The specimens used were CaCO3 (Sigma Aldrich, purity 99.9 %). We have 23 parameters and 20 iterations, including two theta zero error, scale factor, thermal effect, coefficients for polynomial describing the background; U, V, W and mixing parameters of the profile peak function, lattice constants, positional parameters and overall isotropic temperature factors. Most the samples show that the crystal structure are rhombohedral with lattice constants a = b = 4.981 Å, c = 17.044 Å and space group is R3C. The microstrain (K) and the particle size (V) of CaCO3 ceramic were calculated using 10 the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of diffraction peaks from (0 1 2), (1 0 4), (0 0 6), (1 1 0), (1 1 3), (2 0 2), (0 1 8), (1 1 6), (2 2 1 ), (1 2 2) crystal planes are 2.1 x 10-2 and
362 nm, respectively.
Vatica najibiana Ummul-Nazrah (Dipterocarpaceae), from the Relai Forest Reserve, Gua Musang, Kelantan and Gua Tanggang, Merapoh, Pahang, is described and illustrated. This species is Endangered and known from small populations restricted to two isolated karst limestone hills. The type locality, Relai Forest Reserve limestone, is currently under threat from encroaching oil palm plantations and ongoing logging, which, if it continues, will threaten the Kelantan population with extinction. The morphology of V. najibiana and the similar V. odorata subsp. odorata and V. harmandiana is compared.
A new species, Microchiritahairulii Rafidah (Gesneriaceae) from limestone hills in Perlis, Peninsular Malaysia, is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, description, detailed illustrations, geographical distribution, regional provisional conservation status assessment (Endangered) and ecological observations of the new taxon, as well as an updated key to Microchirita species in Peninsular Malaysia, are provided.
Kajian ini dijalankan bagi menentukan kesan penambahan kalsium karbonat (CaCO3) dan sukrosa ke atas ekstrak roselle dengan menggunakan Kaedah Respon Permukaan. Sebanyak 21 perlakuan digunakan berdasarkan reka bentuk eksperimen Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Penentuan nilai pH dan Briks telah dijalankan. Bagi nilai pH, model yang didapati adalah 4.03+0.39x1-8.20x2-0.05x1 2-4.16x2 2-0.02x1x2 dengan nilai x1 adalah kalsium karbonat dan nilai x2 adalah sukrosa. Nilai positif pada kepekatan kalsium menunjukkan penambahan kalsium meningkatkan nilai pH ekstrak roselle. Model untuk Briks adalah 8.91 + 0.23x1 + 2.20x2. Nilai positif pada kepekatan kalsium dan sukrosa menunjukkan penambahan kalsium dan sukrosa meningkatkan nilai Briks ekstrak roselle. Penilaian sensori dengan menggunakan panel terlatih (n=8) menunjukkan penambahan sukrosa meningkatkan penerimaan keseluruhan terhadap ekstrak Roselle. Manakala, kesan penambahan kalsium karbonat telah mengurangkan penerimaan keseluruhan kerana ia merendahkan rasa masam.
Batu Reput’ is primary sediment mineral and abundantly found in Perlis. Perlis is one of the major producers of ‘Batu Reput’ in Malaysia that content large deposit of high-purity dolomite [CaMg (CO3)2]. Pure samples of ‘Batu Reput’ recently explored in the Koperasi Rimba Mas Padang Besar Quarry were investigated for their physical, chemical and mineralogical composition. SEM and XRD analysis methods were applied. The potential of ‘Batu Reput’ as a raw material in fertilizer production was investigated in this paper.
Two new species, Phlegmariurus iminii Kiew (Lycopodiaceae) from limestone karst and P. monticola Kiew from montane habitats, are described from Peninsular Malaysia and a new combination is made for Phlegmariurus pinifolius (Trevis.) Kiew. Phlegmariurus iminii, known from a single hill threatened by quarrying, is Critically Endangered; while P. monticola and P. pinifolius that are relatively widespread are of Least Concern.
A study was carried out to optimize the deacidification process for noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) extract using packed column of calcium carbonate. The experiments were based on a 3-level factorial design to study the optimum process of deacidification for M. citrifolia extract. The M. citrifolia extract was treated with CaCO3 packed in different column diameter (20, 25 and 30 mm), height of calcium carbonate (0, 0.5 and 1 cm) and feed rate (10, 30 and 50 ml/min). Physico-chemical characteristics which include pH, titratable acidity, turbidity, total polyphenol content and total soluble solids were measured. Results showed that only pH, titratable acidity and turbidity could be well represented using statistical models. For pH, only the effect of height of CaCO3 was found to be significant. While for titratable acidity and turbidity, effects of diameter column and height of CaCO3 were significant. The optimum conditions for the deacidification of M. citrifolia extract was by using a column diameter of 30 mm, CaCO3 height of 1 cm, and a feed rate of 50 ml/min.
Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest harbours 59 species, two subspecies and five varieties of mosses in 32 genera and 16 families that had been identified from a total of 589 specimens collected from the area. These figures represent 11.8% out of the 558 taxa, 20.2% out of the 158 genera and 34.7% out of the 46 families of mosses reported for Peninsular Malaysia. The total also represents 14.9% of the 442 taxa, 24.0% of the 133 genera and 40.0% of the 40 families of mosses recorded in Pahang. The largest family of mosses found in this limestone forest is Calymperaceae followed by Fissidentaceae. There are two new records for Pahang, Calymperespallidum Mitt. and Taxitheliumbinsteadii Broth. & Dixon. The analysis of species similarities of mosses found in the study area with some other selected areas showed that Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest had a high percentage of species similarity with Perlis State Park at Wang Kelian, another limestone forest, at 38%. Corticol is the main habitat utilised by mosses in Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest with 47 taxa, followed by the lignicol and calcicol each with 35 and 26 taxa, respectively.
The genus Senyumia was previously known from a single species, S.minutiflora (Ridl.) Kiew, A.Weber & B.L.Burtt, from a limestone karst, Gunung Senyum, in Pahang, Malaysia. Senyumiagranitica Kiew, here described and illustrated, is the second species of the genus. It differs from S.minutiflora, not only in its habitat, but also in its shorter leaves, larger, non-resupinate or only partially resupinate flowers and smaller seeds. It is known from a small, fragmented population from a low range of hills. Therefore, under the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria, it is assessed as Critically Endangered.
This study presents a list of land snails and slugs found on limestone hills in the District of Bau, the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo. Systematic and random sampling for land snails was conducted at eight limestone outcrops, namely, Gunung Stulang, Padang Pan, Gunung Kapor, Gunung Lobang Angin, Gunung Doya, Gunung Batu, Bukit Sekunyit and Gunung Sebayat. A total of 122 land snail species was documented with photographs of each species. Of the 122 species collected, 13 are new to science, namely, Acmella bauensissp. nov., Japonia bauensissp. nov., Plectostoma margaretchanaesp. nov., Microcystina arabiisp. nov., Microcystina atonisp. nov., Microcystina pariparisp. nov., Microcystina liratasp. nov., Microcystina oswaldbrakenisp. nov., Microcystina kilatsp. nov., Philalanka jambusanensissp. nov., Everettia microrhytidasp. nov., Everettia minutasp. nov., and Paralaoma sarawakensissp. nov.
Precipitated calcium carbonate fillers were loaded into the lumen of bleached mixed tropical hardwood pulp using polyethylenimine (PEI) and alum. Our results indicated that the addition of (PEI) increased the degree of loading of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) into the lumen of fibers. The degree of loading also increased with the addition of alum together with PEI. The mechanical strengths of the produced lumen loaded paper increased with the addition of PEI and alum. Meanwhile the mechanical strength without alum had slightly increased the mechanical strengths of the paper. Electron micrographs revealed that the PCC fillers were successfully loaded into the lumen of the fibers.
Miocene larger benthic foraminifera have been discovered from a limestone unit of the Kalumpang Formation. The limestone is exposed at the Teck Guan Quarry, Tawau, southeast Sabah. The Kalumpang Formation consists predominantly of interbedded mudstone and sandstone (graywacke), conglomerate, limestone, marl, chert and volcanic rocks. Five limestone samples have been collected and processed for petrographic analysis and identification of larger benthic foraminifera. The limestone is classified as packstone and mudstone. A total of seventeen species of larger benthic foraminifera have been identified. The foraminifera are divided into two assemblages namely Assemblage I and Assemblage II. Assemblage I is characterized by the presence of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) parva, Operculina sp. and Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) formosa. This assemblage is an indicative of Aquitanian to Burdigalian in age (Early Miocene). Assembalge II comprises of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) sumatrensis, Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) angulosa, Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) ferreroi Lepidocyclina sp., Miogypsina sp., Katacycloclypeus annulatus, Katacyloclypeus martini, Cycloclypeus carpenteri, Cycloclypeus indopacificus, Cycloclypeus sp., Flosculinella bontangensis, Operculina complanata, Amphistegina bowdenensis and Amphistegina sp. This assemblage is an indicative of Langhian to Serravallian age (Middle Miocene). The foraminiferal assemblages suggest that the depositional environment was a warm tropical shallow-marine at the fore-reef shelf zone.
The Semantan Formation which is Middle to Upper Triassic age, comprises a rapidly alternating sequence of carbonaceous shale, siltstone and rhyolite tuff with a few lenses of chert, conglomerate and recrystallised limestone. The shale and tuff make up the bulk of the sequence. Jaafar Ahmad (1976) was introduced the formation name of the rock sequence in Karak-Temerloh area, but the similar sequence (in term of lithology, paleontology and structural pattern) found in the other areas were given different names. After an extensive study, the following formations or part of them, may be include in the Semantan Formation; Raub Series (Scrivenor 1911); Calcareous Formation (Richardson 1939); Calcareous Series (Richardson 1947); Younger arenaceous Series (Alexander 1956); Raub Group (Alexander 1959); Jengka Pass Formation (Ichikawa et al. 1966); Kerdau Formation (Burton 1973a); part of Jelai Formation (Burton 1973a); Gemas Formation (Lum 1977); Jurong Formation (Burton 1973a); Pahang Volcanic Series (Hutchison 1973c).
Formasi Semantan merupakan jujukan batuan sedimen yang berusia Trias Tengah - Akhir di Jalur Tengah Semenanjung Malaysia. Jujukan ini terdiri daripada selang lapis batuan syal berkarbon, batu lodak, dan batu pasir yang kebanyakannya bertuf, serta terdapat kekanta konglomerat, batu kapur dan rijang dalam selang lapis ini. Syal adalah unit yang paling dominan dalam formasi ini. Jaafar Ahmad (1976) menamakan jujukan ini untuk kawasan Karak - Temerloh, tetapi jujukan yang serupa (dari segi litologi, paleontologi dan gaya struktur) juga ditemui di kawasan lain, tetapi dipanggil dengan nama lain. Dari hasil kajian menyeluruh yang telah dijalankan, didapati nama-nama unit batuan berikut atau sebahagian daripadanya mungkin merupakan penamaan yang serupa untuk Formasi Semantan, iaitu Siri Raub (Scrivenor 1911), Formasi Berkapur (Richardson 1939), Siri Berkapur (Richardson 1947), Siri Arenit Muda (Alexander 1958), sebahagian Kumpulan Raub (Alexander 1959), Formasi Jengka Pass (Ichikawa et al. 1966), Formasi Kerdau (Burton 1973a), sebahagian Formasi Jelai (Burton 1973a), Formasi Gemas (Lum 1977), Formasi Jurong (Burton 1973a) dan Siri Volkano Pahang (Hutchison 1973).
To evaluate the correlation of the intragranular textures on the physical properties of coarse aggregates, four aggregates samples consisting of three granitoid sources and one limestone have been studied. The role played by intragranular textures (mineral assembladge, grain size and grain boundaries) in influencing the physical properties are potentially significant to the fact that such textural variation may complicate the aggregate strength. This study indicates that the aggregates exhibited variation in textural habits. The granitoid aggregates, which is rich with silicate composition has typical heterogranular textures of porphyritic and equigranular grain structures. Whereas the limestone aggregate comprises of bioclast and peloid allochems cemented by micrite and spar. The granitoid aggregates showed better dispersed characters and had extremely interlocking crystal boundaries which have more physical strength compared to a carbonate aggregate.
The stability of the limestone cliff at Gunung Kandu, Gopeng, Perak, Malaysia was assessed based on the Slope Mass
Rating (SMR) system on 53 cross sections of the Gunung Kandu hill slopes. The slopes of Gunung Kandu were identified
as class I (very good) to IV (poor). The kinematic analysis showed that 12 out of 53 hill slopes of Gunung Kandu were
identified as having potential wedge, planar and toppling failures. The assessment showed that the stability of the western
flanks can be classified as stable to unstable with the probability of failure from 0.2 to 0.6. The stability of the eastern and
southern flanks range from very stable to partially stable with the probability of failure from 0.0 to 0.4. While the stability
of northern flanks are from very stable to stable with the probability of failure of 0.0 - 0.2. This systematic approach
offers a practical method especially for large area of rock slope stability assessment and the results from probability of
failure values will help engineers to design adequate mitigation measures.
A single sample from the logged section at eastern side of Gua Panjang limestone hill, southwest of Kampung Kubang
Rasa Village, Merapoh, has yielded 5 very important conodont species. They are Hindeodus parvus erectus, Hindeodus
parvus parvus, Hindeodus latidentatus latidentatus, Hindeodus latidentatus praeparvus, Hindeodus postparvus, Hindeodus
eurypge and Isarcicella staeschi. These Early Triassic conodonts were obtained in a bioclastic dolostone sample, located
2.5 m above bioclastic grainstone which yielded Late Permian foraminifera. The conodonts found were given Conodont
Alteration Index (CAI) scale of 5, consistent with the heating of Main Range granitoid during Indosinian Orogeny.
Limestone harbouring basal Triassic conodonts in Gua Panjang is interpreted to be deposited in an open shallow marine
Recently, the use of accelerated carbonation curing has attracted wide attention as a promising method to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and improve the mechanical properties of cement-based materials. However, the diffusion mechanism of CO2 in the matrix and the content of hydration products are the key factors that restrict the carbonation reaction rate. To understand the combined behavior of hydration and carbonation reactions, this paper investigates the influence of cement hydration induced by water-to-cement ratio (w/c) (ranging from 0.25 to 0.45) on microstructure and microhardness properties of cement paste. The experimental results demonstrated that carbonation only occurred at the surface layer of cement paste samples and carbonation efficiency was significantly influenced by greater hydration due to higher w/c. The carbonation depth of the sample with 0.45 w/c was about 6 times higher than that of sample with 0.25 w/c after 28 days of CO2 curing. XRD results revealed that calcite-type calcium carbonate is the main carbonation product and consumption of clinker phases (C2S and C3S) during the hydration enhanced the calcite precipitation in the pores of the surface layer. According to FTIR, with increasing w/c, the position of Si-O-Si stretching bond of the carbonated surface changed from Q2 to Q3, confirming the formation of amorphous silica-rich gel, along with the appearance of CO32- bonds related to calcite. In overall, the micro-mechanical analysis in this study showed that the carbonation significantly improved the surface microhardness of cement paste samples, while the refinement of capillary pores due to carbonation also decreased the negative impact of large pores formed in the matrix of cement paste prepared with high w/c.
Bird surveys were conducted in the Bukit Kepala Gajah limestone area in Lenggong, Perak from July 2010 to January 2011. The study area was divided into three zones: forest edge, forest intermediate and forest interior. A point-count distance sampling method was used in the bird surveys. The study recorded 7789 detections, representing 100 bird species belonging to 28 families. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the dominant families overall and showed the highest number of observations recorded in the study area whereas Motacillidae showed the fewest observations. The bird species were grouped into three feeding guilds: insectivores, frugivores and others (omnivores, carnivores, nectarivores and granivores). The species richness of insectivorous birds differed significantly among the forest zones sampled (Kruskal-Wallis: α=0.05, H=10.979, d.f.=2, p=0.004), with more insectivorous birds occurring in the forest interior. No significant differences were found among the zones in the species richness of either the frugivore guild or the composite others guild.
Bird surveys were conducted in the Padawan Limestone Area for seven days at each of two study sites, Giam and Danu, from August to December 2008. The purpose of the study was to compare the area's bird species richness and abundance of bird species in other limestone areas and in other forest types. The study also compared the species richness and relative abundance of birds in undisturbed and disturbed areas at both study sites. Twenty mist nets were deployed for 12 hours daily. During this study period, direct observations of birds were also made. In all, 80 species from 34 families were recorded at both sites. At Giam, 120 birds were mist-netted. These birds represented 31 species from 16 families. The direct observations at Giam recorded 13 species from 11 families. In the undisturbed area, 21 species from 13 families were mist-netted, whereas in the disturbed area, 21 species from 10 families were mist-netted. In Danu, a total of 48 birds, representing 25 species from 12 families, were mist-netted. The observations at Danu recorded 34 species from 19 families. Twelve species from 7 families were mist-netted in the undisturbed area, whereas 18 species from 11 families were mist-netted in the disturbed area. Statistical analysis showed that the species diversity index differed significantly between undisturbed and disturbed areas.