Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 263 in total

  1. Goh LPW, Jawan R, Faik AAM, Gansau JA
    J Med Life, 2023 Jan;16(1):16-21.
    PMID: 36873121 DOI: 10.25122/jml-2022-0160
    Stingless bees, also known as meliponines, live in beehives. However, reports on the distribution of stingless bees are scattered, resulting in a lack of precision. Honey and propolis are the main components that can be harvested from their beehive, with a great commercial value of up to 610 million USD. Despite the enormous potential profits, discrepancies in their bioactivities have been observed worldwide, leading to a lack of confidence. Therefore, this review provided oversight on the potential of stingless bee products and highlighted the differences between stingless bees in Asia, Australia, Africa, and America. The bioactivity of stingless bee products is diverse and exhibits great potential as an antimicrobial agent or in various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, and oral problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  2. Fathihah B, Mahmood AA, Sidik K, Salmah I
    JUMMEC, 2005;8:28-32.
    Six groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats, each consisting of six animals were used throughout the experiment. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous plant extract alone, honey alone or honey in combination with ethanolic or aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides and cimetidine were investigated in rats against ethanol-HCl induced gastric ulcer. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Oral administration of ethanol-HCl (5 ml kg-1 body weight) to fasted rats produced extensive lesions of gastric mucosa (Group 1). Pre-treatment with honey (2.5 g kg-1 body weight) alone (Group 2), aqueous plant extract alone (10% w/v 5 ml kg-1) (Group 3), or honey in combination with each of alcoholic extract (10% w/w 5 ml kg-1) (Group 4), aqueous extract (10% w/w 5 ml kg-1) (Group 5) or cimetidine (10 mg/ml honey 5 ml kg-1) (Group 6) orally 30 minutes before administration of absolute ethanol-HCl significantly (p < 0.05) protected gastric lesions by 46.74%, 61.50%, 76.68%, 78.39% and 56.55% respectively. Although the mechanism of gastric protection is unknown, honey in combination with each plant extract appears to increase the resistance of gastric mucosal cells to the necrotizing effect of strong irritants in the absolute ethanol-HCl mixture. The results suggest that honey in combination with each plant extract might be beneficial in the treatment of a variety of diseases in which gastric mucosal injury is present.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey
  3. Rashid MR, Nor Aripin KN, Syed Mohideen FB, Baharom N, Omar K, Md Taujuddin NMS, et al.
    J Nutr Metab, 2019;2019:3176018.
    PMID: 30863635 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3176018
    Background: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) poses a higher risk of diabetes. Honey has been reported to improve metabolic abnormalities including lowering hyperglycemia. This study is sought at determining the effect of Malaysian Kelulut honey (KH) on fasting glucose levels and metabolic parameters in IFG patients.
    Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention study of 30-day duration was conducted among 60 adult patients with IFG. They were allocated into taking 30 g/day KH group (experimental group, n=30) and not taking KH group (control group, n=30). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, and lipid profile levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein) were measured before and after treatment.
    Results: There was no significant difference in all measured variables at day 30 compared to day 1 within both groups. Similarly, all measured variables neither at day 1 nor at day 30 had shown a statistically significant difference between the groups.
    Conclusions: Daily intake of 30 g KH for 30 days resulted in insignificant effect on fasting glucose, fasting lipid profiles, and other metabolic parameters in patients with IFG. Further studies that employ longer study duration are needed to ascertain the finding.
    Study site: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) Specialist Centre, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  4. Zawawi N, Zhang J, Hungerford NL, Yates HSA, Webber DC, Farrell M, et al.
    Food Chem, 2022 Mar 30;373(Pt B):131566.
    PMID: 34823933 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131566
    Stingless bee honey (SBH) of four stingless bee species (Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, Tetragonula carbonaria, and Tetragonula hockingsi) from two geographic regions (Malaysia and Australia, n = 36) were studied for their physicochemical parameters, including total phenolic and multi-elemental contents. Sugar analysis confirmed the prominent presence of trehalulose in all samples. All SBH failed to meet the CODEX Standard for honey moisture, free acidity, and total fructose plus glucose levels. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical component analysis (HCA) confirm distinctive differences between Australian and Malaysian SBH with Australian SBH having significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  5. Bt Hj Idrus R, Sainik NQAV, Nordin A, Saim AB, Sulaiman N
    PMID: 32455701 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103613
    Cardiovascular disease is a major public health burden worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of cardiovascular disease resulting from low blood supply to the heart. It can lead to further complications such as cardiac arrhythmia, toxic metabolite accumulation, and permanently infarcted areas. Honey is one of the most prized medicinal remedies used since ancient times. There is evidence that indicates honey can function as a cardioprotective agent in cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles and discusses the available evidence on the effect of honey on cardiovascular diseases. Three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, were searched between January 1959 and March 2020 to identify reports on the cardioprotective effect of honey. Based on the pre-set eligibility criteria, 25 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. Honey investigated in the studies included varieties according to their geological origin. Honey protects the heart via lipid metabolism improvement, antioxidative activity, blood pressure modulation, heartbeat restoration, myocardial infarct area reduction, antiaging properties, and cell apoptosis attenuation. This review establishes honey as a potential candidate to be explored further as a natural and dietary alternative to the management of cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  6. Ahmed S, Sulaiman SA, Baig AA, Ibrahim M, Liaqat S, Fatima S, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2018;2018:8367846.
    PMID: 29492183 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8367846
    Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress. In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets. The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  7. Edith, J., Anantha K. R., Karenita K. S., Surayah M., Filzah M. K., Farhana H., et al.
    Honey dressing has been used to treat wounds since thousand years ago, however, it has been vanished of it usage on wounds management. Lately, it resurfaces again and has been used widely by clinicians in managing hard-to-heal ulcers. With the extensive study and research been carried out by scientists, a better understanding on the usage in managing non-healing ulcers has been widely accepted nowadays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey
  8. Krishna Kishore, R.
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2014;1(1):13-23.
    Honey is a rich source of natural nutrients. Its production is a slow, natural process with the pace of which varies seasonally. However, based on recent reports, we hypothesize that the long-term storage of processed honey, even under the most appropriate storage conditions, results in a deterioration of its quality. To test our hypothesis, we collected Tualang honey samples harvested during the years 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and tested various parameters including physicochemical properties and also performed comparative analyses of antioxidant capacities to assess its medicinal values. Our results indicate that, upon long-term storage, the quality of honey samples deteriorates, as observed in our TH 2008 and TH 2005 year honey samples, which showed unacceptable quality based on the recommended criteria of free acidity (71 .34±1.31 meq/kg), moisture (27.72%), diastase activity (3.38±0.34 Goth scale) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (449.89±3.23 mg/kg) by Codex and European Commission Regulation. A significant (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey
  9. Gunasekaran, G., Muhamad Fitri C.A., Chandrashegkar, S., Hajar Amalnina A.B., Raishan, S., Nurul Faiznani, Z., et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):202-209.
    Madu gelam telah didapati mempunyai kesan anti-oksidatif, anti-kanser dan antiinflamasi
    terhadap banyak jenis kanser. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan
    kesan madu gelam terhadap aras tekanan oksidatif sel kanser peparu manusia.
    IC50 madu gelam ditentukan dengan merawat sel A549 dengan dos madu yang
    berbeza (50-200 mg/ml). Sel dibahagikan kepada 4 kumpulan dan diaruh tekanan
    oksidatif dengan menggunakan hidrogen peroksida (H2
    ) mengikut kumpulan
    tertentu: kawalan, H2
    , madu gelam, H2
    + madu gelam. Selepas 24 jam
    rawatan, biopetanda tekanan oksidatif seperti malondialdehid (MDA) dan protein
    karbonil ditentukan. Aruhan tekanan oksidatif meningkatkan aras MDA (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey
  10. Fauzi NA, Farid MM, Silva F
    J Food Sci Technol, 2017 Mar;54(3):802-809.
    PMID: 28298695 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2526-7
    This paper investigates the effect of high pressure liquid food compressibility onS. cerevisaeinactivation. Honey with various adjusted sugar with different values of compressibility was selected as a model food.S. cerevisiaecells in different honey concentrations (0-80°Brix), 600 MPa (at ambient temperature) showed an increasing resistance to inactivation with increasing °Brix.D-values ofS. cerevisiaeat 200, 400 and 600 MPa, for 20 min/80°Brix were 136.99 ± 7.97, 29.24 ± 6.44 and 23.47 ± 0.86 min, respectively. TheseD-values resulted the Z
    -value of 526 ± 39 MPa. A significant correlation (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey
  11. Hussein SZ, Yusoff KM, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(2):e125-33.
    PMID: 24770820 DOI: 10.7471/CT.2014.1695
    Honey is a supersaturated solution of sugars, enriched with proteins, minerals, vitamins, organic acids and polyphenols. Gamma irradiation is a physical technique of food preservation which protects the honey from insects' and microbial contamination during storage. We investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties in two types of Malaysian honey, Gelam and Nenas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/radiation effects*
  12. Huda N, Ullah S, Wahab RA, Lani MN, Daud NHA, Shariff AHM, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2023 Sep 12;16(1):211.
    PMID: 37700361 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-023-06495-9
    OBJECTIVES: Pollen is a useful tool for identifying the provenance and complex ecosystems surrounding honey production in Malaysian forests. As native key pollinators in Malaysia, Apis dorsata and Heterotrigona itama forage on various plant/pollen species to collect honey. This study aims to generate a dataset that uncovers the presence of these plant/pollen species and their relative abundance in the honey of A. dorsata and H. itama. The information gathered from this study can be used to determine the geographical and botanical origin and authenticity of the honey produced by these two species.

    RESULTS: Sequence data were obtained for both A. dorsata and H. itama. The raw sequence data for A. dorsata was 5 Mb, which was assembled into 5 contigs with a size of 6,098,728 bp, an N50 of 15,534, and a GC average of 57.42. Similarly, the raw sequence data for H. itama was 6.3 Mb, which was assembled into 11 contigs with a size of 7,642,048 bp, an N50 of 17,180, and a GC average of 55.38. In the honey sample of A. dorsata, we identified five different plant/pollen species, with only one of the five species exhibiting a relative abundance of less than 1%. For H. itama, we identified seven different plant/pollen species, with only three of the species exhibiting a relative abundance of less than 1%. All of the identified plant species were native to Peninsular Malaysia, especially the East Coast area of Terengganu.

    DATA DESCRIPTION: Our data offers valuable insights into honey's geographical and botanical origin and authenticity. Metagenomic studies could help identify the plant species that honeybees forage and provide preliminary data for researchers studying the biological development of A. dorsata and H. itama. The identification of various flowers from the eDNA of honey that are known for their medicinal properties could aid in regional honey with accurate product origin labeling, which is crucial for guaranteeing product authenticity to consumers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  13. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS
    Molecules, 2012 Feb 15;17(2):1900-15.
    PMID: 22337138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021900
    Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal properties, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. It reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic rats and humans. However, the mechanism(s) of its hypoglycemic effect remain(s) unknown. Honey comprises many constituents, making it difficult to ascertain which component(s) contribute(s) to its hypoglycemic effect. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that honey consists of predominantly fructose and glucose. The objective of this review is to summarize findings which indicate that fructose exerts a hypoglycemic effect. The data show that glucose and fructose exert a synergistic effect in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. This synergistic effect might enhance intestinal fructose absorption and/or stimulate insulin secretion. The results indicate that fructose enhances hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis and storage via activation of hepatic glucokinase and glycogen synthase, respectively. The data also demonstrate the beneficial effects of fructose on glycemic control, glucose- and appetite-regulating hormones, body weight, food intake, oxidation of carbohydrate and energy expenditure. In view of the similarities of these effects of fructose with those of honey, the evidence may support the role of fructose in honey in mediating the hypoglycemic effect of honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  14. Chua LS, Abdul-Rahaman NL, Sarmidi MR, Aziz R
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 1;135(3):880-7.
    PMID: 22953800 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.106
    The elemental profiles of six honey samples from Malaysia had been constructed using the data obtained from both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Potassium and sodium were the most abundant minerals covering from 69.3-78.6% and 14.1-28.7%, respectively. The ratio of potassium to sodium was more than one. Even though the minerals and trace elements composition varied dependent on the type of honey samples, there was no statistically significant difference between the analysed honey samples, namely tualang, gelam, acacia and a few forest honeys based on two-factor ANOVA and cluster analysis. The total element content of honey samples were strongly correlated with the electrical conductivity, but only have moderate correlation with the ash content and honey colour based on the regression analysis. PCA result on the available elemental data from worldwide honeys, including honey samples from Malaysia revealed that potassium and sodium were the mineral markers to distinguish honey origin. Both tualang and gelam honey samples from Malaysia have close mineral profile with sesame honeys from Egypt and multifloral honeys from India, whereas forest honeys Malaysia were near to avocado honeys from Spain and multifloral honeys from India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  15. Moniruzzaman M, Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 23983317
    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical activity, scientists are studying the effects of increasing individuals' antioxidant levels through diet and dietary supplements. Honey appears to act as an antioxidant in more ways than one. In the body, honey can mop up free radicals and contribute to better health. Various antioxidant activity methods have been used to measure and compare the antioxidant activity of honey. In recent years, DPPH (Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), ORAC (The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity), ABTS [2, 2-azinobis (3ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt], TEAC [6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox)-equivalent antioxidant capacity] assays have been used to evaluate antioxidant activity of honey. The antioxidant activity of honey is also measured by ascorbic acid content and different enzyme assays like Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Among the different methods available, methods that have been validated, standardized and widely reported are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  16. Nurul Syazana MS, Gan SH, Halim AS, Shah NS, Gan SH, Sukari HA
    PMID: 24146441
    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  17. Robert SD, Ismail AA
    PMID: 19771140
    AIM: To determine the glycemic index (GI) of Malaysian wild honey and Australian honey.

    METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (5 men and 3 women, aged 24-44 y, with normal BMI) were served 50 g carbohydrate portions of two varieties of honey or the reference food (glucose, tested 3 times), on separate occasions. Capillary blood glucose was measured fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the test meals. The GI was calculated by expressing each subject's incremental area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) after honey as a percentage of his or her mean AUC after glucose.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the mean AUC of the Malaysian and Australian honeys, 174+/-19 and 158+/-16 mmolxmin/l, respectively, did not differ from each other but were significantly less than that after glucose, 259+/-15 mmolxmin/l (P<0.001). The mean GI of Malaysian wild honey, 65+/-7, did not differ from that of Australian honey, 59+/-5, but both were significantly less than the GI of glucose, 100 (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both Malaysian wild honey (GI=65+/-7) and Australian honey (GI=59+/-5) are intermediate GI foods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  18. Abdul Malik N, Mohamed M, Mustafa MZ, Zainuddin A
    J Food Biochem, 2020 01;44(1):e13098.
    PMID: 31746481 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13098
    This study determined the antiaging effect of stingless bee honey on the expression of extracellular matrix genes. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay was performed for determination of optimum concentration and incubation time of stingless bee honey. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and collagen type Ⅰ (COL1A1) were analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Incubation with stingless bee honey at concentration of 0.02% for 72 hr showed significant increase in the viability of human fibroblast cells. Stingless bee honey significantly downregulates metalloproteinase-1 gene expression in both pre-senescence and senescence fibroblast cells and upregulates collagen type Ⅰ gene expression in senescence fibroblast cells. In conclusion, stingless bee honey potentially delayed skin aging through modulation of extracellular matrix genes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Changes of the extracellular matrix regulation promote skin aging. Stingless bee honey is a good source of natural antioxidant which potentially delays skin aging. This study demonstrated that stingless bee honey beneficially increases collagen type Ⅰ expression and decreases MMP-1 expression during cellular aging of human dermal fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
  19. Hashim KN, Chin KY, Ahmad F
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 04;26(4).
    PMID: 33557218 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040808
    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of five risk factors comprising central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which predispose a person to cardiometabolic diseases. Many studies reported the beneficial effects of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome through its antiobesity, hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic, and hypotensive actions. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanism of honey in reversing metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic effects of honey largely depend on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of its polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Polyphenols, such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid, are some of the phenolic acids known to have antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic properties. They could inhibit the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and its target lipogenic enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FAS). Meanwhile, caffeic acid and quercetin in honey are also known to reduce body weight and fat mass. In addition, fructooligosaccharides in honey are also known to alter lipid metabolism by reducing FAS activity. The fructose and phenolic acids might contribute to the hypoglycaemic properties of honey through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B insulin signalling pathway. Honey can increase the expression of Akt and decrease the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. Quercetin, a component of honey, can improve vasodilation by enhancing nitric oxide production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and stimulate calcium-activated potassium channels. In conclusion, honey can be used as a functional food or adjuvant therapy to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Honey/analysis*
  20. Ashraf S, Ashraf S, Akmal R, Ashraf M, Kalsoom L, Maqsood A, et al.
    Trials, 2021 Sep 15;22(1):618.
    PMID: 34526081 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-021-05510-3
    OBJECTIVES: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS.

    TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial.

    PARTICIPANTS: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan).

    INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan.

    MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14th day of randomization.

    RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure.

    BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking.

    NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation.

    TRIAL STATUS: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 .

    FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Honey*
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