Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 93 in total

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  1. Yap HY, Aziz AA, Fung SY, Ng ST, Tan CS, Tan NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):602-7.
    PMID: 24782649 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8341
    The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  2. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, Yeap SK, Othman HH, Chartrand MS, Namvar F, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:920742.
    PMID: 25025076 DOI: 10.1155/2014/920742
    Zerumbone (ZER) is a naturally occurring dietary compound, present in many natural foods consumed today. The compound derived from several plant species of the Zingiberaceae family that has been found to possess multiple biomedical properties, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, evidence of efficacy is sparse, pointing to the need for a more systematic review for assessing scientific evidence to support therapeutic claims made for ZER and to identify future research needs. This review provides an updated overview of in vitro and in vivo investigations of ZER, its cancer chemopreventive properties, and mechanisms of action. Therapeutic effects of ZER were found to be scientifically plausible and could be explained partially by in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities. Much of the research outlined in this paper will serve as a foundation to explain ZER anticancer bioactivity, which will open the door for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  3. Chong UR, Abdul-Rahman PS, Abdul-Aziz A, Hashim OH, Mat-Junit S
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:459017.
    PMID: 24455694 DOI: 10.1155/2013/459017
    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  4. Nizar AM, Nazrun AS, Norazlina M, Norliza M, Ima Nirwana S
    Clin Ter, 2011;162(6):533-8.
    PMID: 22262323
    Vitamin E is an antioxidant that may protect bone against oxidative stress-induced osteoporosis. This in vitro study was conducted to determine the protective effects of a-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol on osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, against oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  5. Sundram K, Sambanthamurthi R, Tan YA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2003;12(3):355-62.
    PMID: 14506001
    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  6. Rengarajan T, Yaacob NS
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct 15;789:8-16.
    PMID: 27377217 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.001
    Epidemiological studies show that consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risks of cancer. This evidence has kindled interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds is fisetin (3,7,3,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol that is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. Fisetin has been shown to inhibit or retard the growth of various cancer cells in culture and implanted tumors in vivo. Fisetin targets many components of intracellular signaling pathways including regulators of cell survival and apoptosis, tumor angiogenic and metastatic switches by modulating a distinct set of upstream kinases, transcription factors and their regulators. Current evidence supports the idea that fisetin is a promising agent for cancer treatment. This review summarizes reported anticancer effects of fisetin, and re-emphasizes its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  7. Patil PG, Hazarey V, Chaudhari R, Nimbalkar-Patil S
    PMID: 27720659 DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2016.07.026
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effect of ice-cream stick exercise regimen with or without a mouth-exercising device (MED) on mucosal burning sensation in oral submucous fibrosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: In total, 282 patients with oral submucous fibrosis were treated with topical corticosteroid and oral antioxidant and the ice-cream stick exercise regimen. Patients in subgroups A1, A2, and A3 were additionally given a new MED. Patients in subgroups A1 and B1 patients with interincisal distance (IID) of 20 to 35 mm were managed without any additional therapy; patients in subgroups A2 and B2 with IID of 20 to 35 mm were additionally managed with intralesional injections; and those in subgroups A3 and B3 with IID less than 20 mm were managed surgically. Subjective evaluation of decrease in the oral mucosal burning was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple post hoc analysis were carried out to present the results.

    RESULTS: Patients using the MED, that is, subgroups A1, A2, and A3, showed reduction in burning sensation in the range of 64.8% to 71.1% and 27.8% to 30.9%, whereas in subgroups B1, B2, and B3, reduction in burning sensation ranged from 64.7% to 69.9% and from 29.3% to 38.6% after 6 months. The wo-way analysis of variance indicated statistically significant results in changes in initial VAS scores to 6-monthly VAS scores between MED users and non-MED users.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MED helps to enhance the rate of reduction of mucosal burning sensation, in addition to the conventional ice-cream stick regimen, as an adjunct to local and surgical treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  8. Mohtar N, Taylor KM, Sheikh K, Somavarapu S
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2017 Apr;113:1-10.
    PMID: 27916704 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.11.036
    This study has investigated complexation of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, with three types of cyclodextrins to improve its solubility. Sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) showed the highest complexation efficiency while maintaining the in vitro antioxidant activity of fisetin. Addition of 20%v/v ethanol in water improved the amount of solubilized fisetin in the complex 5.9-fold compared to the system containing water alone. Spray drying of fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex solution in the presence of ethanol produced a dry powder with improved aerosolization properties when delivered from a dry powder inhaler, indicated by a 2-fold increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to the powder produced from the complex solution containing water alone. The pitted morphological surface of these particles suggested a more hollow internal structure, indicating a lighter and less dense powder. Incorporation of 20%w/w leucine improved the particle size distribution of the powder and further increased the FPF by 2.3-fold. This formulation also showed an EC50 value equivalent to fisetin alone in the A549 cell line. In conclusion, an inhalable dry powder containing fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex was successfully engineered with an improved aqueous solubility of fisetin. The dry powder may be useful to deliver high amounts of fisetin to the deep lung region for therapeutic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  9. Abbood AA, Kassim AB, Jawad HSA, Manap YA, Sazili AQ
    Poult Sci, 2017 Jun 01;96(6):1767-1782.
    PMID: 28204764 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew460
    An experiment was carried out to estimate the meat quality characteristics of village chickens (Gallus gallus) fed diets supplemented with dry leaves of Borreria latifolia (BL) used as a potential antioxidant source in chicken feed. In this study, 252 sexed 9-week-old village chickens with mean live body weight of 1,525.4 g for males and 1,254.1 g for females were divided into 7 groups (each group 18 birds) for each sex represented in 2 experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BL and the effect on meat quality through a comparison with Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); hence, 3 groups were conducted and included: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1% of BL; T3, basal diet with 1% of RO. T2 and T3 significantly affect pH value, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, and overall acceptability compared to T1, while no significant difference was observed between the dietary groups in respect of drip loss, color, tenderness, fatty acid profile, and meat composition. Furthermore, a significant effect of sex on lipid oxidation, pH, yellowness, and fatty acid profile was observed. There was no significant effect of sex on WHC, tenderness, lightness, redness, and sensory evaluation. A significant influence of postmortem aging period was detected on lipid oxidation, pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and redness. The obtained result in this study revealed a significance in the interaction of herb by sex in pH parameter and between herb and sex, herb by aging period, sex by aging period, and the herb by sex by aging period interactions with regard to lipid oxidation test. The second experiment was to estimate the effect of 3 different levels of BL on meat quality. Four groups were provided and involved: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1.5% of BL; T3, basal diet with 2% of BL; and T4, basal diet with 2.5% of BL. The result of this study showed a significant effect (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  10. Khurana RK, Jain A, Jain A, Sharma T, Singh B, Kesharwani P
    Drug Discov Today, 2018 Apr;23(4):763-770.
    PMID: 29317341 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.021
    Several randomized clinical trials have divulged that administration of antioxidants during chemotherapy decreases the effectiveness of treatment. Hence, the characteristic feature of this article is extensive assessment of putative benefits and potential risks of natural and synthetic antioxidant supplementation, administered with chemotherapy, based upon the available preclinical and clinical data. After analyzing mixed results, it was concluded that current FDA guidelines should be followed before supplementing antioxidants during cytotoxic treatment. Nevertheless, contradictory experimental animal models opposing human clinical trials discourage the concurrent administration of antioxidants ostensibly owing to the possibility of tumor protection and reduced survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  11. Tadokoro K, Ohta Y, Inufusa H, Loon AFN, Abe K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Mar 13;21(6).
    PMID: 32183152 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21061974
    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) from its prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment. There is an interplay between oxidative stress and the amyloid β (Aβ) cascade via various mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glycoxidation, deoxyribonucleotide acid damage, altered antioxidant defense, impaired amyloid clearance, inflammation and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Based on findings that indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in AD, oxidative stress has been considered as a therapeutic target of AD. In spite of favorable preclinical study outcomes, previous antioxidative components, including a single antioxidative supplement such as vitamin C, vitamin E or their mixtures, did not clearly show any therapeutic effect on cognitive decline in AD. However, novel antioxidative supplements can be beneficial for AD patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between oxidative stress and the Aβ cascade, and introduce novel antioxidative supplements expected to prevent cognitive decline in AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  12. Nasir NLM, Kamsani NE, Mohtarrudin N, Tohid SFM, Zakaria ZA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Sep;33(5):2009-2016.
    PMID: 33824108
    Muntingia calabura (M. calabura), locally known as "kerukup siam" or "buah ceri" belongs to the family Muntingiaceae and has been scientifically demonstrated to exert various pharmacological activities. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the antioxidant activities and to determine the subchronic toxicity of 90 days orally-administered methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) in male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6). Vehicle control received 8% tween 80 and treatment group received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg of MEMC orally administered daily for 90 days. Blood collection was carried out to obtain the hematological and biochemical profile of the rats. The organs harvested were subjected to histopathological analysis. For the antioxidant test, the extract was subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and phytochemical screening. Results obtained show that no adverse effects were observed during the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical analysis also showed no significant changes in this toxicity study. Besides, antioxidant analyses revealed that MEMC has higher DPPH- and SOD-radical scavenges activity as well as higher TPC value. In conclusion, M. calabura is safe for consumption and possesses beneficial antioxidant effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  13. Mohd Ghazali MA, Al-Naqeb G, Krishnan Selvarajan K, Hazizul Hasan M, Adam A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:539607.
    PMID: 24955361 DOI: 10.1155/2014/539607
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed throughout eastern Asia. The present study investigated antiproliferative effect of P. minus and its possible mechanisms. Four extracts (petroleum ether, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) were prepared by cold maceration. Extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antiproliferative assays; the most bioactive was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography into seven fractions (F1-F7). Antioxidant activity was measured via total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most active fraction was tested for apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Apoptotic-related gene expression was studied by RT-PCR. Ethyl acetate extract was bioactive in initial assays. Its fraction, F7, exhibited highest antioxidant capacity (TPC; 113.16 ± 6.2 mg GAE/g extract, DPPH; EC50: 30.5 ± 3.2 μg/mL, FRAP; 1169 ± 20.3 μmol Fe (II)/mg extract) and selective antiproliferative effect (IC50: 25.75 ± 1.5 μg/mL). F7 induced apoptosis in concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused cell cycle arrest at S-phase. Upregulation of proapoptotic genes (Bax, p53, and caspase-3) and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, were observed. In conclusion, F7 was antiproliferative to HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and via antioxidative effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  14. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS
    Molecules, 2014;19(2):2497-522.
    PMID: 24566317 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19022497
    Honey is a natural product known for its varied biological or pharmacological activities-ranging from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihypertensive to hypoglycemic effects. This review article focuses on the role of honey in modulating the development and progression of tumors or cancers. It reviews available evidence (some of which is very recent) with regards to the antimetastatic, antiproliferative and anticancer effects of honey in various forms of cancer. These effects of honey have been thoroughly investigated in certain cancers such as breast, liver and colorectal cancer cell lines. In contrast, limited but promising data are available for other forms of cancers including prostate, bladder, endometrial, kidney, skin, cervical, oral and bone cancer cells. The article also underscores the various possible mechanisms by which honey may inhibit growth and proliferation of tumors or cancers. These include regulation of cell cycle, activation of mitochondrial pathway, induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, induction of apoptosis, modulation of oxidative stress, amelioration of inflammation, modulation of insulin signaling and inhibition of angiogenesis. Honey is highly cytotoxic against tumor or cancer cells while it is non-cytotoxic to normal cells. The data indicate that honey can inhibit carcinogenesis by modulating the molecular processes of initiation, promotion, and progression stages. Thus, it may serve as a potential and promising anticancer agent which warrants further experimental and clinical studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  15. Abd Hamid NA, Hasrul MA, Ruzanna RJ, Ibrahim IA, Baruah PS, Mazlan M, et al.
    Nutr J, 2011;10:37.
    PMID: 21513540 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-37
    Exercise is beneficial to health, but during exercise the body generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are known to result in oxidative stress. The present study analysed the effects of vitamin E (Tri E®) on antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (Cat) activity and DNA damage in rats undergoing eight weeks exercise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  16. Hafizah AH, Zaiton Z, Zulkhairi A, Mohd Ilham A, Nor Anita MM, Zaleha AM
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2010 May;11(5):357-65.
    PMID: 20443214 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B0900397
    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0-1000 micromol/L) and it was observed that 180 micromol/L H(2)O(2) reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 microg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  17. Mailankot M, Jayalekshmi H, Chakrabarti A, Alang N, Vasudevan DM
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2009 Jul;47(7):608-10.
    PMID: 19761047
    Ethanol intoxication resulted in high extent of lipid peroxidation, and reduction in antioxidant defenses (decreased GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, and catalase, SOD and GPx activities) and (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity in kidney. Alpha-tocopherol treatment effectively protected kidney from ethanol induced oxidative challenge and improved renal (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity. Ethanol induced oxidative stress in the kidney and decreased (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity could be reversed by treatment with ascorbic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
  18. Kumar S, Miranda-Massari JR, Gonzalez MJ, Riordan HD
    P R Health Sci J, 2004 Jun;23(2):125-6.
    PMID: 15377062
    We report a case of jellyfish envenomation in a 39 year old male. He was stung extensively on both lower limbs by an unidentified jellyfish. This occurred in shallow waters of a beach in the vicinity of Labuan Island, Malaysia. The patient received ambulatory treatment with parenteral and oral ascorbate with remarkable recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  19. Heng EC, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Abdul Hamid NA, Hamid Z, Wan Ngah WZ
    Eur J Nutr, 2013 Oct;52(7):1811-20.
    PMID: 23287846 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0485-3
    PURPOSE: Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups.

    METHODS: Subjects were divided into two age groups-32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78% tocotrienol and 22% tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasma were obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified by MS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting.

    RESULTS: Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression.

    CONCLUSIONS: TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage*
  20. Ramasamy C
    Infect Disord Drug Targets, 2015;15(3):141-52.
    PMID: 26321324
    OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols constitute the major component in green tea, which represent a cluster known as catechins. The presence of polyphenols, especially the amino acid theanine and catechins with its antioxidant properties in green tea make them ideal for medicinal- dental applications. The objective of the paper is to delineate the role of green tea polyphenols in periodontal disease.

    METHODS: The Pub med data base was searched for human clinical studies, reviews pertinent to application of green tea polyphenols in periodontal health dating from Sep 1980- Sep 2014.

    RESULTS: The retrieved inference from the epidemiological surveys, in vitro studies and overviews of polyphenols, postulate green tea as potential natural antioxidant. Green tea mouthwashes possess limitations, which make them ineffective during the chronic stages of periodontitis. Human studies reveal that the prognosis of periodontal disease is better when the green tea catechins are used via local drug delivery.

    CONCLUSION: The maintenance of periodontal health could be enhanced by emphasizing the habit of drinking green tea in periodontitis patients. The future scope of the research demands the analysis of polyphenols at molecular level to have a better understanding of its overwhelming applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/administration & dosage
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