The title compound, C(16)H(17)N(5)S, is in the thione form and crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. In both molecules, the pentamethyleneimine five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation, and in one of the molecules this ring shows positional disorder. The thione S and hydrazine N atoms are in the Z configuration with respect to the C-N bond.
Solution-mediated transformation has been cited as one of the main problems that deteriorate dissolution performances of solid dispersion (SD). This is mainly attributed by the recrystallization tendency of poorly soluble drug. Eventually, it will lead to extensive agglomeration which is a key process in reducing the dissolution performance of SD and offsets the true benefit of SD system. Here, a post-processing treatment is suggested in order to reduce the recrystallization tendency and hence bring forth the dissolution advantage of SD system.
Seeding is a versatile method for optimizing crystal growth. Coupling this technique with capillary counter diffusion crystallization enhances the size and diffraction quality of the crystals. In this article, crystals for organic solvent-tolerant recombinant elastase strain K were successfully produced through microseeding with capillary counter-diffusion crystallization. This technique improved the nucleation success rate with a low protein concentration (3.00 mg/mL). The crystal was grown in 1 M ammonium phosphate monobasic and 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate pH 5.6. The optimized crystal size was 1 × 0.1 × 0.05 mm³. Elastase strain K successfully diffracted up to 1.39 Å at SPring-8, Japan, using synchrotron radiation for preliminary data diffraction analysis. The space group was determined to be monoclinic space group P12(1)1 with unit cell parameters of a = 38.99 Ǻ, b = 90.173 Å and c = 40.60 Å.
Diacylglycerol at 1 or 6% was added into refined bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and crystallized from the melt in a thermally controlled water bath at 22°C for 90 min. Slurries were withdrawn after 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of crystallization for solid fat content (SFC) and crystal morphology studies. Crystallization was also performed in a similar manner using a Labmax reactor connected to a FBRM detector to obtain the information on crystal count and size distribution during crystallization. SFC of the slurries increased with increase in crystallization time up to a certain level followed by a plateau. SFC of RBDPO added with DAG was also higher with the increase in percentage of DAG added and no induction time was observed to initiate crystallization in RBDPO added with DAG. The addition of DAG caused rapid crystallization of RBDPO as observed by enhance nucleation and larger crystal size with increase in the percentages of DAG added.
Carbon nanotube reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Al-CNTs) have been widely used in aerospace and automotive industries where high quality and strength is required. The enhanced mechanical properties of Al-CNTs are closely related to processing technique due to challenges within production of these composite materials. In the current review, solid state processing techniques used for synthesizing Al-CNTs have been reviewed to provide an insight into the features and capabilities of each technique regarding the incorporation of CNT reinforcements. To conclude, the mechanical performance of Al-CNT composites is mainly decided by the capability of each technique in the dispersion of CNTs within the aluminum matrix.
The binding of imidazolium salts to cucurbituril, CB, triggers a stepwise self-assembly process with semiflexible polymer chains and crystalline nanostructures as early- and late-stage species, respectively. In such a process, which involves the crystallization of the host-guest complexes, the guest plays a critical role in directing self-assembly toward desirable morphologies. These include platelet-like aggregates and two-dimensional (2D) fibers, which, moreover, exhibit viscoelastic and lyotropic properties. Our observations provide a deeper understanding of the self-assembly of CB complexes, with fundamental implications in the design of functional 2D systems and crystalline materials.
The title compound, C16H10, crystallizes with four unique mol-ecules, designated 1-4, in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic unit cell. None of the mol-ecules is planar, with the benzene rings of mol-ecules 1-4 inclined to one another at angles of 42.41 (4), 24.07 (6), 42.59 (4) and 46.88 (4)°, respectively. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯π(ring) interactions, augmented by even weaker C C-H⋯π(alkyne) contacts, generate a three-dimensional network structure with inter-linked columns of mol-ecules formed along the c-axis direction.
A new polymorphic form of the title compound, C8H8O3, is described in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/c with Z' = 1 as compared to the first polymorph, which crystallizes with two conformers (Z' = 2) in the asymmetric unit in the same space group. In the crystal of the second polymorph, inversion dimers linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur and these are linked into zigzag chains, propagating along the b-axis direction by C-H⋯O links. The crystal structure also features a weak π-π inter-action, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.8018 (6) Å. The second polymorph of the title compound is less stable than the reported first polymorph, as indicated by its smaller calculated lattice energy.
The title compounds, C14H12O, (I), and C15H11BrO2, (II), were prepared and characterized as part of our studies of potential new photo-acid generators. In (I), which crystallizes in the ortho-rhom-bic space group Pca21, compared to P21/n for the previously known monoclinic polymorph [Cornella & Martin (2013 ▸). Org. Lett. 15, 6298-6301], the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 4.35 (6)° and the OH group is disordered over two sites in a 0.795 (3):0.205 (3) ratio. In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯π inter-actions involving both the major and minor -OH disorder components, generating  chains as part of the herringbone packing motif. The asymmetric unit of (II) contains two mol-ecules with similar conformations (weighted r.m.s. overlay fit = 0.183 Å). In the crystal of (II), both mol-ecules form carboxyl-ate inversion dimers linked by pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating R 2 (2)(8) loops in each case. The dimers are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form  chains.
Topological defect nucleation and boundary branching in crystal growth on a curved surface are two typical elastic instabilities driven by curvature induced stress, and have usually been discussed separately in the past. In this work they are simultaneously considered during crystal growth on a sphere. Phase diagrams with respect to sphere radius, size, edge energy and stiffness of the crystal for the equilibrium crystal morphologies are achieved by theoretical analysis and validated by Brownian dynamics simulations. The simulation results further demonstrate the detail of morphological evolution governed by these two different stress relaxation modes. Topological defect nucleation and boundary branching not only compete with each other but also coexist in a range of combinations of factors. Clarification of the interaction mechanism provides a better understanding of various curved crystal morphologies for their potential applications.
The effect of various multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the tensile properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) nanocomposite was investigated. The nanocomposite was prepared using melt blending method. MWNTs were added to improve the mechanical properties of MWNTs/TPNR composites in different compositions of 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt.%. The results showed that the mechanical properties of nanocomposites were affected significantly by the composition and the properties of MWNTs. SEM micrographs confirmed the homogenous dispersion of MWNTs in the TPNR matrix and promoted strong interfacial adhesion between MWNTs and the matrix which was improved mechanical properties significantly.
High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) show promising application in food and cosmetic industries. In this work, diacylglycerol (DAG) was applied to fabricate water-in-oil (W/O) HIPEs. DAG-based emulsion can hold 60% water and the emulsion rigidity increased with water content, indicating the water droplets acted as "active fillers". Stable HIPE with 80% water fraction was formed through the combination of 6 wt% DAG with 1 wt% polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The addition of 1 w% kappa (κ)-carrageenan and 0.5 M NaCl greatly reduced the droplet size and enhanced emulsion rigidity, and the interfacial tension of the internal phase was reduced. Benefiting from the Pickering crystals-stabilized interface by DAG as revealed by the microscopy and enhanced elastic modulus of emulsions with the gelation agents, the HIPEs demonstrated good retaining ability for anthocyanin and β-carotene. This study provides insights for the development of W/O HIPEs to fabricate low-calories margarines, spread or cosmetic creams.
Therapeutic peptides derived proteins with alpha-reconformation states like antibody shape have shown potential effects in combating terrible diseases linked with earlier signs of angiogensis, mutagenesis and transgenesis. Alpha reconformation in material design refers to the folding of the peptide chains and their transitions under reversible chemical bonds of disulfide chemical bridges and further non-covalence lesions. Thus, the rational design of signal peptides into alpha-helix is intended in increasing the defending effects of peptides into cores like adjuvant antibiotic and/or vaccines. Thereby, the signal peptides are able in displaying multiple eradicating regions by changing crystal-depositions and deviation angles. These types of molecular structures could have multiple advantages in tracing disease syndromes and impurities by increasing the host defense against the fates of pathogens and viruses, eventually leading to the loss in signaling by increasing peptide susceptibility levels to folding and unfolding and therefore, formation of transgenic peptide models. Alpha reconformation peptides is aimed in triggering as well as other regulatory functions such as remodulating metabolic chain disorders of lipolysis and glucolysis by increasing the insulin and leptin resistance for best lipid storages and lipoprotein density distributions.
Methods of NMR relaxation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the crystallization of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) obtained from milk and subjected to ultrasonic (US) processing. Amongst the changes in the crystallization nature under the influence of ultrasound are the decrease in the crystallization temperature and the increase in the melting enthalpy of the anhydrous milk fat samples. The increase is ∼30% at 20 min of isothermal crystallization and is presumably explained by the additional formation of β'-form crystals from the melt. The parameters of the Avrami equation applied to the description of experimental data show an increase in the crystallization rate in samples with ultrasonic treatment and a change in the dimension of crystallization with a change in melting temperature.
Understanding crystallization behaviors is of utmost importance for developing robust amorphous pharmaceutical solids. Herein, the crystal growth behaviors of amorphous anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide (NIME) are systemically investigated in the glassy and supercooled liquid state as a function of temperature. A sudden over-tenfold increase is observed in the bulk crystal growth of NIME on cooling below its glass transition temperature (Tg). This fast growth behavior is known as a glass-to-crystal (GC) mode and has been reported in some molecular glasses. Fast surface crystal growth of NIME can persist up to Tg + 57°C with a weak jump in its growth rates at 30-40°C. In addition, surface crystal growth and GC growth of NIME exhibit an almost identical temperature dependence, supporting the view that GC growth is indeed a surface-facilitated process. Moreover, the bubble-induced fast crystal growth of NIME is observed in the interior of its supercooled liquid with approximately the same growth kinetics as surface crystal growth. These findings are relevant for a full understanding of the surface-related crystallization behaviors and physical stability of amorphous pharmaceutical formulations.
This paper presents the effects of calcination time and sintering temperature on the properties of CaCu(3)Ti(4)O(12). Electroceramic material of CaCu(3)Ti(4)O(12) was prepared using a modified mechanical alloying technique that covers several processes, which are preparation of raw material, mixing and ball milling for 5 hours, calcination, pellet forming and, sintering. The objective of this modified technique is to enable the calcination and sintering processes to be carried out at a shorter time and lower temperature. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis result shows that a single-phase of CaCu(3)Ti(4)O(12) was completely formed by calcination at 750 degrees C for 12 hours. Meanwhile, the grain size of a sample sintered at 1050 degrees C for 24 hours is extremely large, in the range of 20-50 mum obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images. The dielectric constant value of 14,635 was obtained at 10 kHz by impedance (LCR) meter in the sintered sample at 1050 degrees C. However, the dielectric constant value of samples sintered at 900 and 950 degrees C is quite low, in the range of 52-119.
Drug crystallization on and in the skin has been reported following application of topical or transdermal formulations. This study explored novel probe-based approaches including localized nanothermal analysis (nano-TA) and photothermal microspectroscopy (PTMS) to investigate and locate drug crystals in the stratum corneum (SC) of porcine skin following application of simple ibuprofen (IBU) formulations. We also conducted in vitro skin permeation studies and tape stripping. The detection of drug crystals in the SC on tape strips was confirmed using localized nano-TA, based on the melting temperature of IBU. The melting of IBU was also evident as indicated by a double transition and confirmed the presence of drug crystals in the SC. The single point scans of PTMS on the tape strips allowed collection of the photothermal FTIR spectra of IBU, confirming the existence of drug crystals in the skin. The combined methods also indicated that drug crystallized in the SC at a depth of ∼4-7 μm. Future studies will examine the potential of these techniques to probe crystallization of other commonly used actives in topical and transdermal formulations.
Aluminum substituted yttrium iron garnet nano particles with compositional variation of Y(3.0-x) A1(x)Fe5O12, where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 were prepared using sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the best garnet phase appeared when the sintering temperature was 800 degrees C. Nano-crystalline particles with high purity and sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were obtained. It was found that the aluminum substitution had resulted in a sharp fall of the d-spacing when x = 2, which we speculated is due to the preference of the aluminum atoms to the smaller tetrahedron and octahedron sites instead of the much larger dodecahedron site. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and electron diffraction (ED) patterns showed single crystal nanoparticles were obtained from this method. The magnetic measurement gave moderate values of initial permeability; the highest value of 5.3 was shown by sample Y3Fe5O12 at more than 100 MHz which was attributed to the morphology of the microstructure which appeared to be homogeneous. This had resulted in an easy movement of domain walls. The substitution of aluminum for yttrium is speculated to cause a cubic to rhombodedral structural change and had weakened the super-exchange interactions thus a fall of real permeability was observed. This might have created a strain in the sub-lattices and had subsequently caused a shift of resonance frequencies to more than 1.8 GHz when x > 0.5.
Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to 44°C while SMP of stearin fractions increased to (60-62°C) compared to PDAG.
Purified thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from Bacillus sp. L2 was crystallized by the counter-diffusion method using 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 A resolution using an in-house Bruker X8 PROTEUM single-crystal diffractometer system. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 A. The asymmetric unit contained one single molecule of protein, with a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.85 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 57%.