5G communications require a multi Gb/s data transmission in its small cells. For this purpose millimeter wave (mm-wave) RF signals are the best solutions to be utilized for high speed data transmission. Generation of these high frequency RF signals is challenging in electrical domain therefore photonic generation of these signals is more studied. In this work, a photonic based simple and robust method for generating millimeter waves applicable in 5G access fronthaul is presented. Besides generating of the mm-wave signal in the 60 GHz frequency band the radio over fiber (RoF) system for transmission of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with 5 GHz bandwidth is presented. For the purpose of wireless transmission for 5G application the required antenna is designed and developed. The total system performance in one small cell was studied and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the system was evaluated.
A dried high fiber product from bambangan (Mangifera pajang Kort.) fruit pulp was prepared and evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber composition. Mangifera pajang fibrous (MPF) consisted of 4.7% moisture, 0.8% fat, 4% protein, and 30 mg total polyphenol per g of dry sample, and 9, 79 and 88% soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber, respectively. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling, and solubility were found to be 9 g/g dry sample, 4 g/g dry sample, 16 mL/g dry sample, and 11%, respectively. The glucose dialysis retardation index of MPF was approximately double that of cellulose fiber. Soluble dietary fiber contained mannose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, erythrose, galactose, xylose, and fucose at 1.51, 0.72, 0.39, 0.16, 0.14, 0.05, 0.04, and 0.01%, respectively, with 5.8% uronic acid, while insoluble dietary fiber was composed of arabinose (18.47%), glucose (4.46%), mannose (3.15%), rhamnose (1.65%), galactose (1.20%), xylose (0.99%), and fucose (0.26%) with 15.5% uronic acid and 33.1% klason lignin. These characteristics indicate that MPF is a rich source of dietary fiber and has physicochemical properties which make it suitable as an added ingredient in various food products and/or dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties.
A configuration for linear cavity Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) generation is demonstrated using a standard single-mode fiber, two optical circulators, a 3 dB coupler, and a 95/5 coupler to allow high efficiency. With a Brillouin pump (BP) power of 13 dBm, the laser peak power is 12.3 dB higher than a conventional linear cavity BFL at an upshifted wavelength of 0.086 nm from the BP wavelength. In addition, it is revealed that the BFL peak power can be higher than the transmitted BP peak power when the BP power exceeds the second Brillouin Stokes threshold power.
The effects of backward, forward, and bidirectional Raman pumping schemes on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is investigated in this study. By using a linear cavity, we utilize residual Brillouin pump (BP) and Raman pump (RP) power after each transmission through a 25 km single-mode fiber (SMF) used as a gain medium. The SBS threshold power is reduced in the forward, backward, and bidirectional Raman pumping schemes by 2.5, 1.75, and 2.75 dB, respectively when the 1480 nm RP power is fixed at 150 mW and the BP wavelength is 1580 nm. Surprisingly, it is revealed that the SBS threshold reduction depends strongly and solely on Raman gain and it is independent of the Raman pumping schemes. In addition, the effect of Raman amplification on SBS is more effective at the SBS threshold, especially in the bidirectional and forward schemes.
A novel fiber tapering shape, which is based on compound parabolic geometry, is proposed to increase the acceptance angle of a compound parabolic concentrator. The proposed design is described by use of ray optics on a step-index multimode fiber.
A four-stage erbium-doped fibre amplifier with the gain bandwidth of 35 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was designed to include a dispersion compensating module to compensate the accumulated dispersion by signals. The amplifier design permited some dynamic features such as the amplifier’s gain could be adjusted from 15 dB to 30 dB by varying the input signal power from –26 dBm to 8 dBm. The maximum output power of 23 dBm was obtained with a maximum allowable gain flatness of 1.5 dB.
This paper reviewed the aspect of fatigue approaches and analysis in a fibre reinforced composite materials which have been done by researchers worldwide. The aim of this review is to provide a better picture on analytical approaches that are presently available for predicting fatigue life in composite materials. This review also proposes a new interpretation of available theories and identifies area in fatigue of natural fibre reinforced composite materials. Thus, it was concluded there are still very limited studies on fatigue analysis of natural fibre reinforced composite materials, especially using non-destructive technique (NDT) methods and a new mathematical modelling on fatigue should be formulated.
This paper presents an overview topic of layered and laminated fibre composites. The review presents an investigation on the effect of varying the properties of fibre and the matrix of layered and laminated composites and identifies the fundamental parameters determining ballistic impact protection. The advantages of layered and laminated reinforced composites with different thicknesses for further enhancing ballistic penetration resistance of the laminated fibre composite have been reviewed. Lamination of multiple layers of composite material can give better ballistic performance.
Olive fiber is a sustainable material as well as alternative biomass for extraction of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), which has been widely applied in various industries. In the present study, ONC-I, ONC-II, and ONC-III were extracted from olive stem fiber at different hydrolysis reaction times of 30 min, 45 min, and 60 min, respectively. The nanoparticle size was found gradually reducing from ONC-I (11.35 nm width, 168.28 nm length) to ONC-III (6.92 nm width, 124.16 nm length) due to the disintegration of cellulose fibrils. ONC-II and ONC-III possessed highly pure cellulose compartments and enhanced crystals structure. This study also showed that rigidity increased from ONC-I to ONC-II. ONC-III showed the highest crystallinity of 83.1 %, endowing it as a potentially reliable load-bearing agent. Moreover, ONC-III exhibited highest stable heat resistance among the chemically-isolated nanocellulose. We concluded that olive NCC could be promising materials for a variety of industrial applications in various fields.
This article presents findings from three separate data sets on food consumption in apparently healthy Malaysian adult males and females aged 22-60 years, and secondary data extracted from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003. Assessment of food intake by 24-hour recall or the food diary method and use of the nutrient calculator- DietPLUS- to quantify intake of macronutrients and dietary fibre (DF) in the primary data, revealed low mean DF intakes of 10.7±1.0 g/day (Course participants, n=52), 15.6 ±1.2 (University sample, n=103), and 16.1±6.1 (Research Institute staff, n=25). An alarmingly high proportion of subjects (75 to 95%) in these three data sets did not meet the national population intake goal of 20-30 g DF/day. A list of 39 food items which contain fibre, extracted from the MANS 2003 report as being average amounts consumed daily by each Malaysian adult, provided 19.2 g DF which meant that >50% of Malaysian adults consumed less than the recommended DF intake of 20-30 g/day. This large deficit of actual intake versus recommended intakes is not new and is also observed in developed western nations. What is of great concern is that the preliminary findings presented in this article indicate that the national population goal of 20-30 g DF/day may be beyond the habitual diets of the majority of Malaysians. Appropriately, the authors propose the inclusion of a daily minimum requirement for DF intake in the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines, which would somewhat mimic the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 1999 for dietary fat, as well as the stand taken by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) of the United Kingdom. This minimum requirement, if agreed to, should not be higher than the 16 g DF or so provided by the hypothetical 'high-fibre' healthy diet exemplified in this article.
Study name: Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS-2003)
Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.
β-glucans are soluble fibers found in cereal compounds, including barley, oats etc., as an active component. They are used as a dietary fiber to treat cholesterol, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These polysaccharides are important because they can provide many therapeutic benefits related to their biological activity in human like inhibiting tumour growth, anti-inflammatory action, etc. All these activities were usually attached to their molecular weight, structure and degree of branching. The present manuscript reviews the background of β-glucan, its characterization techniques, the possible ways to extract β-glucan and mainly focuses on membrane-based purification techniques. The β-glucan separation methods using polymeric membranes, their operational characteristics, purification methods which may yield pure or crude β-glucan and structural analysis methods were also discussed. Future direction in research and development related to β-glucan recovery from cereal were also offered.
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 μm. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about -58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of -52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from -57.0 dBm to -61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ~0.005 dBm/°C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone.
We demonstrate a simple configuration for generating a double Brillouin frequency shift through the circulation of an odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal. It is operated based on cascaded Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers that behave as the Brillouin gain media. A four-port circulator is incorporated into the setup to circulate the odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal in the fiber. It thus initiates a higher order Brillouin Stokes signal, which is double Brillouin frequency downshifted from the input signal. For the 5 km long fiber, the Brillouin pump power at 23 mW gives a clean output spectrum with 30 dB sideband suppression ratio. The output signal is 0.174 nm or approximately 21.7 GHz downshifted from the input signal.
A single-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) is demonstrated at the extended L-band region using bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) for the first time to the best of our knowledge. A 2.15-m-long Bi-EDF is used to provide both nonlinear and linear gains to generate a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and to amplify the generated SBS, respectively. The BFL operates at 1613.93 nm, which is upshifted by 0.09 nm from the Brillouin pump with a peak power of 2 dBm and a side-mode suppression ratio of more than 22 dB. The generated BFL has a narrow linewidth and many potential applications, such as in optical communication and sensors.