Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

  1. Supriatna J, Setiawati MR, Sudirja R, Suherman C, Bonneau X
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2022;2022:5073059.
    PMID: 36408196 DOI: 10.1155/2022/5073059
    Palm oil production has increased significantly, specifically in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, this growth has raised environmental concerns due to the high discharge of empty fruit bunches, palm oil mill effluents, and other solid wastes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the treatment of palm oil waste by composting and systematically review insights into its application through a systematic literature review approach. Among the 1155 articles, a total of 135 were selected for a systematic review of palm oil waste management developments and their applications, while 14 were used for determining compost quality according to the criteria and requirements established in the systematic literature review. Moreover, using Egger's test, JAMOVI 1.6.23 software was used to analyze random effects models with 95% confidence intervals and publication bias. The results showed that palm oil waste was optimally treated by composting, which is considered as a sustainable technology for protecting the environment, human safety, and economic value. The in-vessel method with a controlled composting chamber is the best system with a minimum time of 14 days. However, it requires tight control and provides a final product with a high microbial colony form outdoors and indoors compared to the windrow system. This study is useful to see the bias of research results and helps to find new studies that need to be developed, especially in this case related to the management of palm oil waste into organic compost fertilizer and its application methods in the field. It is suggested that applying palm oil waste or compost is mainly performed by mulching. In contrast, new challenges for better processing to produce organic fertilizers and applicable technologies for sustainable waste management are recommended. The method must be affordable, efficient, and practical, combining compost quality with maximum nutrient recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/analysis
  2. Chia WY, Chew KW, Le CF, Lam SS, Chee CSC, Ooi MSL, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Dec;267:115662.
    PMID: 33254731 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115662
    Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  3. Sabrina J, Nurulhuda K, Amin AM, Sulaiman MF, Man HC
    Environ Pollut, 2022 Dec 15;315:120282.
    PMID: 36174812 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120282
    Studies have indicated that up to 47% of total N fertilizer applied in flooded rice fields may be lost to the atmosphere through NH3 volatilization. The volatilized NH3 represents monetary loss and contributes to increase in formation of PM2.5 in the atmosphere, eutrophication in surface water, and degrades water and soil quality. The NH3 is also a precursor to N2O formation. Thus, it is important to monitor NH3 volatilization from fertilized and flooded rice fields. Commercially available samplers offer ease of transportation and installation, and thus, may be considered as NH3 absorbents for the static chamber method. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the use of a commercially available NH3 sampler/absorbent (i.e., Ogawa® passive sampler) for implementation in a static chamber. In this study, forty closed static chambers were used to study two factors (i.e., trapping methods, exposure duration) arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The three trapping methods are standard boric acid solution, Ogawa® passive sampler with acid-coated pads and exposed coated pads without casing. The exposure durations are 1 and 4 h. Results suggest that different levels of absorbed NH3 was obtained for each of the trapping methods. Highest level of NH3 was trapped by the standard boric acid solution, followed by the exposed acid-coated pads without casing, and finally acid-coated pads with protective casing, given the same exposure duration. The differences in absorbed NH3 under same conditions does not warrant direct comparison across the different trapping methods. Any three trapping methods can be used for conducting studies to compare multi-treatments using the static chamber method, provided the same trapping method is applied for all chambers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/analysis
  4. Simha P, Barton MA, Perez-Mercado LF, McConville JR, Lalander C, Magri ME, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Apr 15;765:144438.
    PMID: 33418332 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144438
    Source-separating sanitation systems offer the possibility of recycling nutrients present in wastewater as crop fertilisers. Thereby, they can reduce agriculture's impacts on global sources, sinks, and cycles for nitrogen and phosphorous, as well as their associated environmental costs. However, it has been broadly assumed that people would be reluctant to perform the new sanitation behaviours that are necessary for implementing such systems in practice. Yet, few studies have tried to systematically gather evidence in support of this assumption. To address this gap, we surveyed 3763 people at 20 universities in 16 countries using a standardised questionnaire. We identified and systematically assessed cross-cultural and country-level explanatory factors that were strongly associated with people's willingness to consume food grown using human urine as fertiliser. Overall, 68% of the respondents favoured recycling human urine, 59% stated a willingness to eat urine-fertilised food, and only 11% believed that urine posed health risks that could not be mitigated by treatment. Most people did not expect to pay less for urine-fertilised food, but only 15% were willing to pay a price premium. Consumer perceptions were found to differ greatly by country and the strongest predictive factors for acceptance overall were cognitive factors (perceptions of risks and benefits) and social norms. Increasing awareness and building trust among consumers about the effectiveness of new sanitation systems via cognitive and normative messaging can help increase acceptance. Based on our findings, we believe that in many countries, acceptance by food consumers will not be the major social barrier to closing the loop on human urine. That a potential market exists for urine-fertilised food, however, needs to be communicated to other stakeholders in the sanitation service chain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
  5. Majeed Z, Nawazish S, Baig A, Akhtar W, Iqbal A, Muhammad Khan W, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(2):e0278568.
    PMID: 36848343 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278568
    Green biomass is a renewable and biodegradable material that has the potential use to trap urea to develop a high-efficiency urea fertilizer for crops' better performance. Current work examined the morphology, chemical composition, biodegradability, urea release, soil health, and plant growth effects of the SRF films subjected to changes in the thickness of 0.27, 0.54, and 1.03 mm. The morphology was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, chemical composition was analyzed by Infrared Spectroscopy, and biodegradability was assessed through evolved CO2 and CH4 quantified through Gas Chromatography. The chloroform fumigation technique was used for microbial growth assessment in the soil. The soil pH and redox potential were also measured using a specific probe. CHNS analyzer was used to calculate the total carbon and total nitrogen of the soil. A plant growth experiment was conducted on the Wheat plant (Triticum sativum). The thinner the films, the more they supported the growth and penetration of the soil's microorganisms mainly the species of fungus possibly due to the presence of lignin in films. The fingerprint regions of the infrared spectrum of SRF films showed all films in soil changed in their chemical composition due to biodegradation but the increase in the thickness possibly provides resistance to the films' losses. The higher thickness of the film delayed the rate and time for biodegradation and the release of methane gas in the soil. The 1.03 mm film (47% in 56 days) and 0.54 mm film (35% in 91 days) showed the slowest biodegradability as compared to the 0.27 mm film with the highest losses (60% in 35 days). The slow urea release is more affected by the increase in thickness. The Korsymer Pappas model with release exponent value of < 0.5 explained the release from the SRF films followed the quasi-fickian diffusion and also reduced the diffusion coefficient for urea. An increase in the pH and decrease in the redox potential of the soil is correlated with higher total organic content and total nitrogen in the soil in response to amending SRF films with variable thickness. Growth of the wheat plant showed the highest average plant length, leaf area index and grain per plant in response to the increase in the film's thickness. This work developed an important knowledge to enhance the efficiency of film encapsulated urea that can better slow the urea release if the thickness is optimized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
  6. Bhaskar KA, Al-Hashimi A, Meena M, Meena VS, Langyan S, Shrivastava M, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Feb;29(7):9792-9804.
    PMID: 34508308 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-16370-4
    A large amount of ammonia volatilization from the agricultural system causes environmental problems and increases production costs. Conservation agriculture has emerged as an alternate and sustainable crop production system. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia losses from different agricultural practices were evaluated for the wheat crop under different tillage practices. The results of the present study showed that the cumulative emission of ammonia flux from the wheat field varied from 6.23 to 24.00 kg ha-1 (P ≤ 0.05) in conservation tillage (CA) and 7.03 to 26.58 kg ha-1 (P ≤ 0.05) in conventional tillage (CT) among different treatments. Application of basal 80% nitrogen resulted in the highest ammonia flux in conventional and conservation tillage practices. The ammonia volatilization followed the following trend: urea super granules with band placement > neem-coated urea with band placement > neem-coated urea with broadcast before irrigation > neem-coated urea with broadcast after irrigation > slow-release N fertilizer (urea stabilized with DCD and N(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide) with band placement. The conservation agricultural practices involving conservation tillage appear to be a sustainable approach for minimizing ammonia volatilization and improving wheat productivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/analysis
  7. Rahman MM, Islam AM, Azirun SM, Boyce AN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:490841.
    PMID: 24971378 DOI: 10.1155/2014/490841
    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m(-2) preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m(-2). No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13-23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m(-2). The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m(-2) can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m(-2). The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
  8. Irfan SA, Razali R, KuShaari K, Mansor N, Azeem B, Ford Versypt AN
    J Control Release, 2018 02 10;271:45-54.
    PMID: 29274697 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.12.017
    Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
  9. Irfan SA, Razali R, KuShaari K, Mansor N
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Mar 22;9(3).
    PMID: 30970794 DOI: 10.3390/polym9030111
    A mathematical model for the reaction-diffusion equation is developed to describe the nutrient release profiles and degradation of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated controlled-release fertilizer. A multi-diffusion model that consists of coupled partial differential equations is used to study the diffusion and chemical reaction (autocatalytic degradation) simultaneously. The model is solved using an analytical-numerical method. Firstly, the model equation is transformed using the Laplace transformation as the Laplace transform cannot be inverted analytically. Numerical inversion of the Laplace transform is used by employing the Zakian method. The solution is useful in predicting the nutrient release profiles at various diffusivity, concentration of extraction medium, and reaction rates. It also helps in explaining the transformation of autocatalytic concentration in the coating material for various reaction rates, times of reaction, and reaction-multi diffusion. The solution is also applicable to the other biodegradable polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  10. Harun SN, Hanafiah MM, Aziz NIHA
    Environ Manage, 2021 Jan;67(1):146-161.
    PMID: 33001258 DOI: 10.1007/s00267-020-01365-7
    This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of conventional and organic rice cultivations and proposes a sustainable conceptual framework of rice farming based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A cradle-to-gate LCA was performed by using the ReCiPe 2016 method and SimaPro 8.5 software. The functional unit was one ton of rice grains harvested. Primary data were obtained from the farmer, while secondary data were collected from Ecoinvent 3.0, the Agri Footprint 3.0 database and the literature. The total characterization factors for global warming potential (GWP), water consumption potential (WCP) and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFP) were 457.89 kg CO2-eq, 98.18 m3 and 84.56 kg oil-eq, respectively, at the midpoint level for conventional rice, while the impacts for organic rice were 140.55 kg CO2-eq, 29.45 m3 and 22.25 kg oil-eq, respectively. At the endpoint level, the total characterization factors for human health damage (HH), ecosystem damage (ED) and resource availability (RA) for conventional rice were 9.63 × 10-4 DALY, 5.54 × 10-6 species.year and 30.98 Dollar, respectively, while for organic rice, the impacts were 2.60 × 10-4 DALY, 2.28 × 10-6 species.year and 8.44 Dollar, respectively. Rice cultivation impacted the environment, particularly in relation to three impact categories: GWP, WCP and FFP. The cultivation phase of rice production was the main contributor to environmental impacts due to the production and application of fertilizer and pesticides. It can be concluded that the application of LCA in agricultural sector is able to provide information and responses for policy makers in understanding the potential environmental impacts at various spatial levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  11. Liew CS, Kiatkittipong W, Lim JW, Lam MK, Ho YC, Ho CD, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Aug;277:130310.
    PMID: 33774241 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130310
    Sewage sludge has long been regarded as a hazardous waste by virtue of the loaded heavy metals and pathogens. Recently, more advanced technologies are introduced to make use of the nutrients from this hazardous sludge. Successful recovery of sludge's carbon content could significantly convert waste to energy and promote energy sustainability. Meanwhile, the recovery of nitrogen and trace minerals allows the production of fertilizers. This review is elucidating the performances of modern thermal treatment technologies in recovering resources from sewage sludge while reducing its environmental impacts. Exhaustive investigations show that most modern technologies are capable of recovering sludge's carbon content for energy generation. Concurrently, the technologies could as well stabilize heavy metals, destroy harmful pathogens, and reduce the volume of sludge to minimize the environmental impacts. Nevertheless, the high initial investment cost still poses a huge hurdle for many developing countries. Since the initial investment cost is inevitable, the future works should focus on improving the profit margin of thermal technologies; so that it would be more financially attractive. This can be done through process optimization, improved process design as well as the use of suitable co-substrates, additives, and catalyst as propounded in the review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  12. Norahizah Abd Rahim, Hasnah Md Jais, Hasnuri Mat Hassan
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016;27(11):9-13.
    The association of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and roots undoubtedly
    gives positive advantages to the host plant. However, heavily fertilised soil such as in oil
    palm plantation, inhibit the growth of mycorrhiza. Thus, the aim of this research is to
    distinguish and quantify the availability of AMF population and propagules at different sites
    of an oil palm plantation by Most Probable Number (MPN) assay. In addition, root infection
    method was employed to observe host compatibility through the propagation of AMF using
    two different types of hosts, monocotyledon (Echinochloa cruss-galli) and dicotyledon
    (Vigna radiata). Three different locations at an oil palm plantation were chosen for
    sampling. Each location was represented by a distinctive soil series, and were further
    divided into two sites, that is canopy and midway area. Midway site had a greater
    population of AMF compared to canopy. The result showed that different environments
    affect the availability of AMF in the soil. Higher number of AMF infection observed in
    monocotyledon host suggests that the fibrous root system provide a better association
    with mycorrhiza.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  13. Mohd Nazry Salleh, Farizul Hafiz Kasim, Khairul Nizar Ismail, Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Kamarudin Hussin, Saiful Azhar Saad, et al.
    Batu Reput’ is primary sediment mineral and abundantly found in Perlis. Perlis is one of the major producers of ‘Batu Reput’ in Malaysia that content large deposit of high-purity dolomite [CaMg (CO3)2]. Pure samples of ‘Batu Reput’ recently explored in the Koperasi Rimba Mas Padang Besar Quarry were investigated for their physical, chemical and mineralogical composition. SEM and XRD analysis methods were applied. The potential of ‘Batu Reput’ as a raw material in fertilizer production was investigated in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  14. Aminah H, Naimah C, Rajabarizan R, Mohd Noor M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:257-263.
    A factorial experiment of three light intensities and three fertiliser levels was carried out on the potted seedlings of neobalanocarpus heimii as stock plants for subsequent rooting of cuttings. Light intensities used were 25%, 50% and 100% of the open sunlight and the fertilizer levels were 0 g, 1 g and 2 g plant-1 month-1. Results of 11 months after potting showed that the stock plants treated with 1 g and 2 g fertilizer had significantly better height and diameter increments than those without fertilizer in all light intensities tried. On the other hand, no significant effect of light intensity was obtained in height and diameter increments of the stock plants. Survival of stock plants of more than 86% was obtained in all light intensities tried with or without fertilizer application. Test on rooting of subsequent cuttings showed that light intensity of 25% and 0 g fertiliser, to stock plants gave the highest rooting percentage (73%) and the number of roots (2.0). The general trend showed that rooting decreased to below 60% when intensity of light was increased. In terms of size, cuttings with diameter between 1.2 mm and 2.3 mm is recommended as it yielded rooting of 65% to 75%. For practical application, a combination of 25% light intensity and 1 g of fertilizer plant-1 month-1 can be applied to the stock plants to maintain their healthy growth for continuous production of cutting materials for rooting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  15. Qureshi S, Mumtaz M, Chong FK, Mukhtar A, Saqib S, Ullah S, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Mar;291(Pt 3):132806.
    PMID: 34780730 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132806
    One of the most significant chemical operations in the past century was the Haber-Bosch catalytic synthesis of ammonia, a fertilizer vital to human life. Many catalysts are developed for effective route of ammonia synthesis. The major challenges are to reduce temperature and pressure of process and to improve conversion of reactants produce green ammonia. The present review, briefly discusses the evolution of ammonia synthesis and current advances in nanocatalyst development. There are promising new ammonia synthesis catalysts of different morphology as well as magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires that could replace conventional Fused-Fe and Promoted-Ru catalysts in existing ammonia synthesis plants. These magnetic nanocatalyst could be basis for the production of magnetically induced one-step green ammonia and urea synthesis processes in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers
  16. Lim SL, Wu TY, Lim PN, Shak KP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Apr;95(6):1143-56.
    PMID: 25130895 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6849
    Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
  17. Lim SL, Wu TY
    J Agric Food Chem, 2016 Mar 2;64(8):1761-9.
    PMID: 26844586 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00531
    The valorization process involves transforming low-value materials such as wastes into high-value-added products. The current study aims to determine the potential of using a valorization process such as vermicomposting technology to convert palm oil mill byproduct, namely, decanter cake (DC), into organic fertilizer or vermicompost. The maturity of the vermicompost was characterized through various chemical and instrumental characterization to ensure the end product was safe and beneficial for agricultural application. The vermicomposting of DC showed significantly higher nutrient recovery and decreases in C:N ratio in comparison with the controls, particularly in the treatment with 2 parts DC and 1 part rice straw (w/w) (2DC:1RS). 2DC:1RS vermicompost had a final C:N ratio of 9.03 ± 0.12 and reasonably high levels of calcium (1.13 ± 0.05 g/kg), potassium (25.47 ± 0.32 g/kg), magnesium (4.87 ± 0.19 g/kg), sodium (7.40 ± 0.03 g/kg), and phosphorus (3.62 ± 0.27 g/kg). In addition, instrumental characterization also revealed a higher degree of maturity in the vermicompost. Ratios of 2921:1633 and DTG2:DTG3 also showed significant linear correlations with the C:N ratio, implying that those ratios could be used to characterize the progression of vermicompost maturity during the valorization process of DC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/analysis*
  18. Abdullah R, Ishak CF, Kadir WR, Bakar RA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015 Aug;12(8):9314-29.
    PMID: 26262636 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120809314
    The disposal of industrial paper mill sludge waste is a big issue and has a great importance all over the world. A study was conducted to determine the chemical properties of recycled paper mill sludge (RPMS) and assess its possibilities for land application. RPMS samples were collected from six different paper mills in Malaysia and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, (13)C-NMR spectra and for the presence of dioxins/furans. The RPMS was dewatered, sticky with a strong odour, an average moisture of 65.08%, pH 7.09, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 14.43 cmol (+) kg(-1), N 1.45, P 0.18, K 0.12, Ca 0.82, Mg 0.73, Na 0.76 and Al, 1.38%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals levels were below the standard Class 2 limits. The dioxin and furan were in below the standard concentration of Class 1. The most prominent peak in the (13)C-NMR spectra of RPMS was centered at 31 ppm, proving the presence of methylene (-CH2) groups in long aliphatic chains, with lipids and proteins. The signal at 89 ppm and highly shielded shoulder at 83 ppm were due to presence of cellulose carbon C-4, and the peak at 63 and 65 ppm was due to the cellulose carbon spectrum. The RPMS therefore contains significant amount of nutrients with safe levels of heavy metals and PAHs for environment and can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment for land application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/analysis*
  19. Bah AR, Rahman ZA, Hussin A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2004 Jun 08;4:393-414.
    PMID: 15252691
    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and markedly enhanced uptake of N, K, Ca, and Mg. Thus GMs+PRs is an appropriate combination for correcting nutrient deficiencies in tropical soils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Shamshuddin J, Muhrizal S, Fauziah I, Husni MH
    Sci Total Environ, 2004 May 5;323(1-3):33-45.
    PMID: 15081715
    Acid sulfate soils having a pH of less than 3.5 are widespread in Malaysia. Some of these soils are planted to cocoa, but the yield is reported to be low due to soil infertility related to Al toxicity. Cocoa growth is sensitive to the presence of Al in the soil. To a certain extent, Al toxicity in soils can be reduced by organic matter application and to a greater extent in iron-poor acid sulfate soil. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of various types of organic materials easily available in the country to ameliorate acid sulfate soil infertility for growing cocoa seedlings. The treatments were control (nil), lime (3 t/ha), peat (10% w/w), peat plus green manure (10% w/w), peat plus rice straw (10% w/w), peat plus chicken dung (10% w/w) and peat plus POMS (Palm oil mill sludge) (10% w/w). The growth of cocoa seedlings was affected significantly by the presence of Al in the cocoa tissues. As the amount of Al in the leaves increased, the relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings decreased. Likewise, the relative plant height was negatively correlated with Al in the leaves. Peat as well as peat in combination with green manure, rice straw, chicken dung or palm oil mill sludge was able to reduce Al toxicity in acid sulfate soil; the highest top dry weight of cocoa seedlings were obtained in the peat plus green manure treatment. The best cocoa seedlings root growth was found for the peat treatment alone. The relative top dry weight of cocoa seedlings was negatively correlated with Al(3+) as well as Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution. The critical values for Al(3+) and the combination of Al(3+)+Al(OH)(2+)+Al(OH)(2)(+) activity in the soil solution were 10 microM and 15 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fertilizers*
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