOs inhibit and reduce inflammation in mice. For antibacterial activity, both EOs were found to be significantly active against all strains tested in the disk-diffusion test, but O. compactum EO from the Boulemane region showed the highest activity. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for O. compactum EO from the Boulemane region ranged from 0.06 to 0.25% (v/v) and from 0.15 to 0.21% (v/v) for O. compactum from the Taounate region. The MBC/MIC index revealed that both EOs exhibited remarkable bactericidal effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  16. Kandel S, Zaidi STR, Wanandy ST, Ming LC, Castelino RL, Sud K, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2017 11 21;38(1):49-56.
    PMID: 29162678 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00115
    BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of ceftazidime is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) from Pseudomonas. Patients with PDAP may also need IP heparin to overcome problems with drainage of turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids and blockage of catheters with fibrin. Physico-chemical stability of ceftazidime and heparin, and biological stability of heparin in many types of PD solutions is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the stability of ceftazidime and heparin in 4 types of PD solutions.

    METHODS: A total of 12 PD bags (3 for each type of solution) containing ceftazidime and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 120 hours, and then at 25°C for 6 hours, and finally at 37°C for 12 hours. An aliquot was withdrawn after predefined time points and analyzed for the concentration of ceftazidime and heparin using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Samples were assessed for pH, color changes, particle content, and anticoagulant activity of heparin.

    RESULTS: Ceftazidime and heparin retained more than 91% of their initial concentration when stored at 4°C for 120 hours followed by storage at 25°C for 6 hours and then at 37°C for 12 hours. Heparin retained more than 95% of its initial activity throughout the study period. Particle formation was not detected at any time under the storage conditions. The pH and color remained essentially unchanged throughout the study.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ceftazidime-heparin admixture retains its stability over long periods of storage at different temperatures, allowing its potential use for PDAP treatment in outpatient and remote settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry*
  17. Yadav S, Arya DK, Pandey P, Anand S, Gautam AK, Ranjan S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2022;17:6843-6859.
    PMID: 36605559 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S388264
    INTRODUCTION: Foot ulceration is one of the most severe and debilitating complications of diabetes, which leads to the cause of non-traumatic lower-extremity amputation in 15-24% of affected individuals. The healing of diabetic foot (DF) is a significant therapeutic problem due to complications from the multifactorial healing process. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffold loaded with various wound dressing materials has excellent wound healing properties due to its multifunctional action.

    PURPOSE: This work aimed to develop and characterize chitosan (CS)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended electrospun multifunctional nanofiber loaded with curcumin (CUR) and zinc oxide (ZnO) to accelerate diabetic wound healing in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    RESULTS: In-vitro characterization results revealed that nanofiber was fabricated successfully using the electrospinning technique. SEM results confirmed the smooth surface with web-like fiber nanostructure diameter ranging from 200 - 250 nm. An in-vitro release study confirmed the sustained release of CUR and ZnO for a prolonged time. In-vitro cell-line studies demonstrated significantly low cytotoxicity of nanofiber in HaCaT cells. Anti-bacterial studies demonstrated good anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities of nanofiber. In-vivo animal studies demonstrated an excellent wound-healing efficiency of the nanofibers in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the ELISA assay revealed that the optimized nanofiber membrane terminated the inflammatory phases successfully by downregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-9) in wound healing. In-vitro and in-vivo studies conclude that the developed nanofiber loaded with bioactive material can promote diabetic wound healing efficiently via multifunction action such as the sustained release of bioactive molecules for a prolonged time of duration, proving anti-bacterial/anti-biofilm properties and acceleration of cell migration and proliferation process during the wound healing.

    DISCUSSION: CUR-ZnO electrospun nanofibers could be a promising drug delivery platform with the potential to be scaled up to treat diabetic foot ulcers effectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  18. Cho KH, Tan SP, Tan HY, Liew SY, Nafiah MA
    Planta Med, 2023 Jan;89(1):79-85.
    PMID: 35288885 DOI: 10.1055/a-1797-0548
    A phytochemical study has been carried out on CH2Cl2 extract of Alphonsea cylindrica leaves, resulting in the isolation of three new morphinan alkaloids. They are kinomenine (1: ), N-methylkinomenine (2: ), and hydroxymethylkinomenine (3: ). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, HRESIMS) and comparison with the data reported in literature for similar alkaloids. Kinomenine (1: ) and N-methylkinomenine (2: ) showed weak inhibition against S. aureus (MIC values of 1: and 2:  = 500 µg/mL; pIC50 values in 95% C. I. of: 1:  = 2.9 to 3.0; 2:  = 2.9 to 3.1), while kinomenine (1: ) also showed weak inhibition against E. coli (MIC values of 1:  = 500 µg/mL; pIC50 value in 95% C. I. of: 1:  = 2.9) by broth microdilution method. The results obtained can be used as future referencefor the discovery of morphinans and the potential of A. cylindrica as an antibacterial source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  19. Alrabie A, Al-Rabie NA, Al Saeedy M, Al Adhreai A, Al-Qadsy I, Farooqui M
    Nat Prod Res, 2023 Mar;37(6):1016-1022.
    PMID: 35801965 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2022.2097227
    Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of methanol extract of Martynia annua seed revealed the presence of haploperozide and austricine. For safety, heavy metals content investigation of plant powder using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique showed that the toxic metals (Pb: 2.07 mg/kg; Cd: 0.07 mg/kg; and As: 0.18 mg/kg) concentrations were found to be below the permissible limit. The extract demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC value 125 g/mL). Furthermore, it was effective in inhibiting both α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes with a high percentage and IC50 values were 42.28 ± 0.39 µg/mL and 34.11 ± 0.31 µg/mL, respectively. These findings were supported by a molecular docking study, some of the phytochemicals showed higher docking score values than references. However, Martynia annua seeds are safe to consume because they contain low levels of toxic heavy metals and possess antibacterial and anti-diabetic properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
  20. Manojkumar U, Kaliannan D, Srinivasan V, Balasubramanian B, Kamyab H, Mussa ZH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 May;323:138263.
    PMID: 36858116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138263
    Green synthesis of nanomaterials has emerged as an ecofriendly sustainable technology for the removal of dyes in the last few decades. Especially, plant leaf extracts have been considered as inexpensive and effective materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were prepared using leaves extract of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (BO) by co-precipitation and applied for photocatalytic/antibacterial activity. The synthesized BO-ZnO NPs was characterized by different instrumental techniques. The UV-vis Spectrum of the synthesized material showed maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 311 nm, which confirmed the formation of BO-ZnO NPs. The XRD pattern of BO-ZnO NPs represents a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the average size of particles was about 52 nm. FT-IR spectrum analysis confirms the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxylic, and phenol groups. SEM images exhibited a flower like morphology and EDX spectrum confirming the presence of the elements Zn and O. Photo-catalytic activity of BO-ZnO NPs was tested against thiazine dye (methylene blue-MB) degradation under direct sunlight irradiation. Around 80% of the MB dye got degraded at pH 8 under 75 min of sunlight irradiation. Further, the study examined that the antimicrobial and larvicidal activity of BO-ZnO NPs obtained through green synthesis. The antimicrobial study results showed that the BO-ZnO NPs formed zones against bacterial pathogens. The results showed the formation of an inhibition zone against B. subtills (16 mm), S.aureus (13 mm), K. pneumonia (13 mm), and E. coli (9 mm) respectively at a concentration of 100 μg/mL of BO-ZnO NPs. The larvicidal activity of the BO-ZnO NPs was tested against the fourth instar of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae The LC50 and LC90 values estimated through the larvicidal activity of BO-ZnO NPs were 76.03, 190.03 ppm respectively. Hence the above findings propose the synthesized BO-ZnO NPs by the ecofriendly method can be used for various environmental and antipathogenic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
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