C50 carotenoids, as unique bioactive molecules, have many biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activity, and have a wide range of potential uses in the food, cosmetic, and biomedical industries. The majority of C50 carotenoids are produced by the sterile fermentation of halophilic archaea. This study aims to look at more cost-effective and manageable ways of producing C50 carotenoids. The basic medium, carbon source supplementation, and optimal culture conditions for Halorubrum sp. HRM-150 C50 carotenoids production by open fermentation were examined in this work. The results indicated that Halorubrum sp. HRM-150 grown in natural brine medium grew faster than artificial brine medium. The addition of glucose, sucrose, and lactose (10 g/L) enhanced both biomass and carotenoids productivity, with the highest level reaching 4.53 ± 0.32 μg/mL when glucose was added. According to the findings of orthogonal studies based on the OD600 and carotenoids productivity, the best conditions for open fermentation were salinity 20-25%, rotation speed 150-200 rpm, and pH 7.0-8.2. The up-scaled open fermentation was carried out in a 7 L medium under optimum culture conditions. At 96 h, the OD600 and carotenoids productivity were 9.86 ± 0.51 (dry weight 10.40 ± 1.27 g/L) and 7.31 ± 0.65 μg/mL (701.40 ± 21.51 μg/g dry weight, respectively). When amplified with both universal bacterial primer and archaeal primer in the open fermentation, Halorubrum remained the dominating species, indicating that contamination was kept within an acceptable level. To summarize, open fermentation of Halorubrum is a promising method for producing C50 carotenoids.
Bacterial pigments are potential substitute of chemical photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) due to its non-toxic property and cost-effective production from microbial fermentation. Serratia nematodiphila YO1 was isolated from waterfall in Malaysia and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA. Characterization of the red pigment produced by the bacteria has confirmed the pigment as prodigiosin. Prodigiosin was produced from the fermentation of the bacteria in the presence of different oil substrates. Palm oil exhibited the best performance of cell growth and equivalent prodigiosin yield compared to olive oil and peanut oil. Prodigiosin produced with palm oil supplementation was 93 mg/l compared to 7.8 mg/l produced without supplementation, which recorded 11.9 times improvement. Specific growth rate of the cells improved 1.4 times when palm oil was supplemented in the medium. The prodigiosin pigment produced showed comparable performance as a DSSC sensitizer by displaying an open circuit voltage of 336.1 mV and a maximum short circuit current of 0.098 mV/cm2. This study stands a novelty in proving that the production of prodigiosin is favorable in the presence of palm oil substrate with high saturated fat content, which has not been studied before. This is also among the first bacterial prodigiosin tested as photosensitizer for DSSC application.
An adherently growing MDCK cell line was adapted in a two-step process in a fully defined medium and in suspension. The resulting MDCK.SUS2 cells were subsequently evaluated for their potential as host cells for influenza vaccine production in two lab-scale bioreactors (wave and stirred-tank). Cell concentrations up to 2.3 x 10(6)cells/mL were obtained after 96 h, which is slightly higher than cell concentrations obtained with adherent MDCK cells cultivated on microcarriers (2g/L). Infections with influenza A/PR/8/34 and B/Malaysia resulted in high virus titers (2.90 and 2.75 log HA units/100 microL, respectively). The monitoring of extracellular metabolites, including amino acids, revealed a change in some of the metabolite consumption or release profiles, which indicates changes in metabolism during the adaptation process. Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process.
This article presents the development of a low-cost microcontroller-based interface for a microbioreactor operation. An Arduino MEGA 2560 board with 54 digital input/outputs, including 15 pulse-width-modulation outputs, has been chosen to perform the acquisition and control of the microbioreactor. The microbioreactor (volume = 800 µL) was made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methylmethacrylate) polymers. The reactor was built to be equipped with sensors and actuators for the control of reactor temperature and the mixing speed. The article discusses the circuit of the microcontroller-based platform, describes the signal conditioning steps, and evaluates the capacity of the proposed low-cost microcontroller-based interface in terms of control accuracy and system responses. It is demonstrated that the proposed microcontroller-based platform is able to operate parallel microbioreactor operation with satisfactory performances. Control accuracy at a deviation less than 5% of the set-point values and responses in the range of few seconds have been recorded.
Genital discharge from patients unth. smear positive gonorrhoea was transported from the clinic to the laboratory in. Stuart's transport medium (Oxoid CM 111). Within. six hours of transit time the recovery rate of gonococci was 94%. When compared with "bedside" inoculation onto Modified Thayer Martin medium, there was no significant difference in recovery rates up to 6 hours of transportation in Stuart's transport medium, However, the rate of isolation of gonococci was significantly reduced after 20 to 30 hours of transportation. It is concluded that Stuart's transport medium is an acceptable transport medium for specimens containing gonococci when specimens reach the laboratory within 6 hours of collection.
Preservation of leptospiral cultures is tantamount to success in leptospiral diagnostics, research, and development of preventive strategies. Each Leptospira isolate has imperative value not only in disease diagnosis but also in epidemiology, virulence, pathogenesis, and drug development studies. As the number of circulating leptospires is continuously increasing and congruent with the importance to retain their original characteristics and properties, an efficient long-term preservation is critically needed to be well-established. However, the preservation of Leptospira is currently characterized by difficulties and conflicting results mainly due to the biological nature of this organism. Hence, this review seeks to describe the efforts in developing efficient preservation methods, to discover the challenges in preserving this organism and to identify the factors that can contribute to an effective long-term preservation of Leptospira. Through the enlightenment of the previous studies, a potentially effective method has been suggested. The article also attempts to evaluate novel strategies used in other industrial and biotechnological preservation efforts and consider their potential application to the conservation of Leptospira spp.
Surfactants are compounds that can reduce the surface tension between two different phases or the interfacial tension of the liquid between water and oil, possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Biosurfactants have traits that have proven to be advantageous over synthetic surfactants, but these compounds do not compete economically with synthetic surfactants. Different alternatives increase the yield of biosurfactants; development of an economical production process and the usage of cheaper substrates during process have been employed. One of the solutions relies on the suitable formulation of a production medium by including alternative raw materials sourced from agro-wastes, hydrocarbons, or by-products of a process might help in boosting the biosurfactant production. Since the nutritional factors required will be different among microorganisms, the establishment of a suitable formulation for biosurfactant production will be challenging. The present review describes various nutrients and elements considered in the formulation of a production medium with an approach focusing on the macronutrient (carbon, nitrogen source, and C/N ratio), minerals, vitamins, metabolic regulators, and salinity levels which may aid in the study of biosurfactant production in the future.
Algae biomass comprises variety of biochemicals components such as carbohydrates, lipids and protein, which make them a feasible feedstock for biofuel production. However, high production cost mainly due to algae cultivation remains the main challenge in commercializing algae biofuels. Hence, extraction of other high value-added bioproducts from algae biomass is necessary to enhance the economic feasibility of algae biofuel production. This paper is aims to deliberate the recent developments of conventional technologies for algae biofuels production, such as biochemical and chemical conversion pathways, and extraction of a variety of bioproducts from algae biomass for various potential applications. Besides, life cycle evaluation studies on microalgae biorefinery are presented, focusing on case studies for various cultivation techniques, culture medium, harvesting, and dewatering techniques along with biofuel and bioenergy production pathways. Overall, the algae biorefinery provides new opportunities for valorisation of algae biomass for multiple products synthesis.
This study determined the effect of growth media and culture concentration on the growth, proximate, and microelement composition of Ankistrodesmus falcatus. The culture of A. falcatus was done using three media, namely Modified COMBO Medium (COMBO), Bold's Basal Medium (BBM), and Bristol, at two concentrations (50% and 100%). The results obtained show that the cell density (>3.5 × 107 cells/mL), optical density (>0.24), and specific growth rate (>0.429%/day) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in BBM and COMBO than in Bristol (<3.1 × 107 cells/mL; <0.23; <0.416%/day, respectively) at both concentrations. However, biomass was higher in BBM (>2.20 g/L) than in COMBO (1.87-2.13 g/L), while Bristol had the lowest value observed (1.70-1.73 g/L). Biochemical and microelement composition showed variations between media and at the different concentrations, with higher values observed in BBM and COMBO. Based on the growth parameters and nutritional composition, it was concluded that BBM and COMBO were better media for the propagation of A. falcatus growth than Bristol. The study also demonstrated that the microalgae can be cultured using half of the media's concentration to lower production costs.
A review of valorization of oyster mushroom species and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation is presented, with a focus on the cultivation and valorization techniques, conditions, current research status and particularly the hazard mitigation and value-added recovery of the waste mushroom substrate (WMS) - an abundant waste in mushroom cultivation industry. Based on the studies reviewed, the production rate of the present mushroom industry is inadequate to meet market demands. There is a need for the development of new mushroom cultivation methods that can guarantee an increase in mushroom productivity and quality (nutritional and medicinal properties). This review shows that the cylindrical baglog cultivation method is more advantageous compared with the wood tray cultivation method to improve the mushroom yield and cost efficiency. Approximately 5 kg of potentially hazardous WMS (spreading diseases in mushroom farm) is generated for production of 1 kg of mushroom. This encourages various valorization of WMS for use in agricultural and energy conversion applications, mainly as biocompost, plant growing media, and bioenergy. The use of WMS as biofertilizer has shown desirable performance compared to conventional chemical fertilizer, whilst the use of WMS as energy feedstock could produce cleaner bioenergy sources compared to conventional fuels.
Spirulina biomass accounts for 30% of the total algae biomass production globally. In conventional process of Spirulina biomass production, cultivation using chemical-based culture medium contributes 35% of the total production cost. Moreover, the environmental impact of cultivation stage is the highest among all the production stages which resulted from the extensive usage of chemicals and nutrients. Thus, various types of culture medium such as chemical-based, modified, and alternative culture medium with highlights on wastewater medium is reviewed on the recent advances of culture media for Spirulina cultivation. Further study is needed in modifying or exploring alternative culture media utilising waste, wastewater, or by-products from industrial processes to ensure the sustainability of environment and nutrients source for cultivation in the long term. Moreover, the current development of utilising wastewater medium only support the growth of Spirulina however it cannot eliminate the negative impacts of wastewater. In fact, the recent developments in coupling with wastewater treatment technology can eradicate the negative impacts of wastewater while supporting the growth of Spirulina. The application of Spirulina cultivation in wastewater able to resolve the global environmental pollution issues, produce value added product and even generate green electricity. This would benefit the society, business, and environment in achieving a sustainable circular bioeconomy.
The massive success of blockchain technology in Bitcoin is taking the world by storm by attracting vast acceptance from both the public and private sectors. Blockchain allows digital transactions between two parties without a third party as a broker. Blockchain is now applicable beyond fintech to various other industries. Among these, Hyperledger fabric has emerged as the most popular blockchain-based open-source permissioned platform targeting business applications. It has been used in over 400 proofs-of-concept blockchain and is well proven in applications, such as supply chain, healthcare, and so on. Despite the many obvious benefits observed in blockchain-enhanced platforms, there still exist technical challenges in scalability, causing performance deficiency, which includes latency and throughput. There is an exigent need to improve the current blockchain-based applications to have the blockchain nodes be scalable without compromising the blockchain performance. In this study, we present the impact of workload variance of up to 1000 transactions with the setup of 20 blockchain nodes in the Hyperledger LTS platform. The evaluation metrics are transaction success and failure rate, throughput, and latency in the blockchain. The transaction throughput was found to be consistent with the increasing workload on a constant number of nodes. However, it showed a declining trend with an increasing number of nodes. As far as the latency, it was in tandem with the increased workload and the number of nodes. We, therefore, conclude that the LTS version is suitable for small and medium enterprises that do not scale up.
Leptospires are preserved by frequent sub-culturing in semisolid media due to the challenge of low recovery by freezing or liquid nitrogen methods. The present study evaluated three liquid EMJH medium compositions (Medium A: Leptospira medium base EMJH, Leptospira enrichment EMJH, 5-fluorouracil (3%), rabbit serum (1%) and calf serum (1%); Medium B: same as Medium A but without 5-fluorouracil; Medium C: same as Medium B but with the addition of sodium pyruvate) for the revival of leptospires after storage at -80 °C. A total of 18 Leptospira serovars cultured in Medium A was aliquoted into cryogenic vials and directly stored at -80 °C. A hundred microlitre from each serovar culture stored at -80 °C was sub-cultured on a selected time over a period of 30 months into Media A, B and C. Regrowth on Media B and C showed a better and faster recovery (89-100%) (p-value <0.05) compared to Medium A (67-100%). Leptospires can be stored longer at -80 °C and a good recovery could be obtained when sub-cultured on EMJH medium without 5-fluorouracil.
Postbiotic RS5, produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum RS5, has been identified as a promising alternative feed supplement for various livestock. This study aimed to lower the production cost by enhancing the antimicrobial activity of the postbiotic RS5 by improving the culture density of L. plantarum RS5 and reducing the cost of growth medium. A combination of conventional and statistical-based approaches (Fractional Factorial Design and Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methodology) was employed to develop a refined medium for the enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of postbiotic RS5. A refined medium containing 20 g/L of glucose, 27.84 g/L of yeast extract, 5.75 g/L of sodium acetate, 1.12 g/L of Tween 80 and 0.05 g/L of manganese sulphate enhanced the antimicrobial activity of postbiotic RS5 by 108%. The cost of the production medium was reduced by 85% as compared to the commercially available de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium that is typically used for Lactobacillus cultivation. Hence, the refined medium has made the postbiotic RS5 more feasible and cost-effective to be adopted as a feed supplement for various livestock industries.
BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism.
Royal jelly is a nutritious substance produced by the young nurse bees and contains significant amounts of proteins which are important for cell growth and proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging.
The culture conditions for gibberellic acid (GA3) production by the fungus Penicillium variable (P. variable) was optimized using a statistical tool, response surface methodology (RSM). Interactions of culture conditions and optimization of the system were studied using Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three levels of three variables in a batch flask reactor. Experimentation showed that the model developed based on RSM and BBD had predicted GA3 production with R(2) = 0.987. The predicted GA3 production was optimum (31.57 mg GA3/kg substrate) when the culture conditions were at 7 days of incubation period, 21% v/w of inoculum size, and 2% v/w of olive oil concentration as a natural precursor. The results indicated that RSM and BBD methods were effective for optimizing the culture conditions of GA3 production by P. variable mycelia.