MATERIALS AND METHODS: The solution to the problem was preceded by generation of a geometric CAD model of the device and nozzle for barophoresis, including the nozzle and injector geometry. The Ansys SpaceClaim software package was used to generate the CAD geometry.
RESULTS: When solving the problem of finding the optimal distance from the nozzle to the gum surface, the numerical modeling showed that at a distance of 5 mm, the volume fraction of liquid in the mixture is 18-20%. The mixture actually breaks through the gum, filling 0.8 mm of the gum thickness and spreading symmetrically to the sides at a distance of up to 3 cm, forming a cavity. At a distance of 10 mm from the nozzle to the gum surface, the liquid volume fraction in the mixture close to the gum lies in a narrow range of values of 5 to 7%. The mixture touches the surface of the gums, penetrating slightly - at a distance of 0.30-0.45 mm. At a distance of 15 mm from the nozzle to the gum surface, the volume fraction of liquid in the mixture near the gum lies in the range of 2-5%. The mixture slightly touches the gum surface, getting inside at a distance of up to 0.2 mm, having practically no effect on the gum.
CONCLUSION: The developed mathematical model confirmed the feasibility of application of barophoresis in the treatment of chronic generalized periodontitis. The optimal distance from the nozzle to the surface should be considered to be 10-15 mm. This distance is safe and allows the drug delivery to a depth of 0.45 mm.
METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.
RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.
CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.