Tropical and sub-tropical fruits are tremendous sources of polysaccharides (PSs), which are of great interest in the human welfare system as natural medicines, food and cosmetics. This review paper aims to highlight the recent trends in extraction (conventional and non-conventional), purification and analytic techniques of fruit polysaccharides (FPSs). The chemical structure and biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-coagulant and anti-diabetic effects, of PSs extracted from 53 various fruits were compared and discussed. With this wide coverage, a total of 172 scientific articles were reviewed and discussed. This comprehensive survey from previous studies suggests that the FPSs are non-toxic and highly biocompatible. In addition, this review highlights that FPSs might be excellent functional foods as well as effective therapeutic drugs. Finally, the future research advances of FPSs are also described. The content of this review will promote human wellness-based food product development in the future.
The purpose of this study was to explore the new effective method and investigate the dissipation of chlorfenapyr and deltamethrin (DM) pesticides used in the treatment of guava fruit from tropical and sub-tropical areas of Pakistan. Five different solutions of varying concentrations of pesticides were prepared. This study involved the in-vitro and in-vivo analysis of modulated electric flux-triggered degradation as an efficient method for the safer degradation of selected pesticides. The Taser gun was used as a tool for providing different numbers of electrical shocks of million voltages to the pesticides present in guava fruit at different temperatures. The degraded pesticides were extracted and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC chromatograms verified that significant dissipation of pesticides took place when these were exposed to 9 shocks at 37 °C, which proved the efficiency of this degradation method. More than 50% of the total spray of both pesticides was dissipated. Thus, modulated electrical flux-triggered degradation is one of the effective methods for pesticide degradation.
In agriculture, the convenience and efficacy of chemical pesticides have become inevitable to manage cultivated crop production. Here, we review the worldwide use of pesticides based on their categories, mode of actions and toxicity. Excessive use of pesticides may lead to hazardous pesticide residues in crops, causing adverse effects on human health and the environment. A wide range of high-tech-analytical methods are available to analyse pesticide residues. However, they are mostly time-consuming and inconvenient for on-site detection, calling for the development of biosensors that detect cellular changes in crops. Such new detection methods that combine biological and physicochemical knowledge may overcome the shortage in current farming to develop sustainable systems that support environmental and human health. This review also comprehensively compiles domestic pesticide residues removal tips from vegetables and fruits. Synthetic pesticide alternatives such as biopesticide and nanopesticide are greener to the environment. However, its safety assessment for large-scale application needs careful evaluation. Lastly, we strongly call for reversions of pesticide application trends based on the changing climate, which is lacking in the current scenario.
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.
In recent days, there is an increasing use of green composites in composite manufacturing, where cellulosic natural fibers have been started using for this purpose. In line with this, a novel cellulose fiber was extracted from the Kigelia africana fruit and its physical, chemical and thermal properties, crystallography and surface morphology analysis were studied and reported in this investigative research paper. The physical analysis revealed the mean tensile strength as 50.31 ± 24.71 to 73.12 ± 32.48 MPa, diameter as 0.507 ± 0.162 to 0.629 ± 0.182 mm and density as 1.316 g/cm³ for the Kigelia africana fiber. The proximate chemical analysis estimated the cellulose percentage to be 61.5 % and the existence of different basic components like cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis establishes the thermal stability of the fiber as 212 ⁰C. The crystallinity index, 57.38 % of the fiber was determined by X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy reveals the presence of protrusions in fiber which aid in the better adhesion with the matrix in composite manufacturing.
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), also known as the "queen of fruits", is a tropical fruit of the Clusiacea family. While native to Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India, and the Philippines, the fruit has gained popularity in the United States due to its health-promoting attributes. In traditional medicine, mangosteen has been used to treat a variety of illnesses, ranging from dysentery to wound healing. Mangosteen has been shown to exhibit numerous biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Disease-preventative and therapeutic properties of mangosteen have been ascribed to secondary metabolites called xanthones, present in several parts of the tree, including the pericarp, fruit rind, peel, stem bark, root bark, and leaf. Of the 68 mangosteen xanthones identified so far, the most widely-studied are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. Emerging studies have found that mangosteen constituents and phytochemicals exert encouraging antineoplastic effects against a myriad of human malignancies. While there are a growing number of individual research papers on the anticancer properties of mangosteen, a complete and critical evaluation of published experimental findings has not been accomplished. Accordingly, the objective of this work is to present an in-depth analysis of the cancer preventive and anticancer potential of mangosteen constituents, with a special emphasis on the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and safety of mangosteen-derived agents together with current challenges and future research avenues are also discussed.
The concept of zero waste discharge has been gaining importance in recent years towards attaining a sustainable environment. Fruit processing industries generate millions of tons of byproducts like fruit peels and seeds, and their disposal poses an environmental threat. The concept of extracting value-added bioactive compounds from bio-waste is an excellent opportunity to mitigate environmental issues. To date, significant research has been carried out on the extraction of essential biomolecules, particularly polysaccharides from waste generated by fruit processing industries. In this review article, we aim to summarize the different extraction methodologies, characterization methods, and biomedical applications of polysaccharides extracted from seeds and peels of different fruit sources. The review also focuses on the general scheme of extraction of polysaccharides from fruit waste with special emphasis on various methods used in extraction. Also, the various types of polysaccharides obtained from fruit processing industrial wastes are explained in consonance with the important techniques related to the structural elucidation of polysaccharides obtained from seed and peel waste. The use of seed polysaccharides as pharmaceutical excipients and the application of peel polysaccharides possessing biological activities are also elaborated.
Two new azadirone-type limonoids, namely lasiocarpine A (1) and lasiocarpine B (2) were isolated from the fruit of Chisocheton lasiocarpus along with three known limonoids (3-5). UV, IR, one- and two- dimensional NMR, and mass spectrometry were used to determine the chemical structure of the isolated compounds. Furthermore, their cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was evaluated using PrestoBlue reagent. From these compounds, lasiocarpine A (1) showed the strongest activity with an IC50 value of 43.38 μM.
Goji berries (Lycium fruits) are usually found in Asia, particularly in northwest regions of China. Traditionally, dried goji berries are cooked before they are consumed. They are commonly used in Chinese soups and as herbal tea. Moreover, goji berries are used for the production of tincture, wine, and juice. Goji berries are high antioxidant potential fruits which alleviate oxidative stress to confer many health protective benefits such as preventing free radicals from damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of the review was to focus on the bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of goji berries including their molecular mechanisms of action. The health benefits of goji berries include enhancing hemopoiesis, antiradiation, antiaging, anticancer, improvement of immunity, and antioxidation. There is a better protection through synergistic and additive effects in fruits and herbal products from a complex mixture of phytochemicals when compared to one single phytochemical.
An amylase enzyme from pitaya peel was purified 234.2-folds with 72.1% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 42.1kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the amylase were 2.7 mg/ml and 34.30 u/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range from pH 3 to pH 11.0, with optimum activity being observed at pH 5.0. The enzyme was highly selective for soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pulullan. The purified amylase did not require calcium and displayed extreme stability with regard to surfactants and oxidising agents. EDTA, a powerful chelating agent, did not have any significant effect on the stability of the enzyme. Such characteristics have not been previously reported for this type of enzyme from fruit peel. This enzyme, which possesses unique properties, could be widely used in different types of industries, especially in food and biotechnological applications.
Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs.
Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.
This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.
Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH) onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG) after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24%) compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric (DTG) thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites' thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.
This paper presents the development of a PC-based microwave five-port reflectometer for the determination of moisture content in oil palm fruits. The reflectometer was designed to measure both the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient of any passive microwave device. The stand-alone reflectometer consists of a PC, a microwave source, diode detectors and an analog to digital converter. All the measurement and data acquisition were done using Agilent VEE graphical programming software. The relectometer can be used with any reflection based microwave sensor. In this work, the application of the reflectometer as a useful instrument to determine the moisture content in oil palm fruits using monopole and coaxial sensors was demonstrated. Calibration equations between reflection coefficients and moisture content have been established for both sensors. The equation based on phase measurement of monopole sensor was found to be accurate within 5% in predicting moisture content in the fruits when compared to the conventional oven drying method.
The main objective of this paper is to find the optimum operating condition to upgrade the EFB-derived pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) to liquid fuel, mainly gasoline using Taguchi Method. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that the optimum operating condition for heterogeneous catalytic cracking process is at 400 degrees C, 15min of reaction time using 30g of catalyst weight where operating at this condition produced the highest yield of gasoline fraction which is 91.67 wt.%. This observation proves that EFB-derived pyrolysis oil could be upgraded via heterogeneous catalytic cracking to produce gasoline.
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) extracted from empty fruit bunches (EFB), stalk and spikelet were characterised through physicochemical and microstructure analyses. Raw stalk fibres yielded the highest cellulose content (42.43%), followed by EFB (32.33%) and spikelet (18.83%). Likewise, lowest lignin and residual oil content was reported in raw stalk fibres compared to EFB and spikelet. SEM revealed significant changes on fibres' surface morphology throughout the extraction process. FTIR analysis showed that main characteristic peaks of hemicellulose and lignin was absent on the extracted MCC. The crystallinity index for MCC extracted from EFB (82.5%), stalk (82.2%) and spikelet (86.5%) was comparable to commercial MCC (81.9%). Results suggested stalk fibres is more preferable for the production of MCC compared to EFB and spikelet. Further rheological studies showed viscoelastic behaviour with no significant differences between commercial and stalk-based MCC, while modelling work showed ability to simulate complex deformation of the MCC-hydrogel/food mixture during processing/handling stage.
In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.
The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.