Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Kadir R, Awang K, Khamaruddin Z, Soit Z
    An Acad Bras Cienc, 2015 Apr-Jun;87(2):743-51.
    PMID: 26131633 DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201520140041
    Wood extractives from heartwood of Callophylum inophyllum (bintangor) were obtained by shaker method and analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten compounds were identified by ethanol (EtOH) solvents, fourteen by methanol (MeOH) and only nine by petroleum ether (PETETHR). Major compounds were contributed by monoterpenes (75.11%, 53.75%) when extracted with EtOH and PETETHR solvents. The anti-termitic assay of the wood extracts was also investigated against Coptotermes curvignathus. The level of concentration for anti-termite activity may be an indication of the dose application of the wood extracts for new development of termiticide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  2. Mah SH, Lian Ee GC, Teh SS, Sukari MA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Mar;28(2):425-9.
    PMID: 25730799
    Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  3. Kar Wei L, Zamakshshari NH, Ee GCL, Mah SH, Mohd Nor SM
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 Sep;32(18):2147-2151.
    PMID: 28826239 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1367781
    Two naturally occurring xanthones, ananixanthone (1) and β-mangostin (2), were isolated using column chromatographic method from the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Calophyllum teysmannii, respectively. The major constituent, ananixanthone (1), was subjected to structural modifications via acetylation, methylation and benzylation yielding four new xanthone derivatives, ananixanthone monoacetate (3), ananixanthone diacetate (4), 5-methoxyananixanthone (5) and 5-O-benzylananixanthone (6). Compound 1 together with its four new derivatives were subjected to MTT assay against three cancer cell lines; SNU-1, K562 and LS174T. The results indicated that the parent compound has greater cytotoxicity capabilities against SNU-1 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.97 ± 0.11 and 2.96 ± 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 5 on the other hand exhibited better cytotoxicity against LS174T cell line with an IC50 value of 5.76 ± 1.07 μg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  4. Mah SH, Ee GC, Teh SS, Rahmani M, Lim YM, Go R
    Molecules, 2012 Jul 10;17(7):8303-11.
    PMID: 22781442 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17078303
    Our continuing studies on secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri has led to the isolation of another new diprenylated xanthone, phylattrin (1), in addition to five other xanthones and two common sterols. The xanthones are soulattrin (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), brasixanthone B (5) and trapezifolixanthone (6) while the sterols are stigmasterol (7) and β-sitosterol (8). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR and UV. Compounds 1-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SNU-1, HeLa, Hep G2, NCI-H23, K562, Raji, LS174T, IMR-32 and SK-MEL-28 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  5. Lim CK, Subramaniam H, Say YH, Jong VY, Khaledi H, Chee CF
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(21):1970-7.
    PMID: 25716662 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1015020
    A new chromanone acid, namely caloteysmannic acid (1), along with three known compounds, calolongic acid (2), isocalolongic acid (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum teysmannii. All these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities in the MTT and DPPH assays, respectively. The structure of compound 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HR-EIMS spectrometry. The stereochemical assignment of compound 1 was done based on the NMR results and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The preliminary assay results revealed that all the test compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against HeLa cancer cell line, in particular with compound 1 which exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity comparable to the positive control used, cisplatin. However, no significant antioxidant activity was observed for all the test compounds in the DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  6. Alkhamaiseh SI, Taher M, Ahmad F, Qaralleh H, Althunibat OY, Susanti D, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):555-63.
    PMID: 22713941
    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  7. Ee GC, Mah SH, Teh SS, Rahmani M, Go R, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Molecules, 2011 Nov 23;16(11):9721-7.
    PMID: 22113580 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119721
    The extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri gave a new pyranocoumarin, soulamarin (1), together with five other xanthones caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), trapezifolixanthone (5) and brasixanthone B (6) one common triterpene, friedelin (7), and the steroidal triterpene stigmasterol (8). The structures of these compounds were established based on spectral evidence (1D and 2D NMR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  8. Nasir NM, Rahmani M, Shaari K, Ee GC, Go R, Kassim NK, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Oct 25;16(11):8973-80.
    PMID: 22027953 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16118973
    The air-dried powdered stem bark of Calophyllum nodusum (Guttiferea) collected from Sandakan (Sabah, Malaysia), was extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and methanol. The solvents were removed by rotary evaporator to give dark viscous extracts. Detailed and repeated chromatographic separation of the extracts lead to isolation of two new xanthones, identified as nodusuxanthone and trapezifolixanthone A. Other common terpenoids such as betulinic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and friedelin were also isolated from the extracts and identified. The structures of the compounds were established by detailed spectral analysis and comparison with previously reported data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  9. Taher M, Idris MS, Ahmad F, Arbain D
    Phytochemistry, 2005 Mar;66(6):723-6.
    PMID: 15771897
    A polyisoprenylated ketone named enervosanone has been isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum enervosum together with three known compounds, cambogin, osajaxanthone and epicatechin. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial evaluations of the isolated compounds were also reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  10. Bin Ismail AA, Ee GC, Bin Daud S, Teh SS, Hashim NM, Awang K
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2015;17(11):1104-8.
    PMID: 26023810 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2015.1047353
    A new pyranoxanthone, venuloxanthone (1), was isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum venulosum, together with three other xanthones, tovopyrifolin C (2), ananixanthone (3) and caloxanthone I (4), along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (5) and lupeol (6). The structures of these compounds were identified using several spectroscopic analyses which are NMR, GCMS and FTIR experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  11. Cao SG, Sim KY, Goh SH
    Nat Prod Lett, 2001;15(5):291-7.
    PMID: 11841112
    Two new biflavonoids, pyranoamentoflavone 7-methyl ether (1) and pyranoamentoflavone 4'-methyl ether (2), have been isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum venulosum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  12. Ee GC, Ng KN, Taufiq-Yap YH, Rahmani M, Ali AM, Muse R
    Nat Prod Res, 2004 Apr;18(2):123-8.
    PMID: 14984084
    Our recent studies on the stem bark of Calophyllum mucigerum (Guttiferae) have yielded a new coumarin mucigerin, a prenylated xanthone cudraxanthone C and the common steroidal triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol. Structural elucidations of these compounds were achieved using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HETCOR and HMBC experiments while MS gave the molecular masses. Cytotoxic assays using CEM-SS cell line (T-lymphoblastic leukemia) on the crude extracts of the stem bark indicated some activity. The crude extracts were also found to be moderately toxic against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of mucigerin as well as bioassay data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  13. Lim CK, Gan SY, Yi V, Jong M, Leong CO, Mai CW, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Sep;32(5):2183-2187.
    PMID: 31813886
    Phytochemical investigation on the dichloromethane stem bark extract of Calophyllum castaneum resulted in the isolation of five compounds, namely isoblancoic acid (1), blancoic acid (2), euxanthone (3), friedelin (4) and friedelinol (5). All these compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-5 was assessed on a panel of cancer cell lines including bone (Saos-2, mg63), colorectal (HT29, Caco-2, HCC2998, SW48, HCT116, KM12), liver (HepG2), lung (H1299, Calu-3), and brain (C6), using 5-fluorouracil as positive control. Pronounced antiproliferative activities were observed for compound 1 which exhibited a comparable activity with the positive control, against brain (C6) and colorectal (SW48, KM12, HCT116) cancer cell lines showing IC50 values in the range of 14 to 65μM. Meanwhile, compound 5 displayed a greater cytotoxic effect showing at least 2-fold more strongly than the positive control, against C6 brain cancer cells. The assay findings have unveiled the therapeutic value of phytochemicals from Calophyllum castaneum as anti-cancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  14. Ee GC, Mah SH, Rahmani M, Taufiq-Yap YH, Teh SS, Lim YM
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2011 Oct;13(10):956-60.
    PMID: 21972812 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2011.600248
    The stem bark extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum furnished one new furanoxanthone, inophinnin (1), in addition to inophyllin A (2), macluraxanthone (3), pyranojacareubin (4), 4-hydroxyxanthone, friedelin, stigmasterol, and betulinic acid. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) while EI-MS gave the molecular mass. The new xanthone, inophinnin (1), exhibited some anti-inflammatory activity in nitric oxide assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  15. Nugroho AE, Sasaki T, Kaneda T, Hadi AHA, Morita H
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2017 May 15;27(10):2124-2128.
    PMID: 28389148 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.03.071
    Vasorelaxation activity guided separation of the methanol extract of Calophyllum scriblitifolium bark led to the isolation of 6 chromanones (calofolic acids A-F, 1-6). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their absolute configurations were investigated by a combination of CD spectroscopy and DFT calculation. All isolated chromanones showed dose-dependent vasorelaxation activity on isolated rat aorta.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  16. Mah SH, Ee GC, Teh SS, Sukari MA
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(1):98-101.
    PMID: 25229947 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.959949
    Extensive chromatographic isolation and purification of the extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri have resulted in 11 xanthones. C. inophyllum gave inophinnin (1), inophinone (2), pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7) and 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), while C. soulattri afforded soulattrin (3), phylattrin (4), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV. Cytotoxicity screening (MTT assay) carried out in vitro on all the xanthones using five human cancer cell lines indicated good activities for some of these xanthones. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the inhibitory activities exhibited by these xanthone derivatives to be closely related to the existence and nature of the pyrano and the prenyl substituent groups on their skeleton.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  17. Daud SB, Ee GC, Malek EA, Teh SS, See I
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(19):1534-8.
    PMID: 24897077 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.924001
    A new coumarin, hoseimarin (1), together with four other xanthones, trapezifolizanthone (2), osajaxanthone (3), β-mangostin (4) and caloxanthone A (5), were isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum hosei. The structures of these compounds were established by using spectroscopic analysis which included (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  18. Zamakshshari NH, Ee GCL, Ismail IS, Ibrahim Z, Mah SH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Nov;133:110800.
    PMID: 31479710 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110800
    The stem bark of Calophyllum depressinervosum and Calophyllum buxifolium were extracted and examined for their antioxidant activities, together with cytotoxicity towards human cancer cells. The methanol extract of C. depressinervosum exhibited good DPPH and NO scavenging effects. The strongest BCB inhibition and FIC effects were shown by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of both species. Overall, DPPH, FRAP and FIC assays showed strong correlation with TPC. For cytotoxicity, hexane extract of C. depressinervosum possessed the strongest anti-proliferative activities towards SNU-1 cells while the hexane extract of C. buxifolium showed the strongest activity towards LS-174T and K562 cells with the IC50 values ranging from 7 to 17 μg/mL. The purification of plant extracts afforded eight xanthones, ananixanthone (1), caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone I (3), caloxanthone J (4) xanthochymone B (5), thwaitesixanthone (6), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7) and dombakinaxanthone (8). All the xanthones, except 1 were reported for the first time from both Calophyllum species. The xanthones were examined for their cytotoxic effect against K562 leukemic cells. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 2.96 and 1.23 μg/mL, respectively. The molecular binding interaction of 2 was further investigated by performing molecular docking study with promising protein receptor Src kinase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  19. Tee KH, Ee GCL, Ismail IS, Karunakaran T, Teh SS, Jong VYM, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 Nov;32(21):2565-2570.
    PMID: 29355031 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1428588
    A phytochemical study carried out on the plant, Calophyllum wallichianum has led to the isolation of a new coumarin, wallimarin T (1) and a known coumarin, calanolide E (2) along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (3) and stigmasterol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, and NMR. MIC assay against the Bacillus bacteria were conducted on the extracts and this gave MIC values ranging from 0.313 to 1.25 mg/mL. Compound 2 was weakly inhibitory towards the Bacilli strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25-0.50 mg/mL. Wallimarin T (1) was not active towards all four bacteria. Overall, the extracts exhibited weak bactericidal properties whereas compound 2 was not bactericidal on the tested bacteria. The hexane and chloroform extracts of the plant were found to be inhibitors to the growth of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
  20. Shanmugapriya, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, Sasidharan S
    Nutr Cancer, 2017 10 25;69(8):1308-1324.
    PMID: 29068745 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2017.1367944
    This study was conducted to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanism of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cells. C. inophyllum fruit extract was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 23.59 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that C. inophyllum fruit extract mediated cell cycle at G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 was decreased whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome C and p53 were increased after treatment. C. inophyllum fruit extract led to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathway in a dose dependent manner. This is evidenced by the elevation of intracellular ROS, the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm), and activation of caspase-3. Meanwhile, dose-dependent genomic DNA fragmentation was observed after C. inophyllum fruits extract treatment by comet assay. This study shows that C. inophyllum fruits extract-induced apoptosis is primarily p53 dependent and mediated through the activation of caspase-3. C. inophyllum fruit extract could be an excellent source of chemopreventive agent in the treatment of breast cancer and has potential to be explored as green anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calophyllum/chemistry*
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