Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 320 in total

  1. Yow, K.S., Sapar, S.H., Atan, K.A.
    This paper investigates and determines the solutions for the Diophantine equation x2 + 4.7b = y2r, where
    x, y, b are all positive intergers and r > 1. By substituting the values of r and b respectively, generators of
    x and yr can be determined and classified into different categories. Then, by using geometric progression
    method, a general formula for each category can be obtained. The necessary conditions to obtain the
    integral solutions of x and y are also investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  2. Hui Yin Y, Ahmad N, Makmor-Bakry M
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2013 Nov;16(11):1119-32.
    PMID: 24494063
    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic disorders affecting individuals of all ages. A greater understanding of pathogenesis in epilepsy will likely provide the basis fundamental for development of new antiepileptic therapies that aim to prevent the epileptogenesis process or modify the progression of epilepsy in addition to treatment of epilepsy symptomatically. Therefore, several investigations have embarked on advancing knowledge of the mechanism underlying epileptogenesis, understanding in mechanism of pharmacoresistance and discovering antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying therapy. Animal models play a crucial and significant role in providing additional insight into mechanism of epileptogenesis. With the help of these models, epileptogenesis process has been demonstrated to be involved in various molecular and biological pathways or processes. Hence, this article will discuss the known and postulated mechanisms of epileptogenesis and challenges in using the animal models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  3. Nasir F, Asha'ari ZA
    PMID: 29423127
    Otitis media is a common disease encountered in the primary practice. Most cases are successfully treated with antibiotics without any sequelae. Because of these, potential serious complications of otitis media may be overlooked. We report a rare case of Bezold's abscess, as a complication of otitis media and discuss its pathophysiology and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  4. Lee SH, Reed-Newman T, Anant S, Ramasamy TS
    Stem Cell Rev Rep, 2020 Dec;16(6):1185-1207.
    PMID: 32894403 DOI: 10.1007/s12015-020-10031-8
    Quiescence in cancer cells is considered a therapeutic challenge as it confers dormancy in tumour, hence circumventing inherent anti-neoplastic surveillance system and standard-of-care cancer therapeutics including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Since majority of the therapeutics target actively proliferating cancer cells, cancer cells eventually develop quiescent nature as mechanism of survival and cancer progression under both niche and therapeutic pressures. Quiescence state in cancer cells, eventually, confers resistant and aggressive nature to conventional cancer therapies, resulting in disease progression and relapse. Therefore, targeting quiescent cancer cells or cancer stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach, however an extensive review of the relevant information is needed in order to device an effective therapy. While the evidence of quiescence regulation in CSCs is rather a complex molecular and cellular network, herein, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and extrinsic regulation in association with the function of CSCs. Findings on induction of quiescent state in CSCs population, its regulation at both cellular and molecular level, key molecular regulators, cellular events and processes including potential targets to develop therapeutics are extensively reviewed. This review also highlights the impact of CSC plasticity on quiescence which capturing the key challenge of targeting the cells in this state. Beyond understanding the mechanisms underlying quiescence nature of cancer cells, this review provides insightful perspective and future direction on insight in targeting these populations, hence collapse the tumour dormancy programme in order to eradicate tumour mass as a whole. Capability of CSCs to establish quiescent state as a mechanism of survival during unfavorable conditions, as well as its impact in cancer progression and subsequent relapse, including the potential therapeutic strategy to eradicate this CSCs sub-population in the tumor mass as an effective cancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  5. Destiani DP, Naja S, Dewi S, Rahmadi AR, Sulaiman SAS, Abdulah R
    Osteoporos Int, 2020 Nov 18.
    PMID: 33210179 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-020-05743-z
    Even though new drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been developed, methotrexate (MTX) remains a commonly used drug for RA management. In addition to monitoring disease activity during RA treatment, bone erosion should be closely assessed throughout long-term RA management. In this review article, we present a systematic review of MTX effectiveness in reducing the risk of bone erosion. We reviewed randomized controlled trial studies that involved MTX monotherapy or MTX in combination with placebo. Evaluation of the progression of bone erosion was examined by radiographic assessment such as total Sharp score (TSS) or van der Heijde score (SvdH or vdH TSS), joint space narrowing (JSN), erosion score (ERO), and proportion of radiographic nonprogressors. Several key factors were found to influence the response to MTX treatment, such as gene polymorphism. The exact mechanism of the prevention of bone erosion by MTX remains unclear, which warrants future investigations. The variability of RA disease activity in study subjects resulted in variations in the results reported by individual studies. Collective analysis suggests that MTX could slow down the progression of bone erosion based on a radiographic score of less than 0.5-1/year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  6. Woodberry KA
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2015 Dec;18:97-8.
    PMID: 26498721 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2015.09.005
    A recent article in this journal (Razali et al., 2015) reports the results of a 2-stage study screening for psychosis risk in Malaysia. The researchers incorporated both selective and indicated prevention strategies and included self-report items probing non-specific "early" experiences as well as attenuated psychotic symptoms associated with the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Given that increased stigma and reduced services may reduce help-seeking in many Asian countries, population screening may be more important to early detection of individuals at risk for psychosis. In fact, the availability of large population centers and greater trust of providers may make Asian research centers uniquely suited for conducting badly needed research on screening strategies and the role of cultural factors in the emergence of psychosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression*
  7. Irfan Mohamad, Alauddin, M. Husin, Saifulizan, A. Rahman
    Radicular cyst is the most common cyst in the mandible. It usually presents in the later age of life because the formation of the cyst is the last step in a progression of inflammatory events following a periapical inflammatory lesion. The cyst usually goes unnoticed because of the size that is rarely palpable, and it is often painless. In this paper, we present a 12 year-old girl who developed a relatively large cyst for the age. The outline of management is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  8. Nilashi M, Ibrahim O, Ahani A
    Sci Rep, 2016 Sep 30;6:34181.
    PMID: 27686748 DOI: 10.1038/srep34181
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a member of a larger group of neuromotor diseases marked by the progressive death of dopamineproducing cells in the brain. Providing computational tools for Parkinson disease using a set of data that contains medical information is very desirable for alleviating the symptoms that can help the amount of people who want to discover the risk of disease at an early stage. This paper proposes a new hybrid intelligent system for the prediction of PD progression using noise removal, clustering and prediction methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Expectation Maximization (EM) are respectively employed to address the multi-collinearity problems in the experimental datasets and clustering the data. We then apply Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) for prediction of PD progression. Experimental results on public Parkinson's datasets show that the proposed method remarkably improves the accuracy of prediction of PD progression. The hybrid intelligent system can assist medical practitioners in the healthcare practice for early detection of Parkinson disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  9. Kalra S, Kamaruddin NA, Visvanathan J, Santani R
    Eur Endocrinol, 2019 Aug;15(2):67-69.
    PMID: 31616495 DOI: 10.17925/EE.2019.15.2.67
    This communication shares insights into the definition of disease progression and drug durability in type 2 diabetes. Disease progression may be defined as gradual worsening of beta-cell function, clinically observed as an increase in drug dosage, drug frequency or number of glucose lowering drugs needed to maintain HbA1c control; and/or a ≥0.5% rise in HbA1c, unexplained by acute, modifiable factors, while using the same drug regimen; and/or as the occurrence or worsening of cardiovascular or microvascular complications, in spite of standard care, over a pre-specified time period. Durability of a drug or a drug combination may be defined as its ability to postpone or delay progression of disease, in a safe and well tolerated manner. Thus, all drugs that are able to prevent disease progression (i.e., postpone loss of glycaemic control, need for intensification of therapy or onset or worsening of complications) may be termed 'durable'.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  10. Razali MN, Mat Baki M, Kew TY, Mohamad Yunus MR
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):93-95.
    PMID: 31741939 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-017-1116-3
    Basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) is a rare tumour entity. Despite its tendency to be infiltrative and destructive tumour with propensity to recur, it rarely metastasizes and long-term outcome following surgery is favourable. This paper presents a 42-year-old male with residual BCAC of parotid gland that had extended into infratemporal fossa and intracranial. The important aspect of this case is the rarity occurrence of BCAC of parotid with intracranial extension and its surgical approaches to achieve tumour clearance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  11. Cheng KJ, Alshawsh MA, Mejia Mohamed EH, Thavagnanam S, Sinniah A, Ibrahim ZA
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2019 Nov 01.
    PMID: 31677065 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-019-00477-5
    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, has been found to play multifunctional roles in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Although much attention has been given to the diagnostic and prognostic values of HMGB1 in colorectal cancer, the exact functional roles of the protein as well as the mechanistic pathways involved have remained poorly defined. This systematic review aims to discuss what is currently known about the roles of HMGB1 in colorectal cancer development, growth and progression, and to highlight critical areas for future investigations. To achieve this, the bibliographic databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect were systematically screened for articles from inception till June 2018, which address associations of HMGB1 with colorectal cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 plays multiple roles in promoting the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, despite a few contradicting studies. HMGB1 may differentially regulate disease-related processes, depending on the redox status of the protein in colorectal cancer. Binding of HMGB1 to various protein partners may alter the impact of HMGB1 on disease progression. As HMGB1 is heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, it is crucial to further improve our understanding of the functional roles of HMGB1 not only in colorectal cancer, but ultimately in all types of cancers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  12. Cheong WL, Mohan D, Warren N, Reidpath DD
    Front Neurol, 2018;9:432.
    PMID: 29937752 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00432
    Background: Multiple sclerosis is thought to be relatively uncommon in the Asia Pacific region with prevalence estimated between 0 and 20 per 100,000. There is reason to doubt these estimates due to the lack of data from many countries and the growing evidence of variability in prevalence across small geographic areas. This study was conducted to systematically review the population prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability progression estimates of MS within the Asia Pacific region. Methods: The systematic review was conducted on articles from 1985 till 31st July 2017 within the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library databases. The review included articles that were population-based studies conducted on patients with MS in the Asia Pacific region that reported either incidence, prevalence, mortality, or disease progression. Hospital-based studies and non-research articles were excluded to ensure that only information representative of the population was included for analysis. Data appraisal and extraction was done by independent reviewers. This review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42017082760). Findings: Of the 2,757 articles found, 16 studies were included. Information on 6 (18.75%) of 32 Asia Pacific countries was found, with data representing 8% of the total population. Prevalence estimates were available for 6 countries while estimates for incidence (3 countries), mortality (4 countries), and disease progression (2 countries) were limited. Interpretation: The lack of epidemiological data available in the Asia Pacific region creates a blind spot in the surveillance of MS which obscures the true burden of MS, causing patients to struggle to receive the resources and funding that they need.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  13. Gopinath SCB, Perumal V, Xuan S
    3 Biotech, 2020 Jun;10(6):270.
    PMID: 32523864 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-02261-x
    This study correlated and quantified the expression of microRNA-155 with breast cancer to determine breast cancer progression. The target microRNA-155 sequence was identified by complementation on a capture-probe sequence-immobilized interdigitated dual electrode surface. The sensitivity was found to be 1 fM, and the limit of detection fell between 1 and 10 fM. The specific sequence selectivity with single mismatches, triple mismatches, and noncomplementary bases failed to complement the capture-probe sequence. The obtained results demonstrate the selective determination of the microRNA-155 sequence and can help to diagnose breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  14. Acosta ML, Mat Nor MN, Guo CX, Mugisho OO, Coutinho FP, Rupenthal ID, et al.
    Neural Regen Res, 2021 Mar;16(3):482-488.
    PMID: 32985469 DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.290097
    Compounds that block the function of connexin and pannexin protein channels have been suggested to be valuable therapeutics for a range of diseases. Some of these compounds are now in clinical trials, but for many of them, the literature is inconclusive about the molecular effect on the tissue, despite evidence of functional recovery. Blocking the different channel types has distinct physiological and pathological implications and this review describes current knowledge of connexin and pannexin protein channels, their function as channels and possible mechanisms of the channel block effect for the latest therapeutic compounds. We summarize the evidence implicating pannexins and connexins in disease, considering their homeostatic versus pathological roles, their contribution to excesive ATP release linked to disease onset and progression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  15. Shankar EM, Velu V, Kamarulzaman A, Larsson M
    World J Virol, 2015 Feb 12;4(1):17-24.
    PMID: 25674514 DOI: 10.5501/wjv.v4.i1.17
    Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  16. Djojodibroto RD, Thomas PT, Kana KT, Hla M
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Apr;69(2):60-3.
    PMID: 25241813 MyJurnal
    Some diseases may underlie finger clubbing. However, there is a dearth of information about early stage of finger clubbing because only few researchers have shown interest in it. We determined the Digital Index of normal, healthy subjects by using thread and manual Vernier calipers, the time used for the procedure, and its interrater reliability. The value of Digital Index was 8.86 ± 0.29 (Mean ± SD) with a range of 8.15 to 9.41. Interrater reliability was excellent with Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.966. Overall, the time taken to measure the Digital Index ranged from 21.93 to 68.80 minutes with an average of 35.97 ± 9.16 (Mean ± SD). Determining Digital Index need much time, but this can be overcome if we use Digital Index Quantitator (DIQ). Availability of DIQ in the hospital wards will be of much benefit. DIQ can also be used to accurately quantify the progression or regression of the clubbing process. This article proves that we need morphometry of digital clubbing as well as the correlation of the physical sign of clubbing with Digital Index.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  17. Arumainathan UD, Siow SC, Subha ST
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):240-1.
    PMID: 24326662
    Acute epiglotiitis is a disease of rapid onset and progression of symptoms and has been well described in children. The importance of being aware of this diagnosis is to prevent an acute upper airway obstruction that can be potentially fatal. Here we describe two cases of adult acute epiglottitis where the patients had severe symptoms of sorethroat but a normal looking oropharynx.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  18. Wong PF, Jong HL
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(2):1-6.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by annealing to complementary sequences in mRNAs. They are estimated to regulate at least one third of human transcripts and hence, manipulation of these miRNAs can profoundly affect the proteome and ultimately cellular phenotypes. A substantial amount of work has shed light on the crucial roles of miRNAs in diseases. miRNA expression profiles between normal and diseased tissues have identified miRNA signature patterns that correlate to disease development and progression. This review discusses some of the important miRNAs that are involved in endothelial cell senescence and dysfunction that contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  19. Jayapalan RR, Mun KS, Wong KT, Sia SF
    World Neurosurg X, 2019 Apr;2:100006.
    PMID: 31218281 DOI: 10.1016/j.wnsx.2018.100006
    Background: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (World Health Organization grade I) is considered as a benign tumor with very low potential for progression. The potential for malignant transformation of this tumor is not known and has never been reported before in literature.

    Case Description: We report a 42-year-old man, diagnosed with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle with a positive isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, progressed to glioblastoma after 6 years from diagnosis. We discuss the clinical history, radiological findings, and histopathological characteristic with immunohistochemistry findings observed in this unique case.

    Conclusions: Despite being acceptable as benign, based on our observations in this case, there is a potential for malignant transformation of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor. The role of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation leading to malignant transformation could not be established as our finding is novel and further prospective studies are required to prove this association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
  20. Mohd Sharif NA, Usman J, Wan Safwani WKZ, Siew Li G, Abdul Karim S, Mohamed NA, et al.
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2019 Nov;233(11):1132-1140.
    PMID: 31597554 DOI: 10.1177/0954411919874614
    Knee sleeves are often prescribed to alleviate pain in people with early knee osteoarthritis. However, the biomechanics underlying their pain-relieving effect are still not well understood. This pre-post study aims at evaluating and comparing the effects of two different types of knee sleeves on knee adduction moment. Patients with clinically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were recruited from the University of Malaya Medical Centre and were randomly assigned to two test groups using (1) a simple knee sleeve and (2) a simple sleeve with patella cutout. Knee adduction moment was collected using the Vicon motion capture system with two Kistler force plates. Pain, stiffness and physical functions were recorded using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. All measurements were taken before, immediately after and at the completion of 6 weeks of application (primary time point). In total, 17 participants with early unilateral knee osteoarthritis (47.7 (9.7) years) completed the study. Overall results show significant reduction in pain, early stance and late stance knee adduction moment and increased walking speed after 6 weeks of both knee sleeves application. This study results suggest that knee sleeves can reduce knee adduction moments in early unilateral knee osteoarthritis by 14.0% and 12.1% using the simple sleeve and the sleeve with patella cutout, respectively, and can potentially delay disease progression. In addition, knee sleeve with patella cutout does not provide additional benefits when compared to the simple knee sleeve.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Progression
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