Mushrooms are fleshy fungi valued globally for their nutritional and medical benefits. The study was conducted at Ebonyi State University Mushroom Center, Abakaliki, to determine an optimum level of limestone (CaCO3) on the genotypes for maximum growth and yield. The experiment was carried out as a split-plot experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the use of Oyster mushroom variety. The two genotypes (GI and GII) were placed in the whole plot while limestone was placed in the sub-plot which consisted of five rates of CaCO3(Og,5 g, 10 g, 15 g and 20 g). Sawdust and rice husk substrates were used at the ratio of 60:40 and sterilized for six hours at 121 °C using the steam sterilization cylinder. The media bags were off-loaded after one day and allowed to further cool for another day before inoculation. The cultured spawn was used to inoculate the media upon cooling at room temperature. Data were collected on agro-morphological parameters such as primordial initiation, stalk height, stalk diameter, number of branches, number of fruits, number of productive bags, fresh and dry weights, and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result obtained indicated that there was a significant difference (P 0.05) in all parameters evaluated except the stalk diameter. Genotype I initiated more primordial compared to primordial initiation in genotype II and they differed significantly (p
A new species, Microchiritahairulii Rafidah (Gesneriaceae) from limestone hills in Perlis, Peninsular Malaysia, is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, description, detailed illustrations, geographical distribution, regional provisional conservation status assessment (Endangered) and ecological observations of the new taxon, as well as an updated key to Microchirita species in Peninsular Malaysia, are provided.
The specimens used were CaCO3 (Sigma Aldrich, purity 99.9 %). We have 23 parameters and 20 iterations, including two theta zero error, scale factor, thermal effect, coefficients for polynomial describing the background; U, V, W and mixing parameters of the profile peak function, lattice constants, positional parameters and overall isotropic temperature factors. Most the samples show that the crystal structure are rhombohedral with lattice constants a = b = 4.981 Å, c = 17.044 Å and space group is R3C. The microstrain (K) and the particle size (V) of CaCO3 ceramic were calculated using 10 the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of diffraction peaks from (0 1 2), (1 0 4), (0 0 6), (1 1 0), (1 1 3), (2 0 2), (0 1 8), (1 1 6), (2 2 1 ), (1 2 2) crystal planes are 2.1 x 10-2 and
362 nm, respectively.
Vatica najibiana Ummul-Nazrah (Dipterocarpaceae), from the Relai Forest Reserve, Gua Musang, Kelantan and Gua Tanggang, Merapoh, Pahang, is described and illustrated. This species is Endangered and known from small populations restricted to two isolated karst limestone hills. The type locality, Relai Forest Reserve limestone, is currently under threat from encroaching oil palm plantations and ongoing logging, which, if it continues, will threaten the Kelantan population with extinction. The morphology of V. najibiana and the similar V. odorata subsp. odorata and V. harmandiana is compared.
Kajian ini dijalankan bagi menentukan kesan penambahan kalsium karbonat (CaCO3) dan sukrosa ke atas ekstrak roselle dengan menggunakan Kaedah Respon Permukaan. Sebanyak 21 perlakuan digunakan berdasarkan reka bentuk eksperimen Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). Penentuan nilai pH dan Briks telah dijalankan. Bagi nilai pH, model yang didapati adalah 4.03+0.39x1-8.20x2-0.05x1 2-4.16x2 2-0.02x1x2 dengan nilai x1 adalah kalsium karbonat dan nilai x2 adalah sukrosa. Nilai positif pada kepekatan kalsium menunjukkan penambahan kalsium meningkatkan nilai pH ekstrak roselle. Model untuk Briks adalah 8.91 + 0.23x1 + 2.20x2. Nilai positif pada kepekatan kalsium dan sukrosa menunjukkan penambahan kalsium dan sukrosa meningkatkan nilai Briks ekstrak roselle. Penilaian sensori dengan menggunakan panel terlatih (n=8) menunjukkan penambahan sukrosa meningkatkan penerimaan keseluruhan terhadap ekstrak Roselle. Manakala, kesan penambahan kalsium karbonat telah mengurangkan penerimaan keseluruhan kerana ia merendahkan rasa masam.
The final disposal of waste generated by human activities has been turned into a great challenge; until now, little attention has been paid to organic waste, particularly from the restaurant sector. This work describes the process of obtaining calcium carbonate contained in oyster and clam shells re-collected in seafood restaurants. The IR absorption spectra of all the samples revealed the presence of characteristic bands of the carbonate group located at 872, 712 and 1414 cm-1; the peak at 1081 cm-1 of the clamshells confirms the presence of the aragonite phase. The SEM images allow observing a granular morphology whose agglomerates having a size within the range of 0.5-15 μm in brown shells, and a lower dispersion prevails in the grey species and oyster shells that go from 0.3 to 5.9 μm. All of the shells were found to be composed of carbon (C), oxygen (O2) and calcium (Ca) in different concentrations. The calcium carbonate obtained from clamshells has an orthorhombic crystalline structure, while the oyster carbonate has a rhombohedral structure as the calcium carbonate used in the construction industry; the morphology particles also coincide with each other. The material obtained combined with a mixture composed of resin, cellulose, and granules were used to prepare a paste, which was used as a residential finish.
Acid sulfate soil characterized by pyrite (FeS2) which produces high acidity (soil pH < 3.5) and release high amount of Al3+ and Fe2+. Application of 4 t ha-1 Ground Magnesium Limestone (GML), is a common rate used for acid sulfate soil by the rice farmers in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the integral effect of ground magnesium limestone (GML) and calcium silicate and to determine the optimal combination on acid sulfate soils in Malaysia. The acid sulfate soils were incubated under the submerged condition for 120 days with GML (0, 2, 4, 6 t ha-1) in combination with calcium silicate (0, 1, 2, 3 t ha-1) arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The soil was sampled after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of incubation and analyzed for soil pH, exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K and available Si. A total of 2 out of 16 combinations met the desired soil requirement for rice cultivation. The desired chemical soil characteristics for rice cultivation are soil pH > 4, exchangeable Al < 2 cmolc Kg-1, exchangeable Ca > 2 cmolc kg-1, exchangeable Mg > 1 cmolc kg-1 and Si content > 43 mg kg-1. The combinations are i) 2 t ha-1 calcium silicate + 2 t ha-1 GML, and ii) 3 t ha-1 calcium silicate + 2 t ha-1 GML, respectively. These combination rates met the desired requirement of soil chemical characteristics for rice cultivation. Soil acidity was reduced by a gradual release of Ca2+ and SiO32- from calcium silicate continuously filling the exchange sites and reducing the potential of extra (free) H+ availability in the soil system. Combination of calcium silicate and GML, shows the ameliorative effect with; i) release of Ca, ii) binding of Al3+ making it inert Al-hydroxides and, iii) bind H+ to produce water molecules.
Mining waste that is rich in iron-, calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals can be a potential feedstock for sequestering CO2 by mineral carbonation. This study highlights the utilization of iron ore mining waste in sequestering CO2 under low-reaction condition of a mineral carbonation process. Alkaline iron mining waste was used as feedstock for aqueous mineral carbonation and was subjected to mineralogical, chemical, and thermal analyses. A carbonation experiment was performed at ambient CO2 pressure, temperature of 80 °C at 1-h exposure time under the influence of pH (8-12) and particle size (
Mining activities have often been associated with the issues of waste generation, while mining is considered a carbon-intensive industry that contributes to the increasing carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere. This study attempts to evaluate the potential of reusing mining waste as feedstock material for carbon dioxide sequestration through mineral carbonation. Characterization of mining waste was performed for limestone, gold and iron mine waste, which includes physical, mineralogical, chemical and morphological analyses that determine its potential for carbon sequestration. The samples were characterized as having alkaline pH (7.1-8.3) and contain fine particles, which are important to facilitate precipitation of divalent cations. High amount of cations (CaO, MgO and Fe2O3) was found in limestone and iron mine waste, i.e., total of 79.55% and 71.31%, respectively, that are essential for carbonation process. Potential Ca/Mg/Fe silicates, oxides and carbonates have been identified, which was confirmed by the microstructure analysis. The limestone waste composed majorly of CaO (75.83%), which was mainly originated from calcite and akermanite minerals. The iron mine waste consisted of Fe2O3 (56.60%), mainly from magnetite and hematite, and CaO (10.74%) which was derived from anorthite, wollastonite and diopside. The gold mine waste was attributed to a lower cation content (total of 7.71%), associated mainly with mineral illite and chlorite-serpentine. The average capacity for carbon sequestration was between 7.73 and79.55%, which corresponds to 383.41 g, 94.85 g and 4.72 g CO2 that were potentially sequestered per kg of limestone, iron and gold mine waste, respectively. Therefore, it has been learned that the mine waste might be utilized as feedstock for mineral carbonation due to the availability of reactive silicate/oxide/carbonate minerals. Utilization of mine waste would be beneficial in light of waste restoration in most mining sites while tackling the issues of CO2 emission in mitigating the global climate change.
The Damoh district, which is located in the central India and characterized by limestone, shales, and sandstone compact rock. The district has been facing groundwater development challenges and problems for several decades. To facilitate groundwater management, it is crucial to monitoring and planning based on geology, slope, relief, land use, geomorphology, and the types of the basaltic aquifer in the drought-groundwater deficit area. Moreover, the majority of farmers in the area are heavily dependent on groundwater for their crops. Therefore, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GPZ) is essential, which is defined based on various thematic layers, including geology, geomorphology, slope, aspect, drainage density, lineament density, topographic wetness index (TWI), topographic ruggedness index (TRI), and land use/land cover (LULC). The processing and analysis of this information were carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods. The validity of the results was trained and tested using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, which showed training and testing accuracies of 0.713 and 0.701, respectively. The GPZ map was classified into five classes such as very high, high, moderate, low, and very low. The study revealed that approximately 45% of the area falls under the moderate GPZ, while only 30% of the region is classified as having a high GPZ. The area receives high rainfall but has very high surface runoff due to no proper developed soil and lack of water conservation structures. Every summer season show a declined groundwater level. In this context, results of study area are useful to maintain the groundwater under climate change and summer season. The GPZ map plays an important role in implementing artificial recharge structures (ARS), such as percolation ponds, tube wells, bore wells, cement nala bunds (CNBs), continuous contour trenching (CCTs), and others for development of ground level. This study is significant for developing sustainable groundwater management policies in semi-arid regions, that are experiencing climate change. Proper groundwater potential mapping and watershed development policies can help mitigate the effects of drought, climate change, and water scarcity, while preserving the ecosystem in the Limestone, Shales, and Sandstone compact rock region. The results of this study are essential for farmers, regional planners, policy-makers, climate change experts, and local governments, enabling them to understand the groundwater development possibilities in the study area.
Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest harbours 59 species, two subspecies and five varieties of mosses in 32 genera and 16 families that had been identified from a total of 589 specimens collected from the area. These figures represent 11.8% out of the 558 taxa, 20.2% out of the 158 genera and 34.7% out of the 46 families of mosses reported for Peninsular Malaysia. The total also represents 14.9% of the 442 taxa, 24.0% of the 133 genera and 40.0% of the 40 families of mosses recorded in Pahang. The largest family of mosses found in this limestone forest is Calymperaceae followed by Fissidentaceae. There are two new records for Pahang, Calymperespallidum Mitt. and Taxitheliumbinsteadii Broth. & Dixon. The analysis of species similarities of mosses found in the study area with some other selected areas showed that Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest had a high percentage of species similarity with Perlis State Park at Wang Kelian, another limestone forest, at 38%. Corticol is the main habitat utilised by mosses in Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest with 47 taxa, followed by the lignicol and calcicol each with 35 and 26 taxa, respectively.
The genus Senyumia was previously known from a single species, S.minutiflora (Ridl.) Kiew, A.Weber & B.L.Burtt, from a limestone karst, Gunung Senyum, in Pahang, Malaysia. Senyumiagranitica Kiew, here described and illustrated, is the second species of the genus. It differs from S.minutiflora, not only in its habitat, but also in its shorter leaves, larger, non-resupinate or only partially resupinate flowers and smaller seeds. It is known from a small, fragmented population from a low range of hills. Therefore, under the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria, it is assessed as Critically Endangered.
This study presents a list of land snails and slugs found on limestone hills in the District of Bau, the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo. Systematic and random sampling for land snails was conducted at eight limestone outcrops, namely, Gunung Stulang, Padang Pan, Gunung Kapor, Gunung Lobang Angin, Gunung Doya, Gunung Batu, Bukit Sekunyit and Gunung Sebayat. A total of 122 land snail species was documented with photographs of each species. Of the 122 species collected, 13 are new to science, namely, Acmella bauensissp. nov., Japonia bauensissp. nov., Plectostoma margaretchanaesp. nov., Microcystina arabiisp. nov., Microcystina atonisp. nov., Microcystina pariparisp. nov., Microcystina liratasp. nov., Microcystina oswaldbrakenisp. nov., Microcystina kilatsp. nov., Philalanka jambusanensissp. nov., Everettia microrhytidasp. nov., Everettia minutasp. nov., and Paralaoma sarawakensissp. nov.
Recently, the use of accelerated carbonation curing has attracted wide attention as a promising method to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and improve the mechanical properties of cement-based materials. However, the diffusion mechanism of CO2 in the matrix and the content of hydration products are the key factors that restrict the carbonation reaction rate. To understand the combined behavior of hydration and carbonation reactions, this paper investigates the influence of cement hydration induced by water-to-cement ratio (w/c) (ranging from 0.25 to 0.45) on microstructure and microhardness properties of cement paste. The experimental results demonstrated that carbonation only occurred at the surface layer of cement paste samples and carbonation efficiency was significantly influenced by greater hydration due to higher w/c. The carbonation depth of the sample with 0.45 w/c was about 6 times higher than that of sample with 0.25 w/c after 28 days of CO2 curing. XRD results revealed that calcite-type calcium carbonate is the main carbonation product and consumption of clinker phases (C2S and C3S) during the hydration enhanced the calcite precipitation in the pores of the surface layer. According to FTIR, with increasing w/c, the position of Si-O-Si stretching bond of the carbonated surface changed from Q2 to Q3, confirming the formation of amorphous silica-rich gel, along with the appearance of CO32- bonds related to calcite. In overall, the micro-mechanical analysis in this study showed that the carbonation significantly improved the surface microhardness of cement paste samples, while the refinement of capillary pores due to carbonation also decreased the negative impact of large pores formed in the matrix of cement paste prepared with high w/c.
Bird surveys were conducted in the Bukit Kepala Gajah limestone area in Lenggong, Perak from July 2010 to January 2011. The study area was divided into three zones: forest edge, forest intermediate and forest interior. A point-count distance sampling method was used in the bird surveys. The study recorded 7789 detections, representing 100 bird species belonging to 28 families. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the dominant families overall and showed the highest number of observations recorded in the study area whereas Motacillidae showed the fewest observations. The bird species were grouped into three feeding guilds: insectivores, frugivores and others (omnivores, carnivores, nectarivores and granivores). The species richness of insectivorous birds differed significantly among the forest zones sampled (Kruskal-Wallis: α=0.05, H=10.979, d.f.=2, p=0.004), with more insectivorous birds occurring in the forest interior. No significant differences were found among the zones in the species richness of either the frugivore guild or the composite others guild.
Bird surveys were conducted in the Padawan Limestone Area for seven days at each of two study sites, Giam and Danu, from August to December 2008. The purpose of the study was to compare the area's bird species richness and abundance of bird species in other limestone areas and in other forest types. The study also compared the species richness and relative abundance of birds in undisturbed and disturbed areas at both study sites. Twenty mist nets were deployed for 12 hours daily. During this study period, direct observations of birds were also made. In all, 80 species from 34 families were recorded at both sites. At Giam, 120 birds were mist-netted. These birds represented 31 species from 16 families. The direct observations at Giam recorded 13 species from 11 families. In the undisturbed area, 21 species from 13 families were mist-netted, whereas in the disturbed area, 21 species from 10 families were mist-netted. In Danu, a total of 48 birds, representing 25 species from 12 families, were mist-netted. The observations at Danu recorded 34 species from 19 families. Twelve species from 7 families were mist-netted in the undisturbed area, whereas 18 species from 11 families were mist-netted in the disturbed area. Statistical analysis showed that the species diversity index differed significantly between undisturbed and disturbed areas.
Batu Reput’ is primary sediment mineral and abundantly found in Perlis. Perlis is one of the major producers of ‘Batu Reput’ in Malaysia that content large deposit of high-purity dolomite [CaMg (CO3)2]. Pure samples of ‘Batu Reput’ recently explored in the Koperasi Rimba Mas Padang Besar Quarry were investigated for their physical, chemical and mineralogical composition. SEM and XRD analysis methods were applied. The potential of ‘Batu Reput’ as a raw material in fertilizer production was investigated in this paper.
Two new species, Phlegmariurus iminii Kiew (Lycopodiaceae) from limestone karst and P. monticola Kiew from montane habitats, are described from Peninsular Malaysia and a new combination is made for Phlegmariurus pinifolius (Trevis.) Kiew. Phlegmariurus iminii, known from a single hill threatened by quarrying, is Critically Endangered; while P. monticola and P. pinifolius that are relatively widespread are of Least Concern.
Precipitated calcium carbonate fillers were loaded into the lumen of bleached mixed tropical hardwood pulp using polyethylenimine (PEI) and alum. Our results indicated that the addition of (PEI) increased the degree of loading of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) into the lumen of fibers. The degree of loading also increased with the addition of alum together with PEI. The mechanical strengths of the produced lumen loaded paper increased with the addition of PEI and alum. Meanwhile the mechanical strength without alum had slightly increased the mechanical strengths of the paper. Electron micrographs revealed that the PCC fillers were successfully loaded into the lumen of the fibers.