Open-loop unstable systems with time-delays are often encountered in process industry, which are often more difficult to control than stable processes. In this paper, the stabilization by PID controller of second-order unstable processes, which can be represented as second-order deadtime with an unstable pole (SODUP) and second-order deadtime with two unstable poles (SODTUP), is performed via the necessary and sufficient criteria of Routh-Hurwitz stability analysis. The stability analysis provides improved understanding on the existence of a stabilizing range of each PID parameter. Three simple PID tuning algorithms are proposed to provide desired closed-loop performance-robustness within the stable regions of controller parameters obtained via the stability analysis. The proposed PID controllers show improved performance over those derived via some existing methods.
The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.
A monitoring procedure was introduced for process variability in a multivariate setting based on individual observations which was a combination of (i) robust high breakdown point approach in the set-up stage to determine the reference sample and (ii) the use of Wilks chart in the mass production stage. This setting is what the Malaysian manufacturing industry is currently lacking in, especially when a robust approach must be used. The advantage of this procedure was revealed by using the case of a female shrouded connector production process in a Malaysian industry. Moreover, this procedure could also be used in any process quality monitoring and for any industry. A recommendation for quality practitioners was also addressed.
Matched MeSH terms: Industry; Manufacturing Industry
Successful implementation of the lean concept as a sustainable approach in the construction industry requires the identification of critical drivers in lean construction. Despite this significance, the number of in-depth studies toward understanding the considerable drivers of lean construction implementation is quite limited. There is also a shortage of methodologies for identifying key drivers. To address these challenges, this paper presents a list of all essential drivers within three aspects of sustainability (social, economic, and environmental) and proposes a novel methodology to rank the drivers and identify the key drivers for successful and sustainable lean construction implementation. In this regard, the entropy weighted Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed in this research. Subsequently, an empirical study was conducted within the Malaysian construction industry to demonstrate the proposed method. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and comparison with the existing method were engaged to validate the stability and accuracy of the achieved results. The significant results obtained in this study are as follows: presenting, verifying and ranking of 63 important drivers; identifying 22 key drivers; proposing an MCDM model of key drivers. The outcomes show that the proposed method in this study is an effective and accurate tool that could help managers make better decisions.
The expanding global Muslim population has increased the demand for halal pharmaceuticals. However, there are several challenges for this emerging niche industry, foremost of which is the need to establish a proper, well-regulated, and harmonized accreditation and halal management system.
Matched MeSH terms: Drug Industry/standards; Drug Industry/ethics*
Introduction. Demographic information is one of the key parameters that organizations utilize to modify their practices in order to respond to the existing risk within work environments. The present article aims to assess the level of safety climate factors as well as to evaluate the influence of personal factors on safety climate in two different-sized industries. Methods. A total of 216 employees in two large and three small and medium-sized chemical manufacturing industries responded to a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the safety climate level; a two-independent-sample Mann-Whitney U test and a Kruskal-Wallis test were run to compare the difference in safety climate scores among different demographic variables. Results. The lower level of safety climate in small and medium-sized industries revealed lower understanding and performance of management and non-management with regard to safety climate compared to the large industries. Additionally, significant mean differences on some safety climate factors among demographic variables were detected in both sizes of industries, emphasizing the important role of the employees' demographic variables on the plants' safety climate. Conclusion. Improving organization-level and group-level safety climates is recommended to improve employees' level of safety climate and control their personal factors.
Matched MeSH terms: Chemical Industry; Industry; Manufacturing Industry
This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings.
The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textiles wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles wastewater increased from 29.4% after radiation to 62.4% after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation, the BOD5 of textiles wastewater was reduced by 22.1%, but reverted to the original value of 36mg/1 after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADM1 after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment.
Matched MeSH terms: Food-Processing Industry; Food Industry
This study investigates the impact of the aggregate and individual dimensions of environmental performance (EP) on financial performance (FP), based on a dataset covering the travel and tourism industry (airlines, casinos, hotels, and restaurants) across different economic regions over the period 2003-2014. The results reveal that EP positively affects the FP in the hotel industry when aggregate EP is used. When individual dimensions of EP are considered, resource reduction is found to positively (negatively) affect the performance in the hotel (airline) industry, while product innovation positively affects the performance in the restaurant industry. Hence, the trade-off effect seems to be dominant in the airline industry, and the 'heterogeneous resources and reputation-building' hypothesis is evident in both the hotel and restaurant industries. In addition, in general, the findings support the positive moderating effect of slack resources on the relationship between the individual dimensions of EP and FP in the travel and tourism industry, and, hence, are supportive of the slack resources hypothesis. These effects, however, vary depending on the travel and tourism industry under investigation.
The durability of buildings which depends on the nature of the supervisory system used in their construction is an important feature of the construction industry. This article tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of untrained and unprofessional building supervisors and their unethical performance on the durability of buildings.
Matched MeSH terms: Construction Industry/education; Construction Industry/ethics*
Maintenance is a vital system in a manufacturing company. The maintenance objectives are to ensure that the machine is in good condition, serviceable and safe to be operated in producing quality products. However, the system usually imposes a high cost system due to its ineffective activities. Therefore, this paper was written to review the factors affecting the maintenance effectiveness and methods used to measure its performance. In this paper, maintenance performance measurement methods are categorized into three groups, based on holistic, machine, and value factors. Each group is discussed based on the principles and techniques of the maintenance performance measurement methods, along with the example of its applications in the industry. The most common methods used are the holistic approach, overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), and balance score-card (BSC). These various methods have their own benefits and drawbacks, according to the area of measurement.
In this modern world, Information Technology gives impacts on society, countries, economy, and environment. This paper discusses the positive, negative, direct and indirect impacts of IT on environmental issues. A strategy for sustainable development in ICT and its future demand are also proposed. Apart from that, a research was also done to find a quantitative indicator to show the relationship between demand in IT industry and impacts to the environment. By using a mathematical formula, an estimation of the effect to the environment can be found. By using the indicator, it is hoped that society and the IT industry will become more aware of their action to the environment.