Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Ong WM, Subasyini S
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):52-7.
    PMID: 23466768 MyJurnal
    Medications given via the intravenous (IV) route provide rapid drug delivery to the body. IV therapy is a complex process requiring proper drug preparation before administration to the patients. Therefore, errors occurring at any stage can cause harmful clinical outcomes to the patients, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective observational study with the objectives to determine whether medication errors occur in IV drug preparation and administration in Selayang Hospital, determining the associated factors and identifying the strategies in reducing these medication errors. 341 (97.7%) errors were identified during observation of total 349 IV drug preparations and administrations. The most common errors include the vial tap not swabbed during prepreparation and injecting bolus doses faster than the recommended administration rate. There was one incident of wrong drug attempted. Errors were significantly more likely to occur during administration time at 8.00am and when bolus drugs were given. Errors could be reduced by having proper guidelines on IV procedures, more common use of IV infusion control devices and by giving full concentration during the process. Awareness among the staff nurses and training needs should be addressed to reduce the rate of medication errors. Standard IV procedures should be abided and this needs the cooperation and active roles from all healthcare professionals as well as the staff nurses.
    Study site: Hospital Selayang, Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  2. Tan GJ, Kwan TK
    Contraception, 1987 Sep;36(3):359-67.
    PMID: 3677679
    The effect of oxytocin on testicular function was examined in the adult male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The monkeys were either infused with increasing concentrations of synthetic oxytocin (16-128 m.i.u./min for 3 h) or injected daily for a week with the same hormone (20 i.u., i.v.) and the plasma testosterone levels measured. The results of the present study show that acute infusion or chronic injection of oxytocin does not significantly affect the plasma testosterone levels, suggesting that systemic control of testicular endocrine function by oxytocin may be unimportant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  3. Zubair Faramir Zainul Fadziruddin, Adi Azriff Basri, Ernnie Illyani Basri
    Intravenous (IV) infusion of medical fluid is a very common procedure used as part of medical procedure treatment. It is also the best alternative medical administration route when medical administration through orally is impossible. The most common use of VAD is the short Peripheral IV Catheter (PIVC) or recognized as IV Cannula. In spite of that, even with experience used of PIVC in medical practice nowadays the rate of IV access failure is very high which is up to 69%. Intensive research studies shows the dislodgement case is one of the major contributions of PIVC failure. For some reason only a fewer cases are reported to the administration. This article seeks the awareness and risk factor regarding to the prevailing IV access failure using the PIVC. This manuscript reviewed the statistical data of PIVC dislodgement, significant of dislodgement, dislodgment cases among pediatric, medical staff factor related to PIVC dislodgement and alternative of securement device. This manuscript also discussed the needs of new securement device in order to reduce the percentage of PIVC dislodgement from occurs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  4. Balakrishnian, M., Johar, M.J., Ismail, M.S., Ahmad Khaldun, I., Hamidah, Y.
    Medicine & Health, 2013;8(2):81-84.
    Access to an intravenous (IV) route is very crucial in emergency patients under resuscitation. The difficulty to access and administer fluid and drugs through intravenous will influence the outcome of patient. In case of unavailable of intravenous route, the alternative is intraosseous access. To date, there is no data available on the prevalence and pattern of intraosseous cannulation knowledge among emergency paramedics in the published literature from our country, even though the use of intraosseous cannulation for emergency patients is being practices. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the level of knowledge regarding intraosseous cannulation among emergency paramedics. The knowledge related to intraosseous cannulation among emergency paramedics was assessed through structured validated test questions. Fifteen paramedics participated in this study. Majorities of participants were male (86.6%). The age group ranged from 22 – 45 old years. The working experiences were from two to thirteen years. There was only 1 out of 15 participants who had scored 75%. The majority (10) scored 40% to 50%. This suggests that necessity in teaching of intraosseous cannulation among emergency paramedics needs to be emphasised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  5. Osthoff M, Siegemund M, Balestra G, Abdul-Aziz MH, Roberts JA
    Swiss Med Wkly, 2016;146:w14368.
    PMID: 27731492 DOI: 10.4414/smw.2016.14368
    Prolonged infusion of β-lactam antibiotics as either extended (over at least 2 hours) or continuous infusion is increasingly applied in intensive care units around the world in an attempt to optimise treatment with this most commonly used class of antibiotics, whose effectiveness is challenged by increasing resistance rates. The pharmacokinetics of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients is profoundly altered secondary to an increased volume of distribution and the presence of altered renal function, including augmented renal clearance. This may lead to a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. As a consequence, low pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment, which is described as the percentage of time that the free drug concentration is maintained above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the causative organism (fT>MIC), has been documented for β-lactam treatment in these patients when using standard intermittent bolus dosing, even for the most conservative target (50% fT>MIC). Prolonged infusion of β-lactams has consistently been shown to improve PK/PD target attainment, particularly in patients with severe infections. However, evidence regarding relevant patient outcomes is still limited. Whereas previous observational studies have suggested a clinical benefit of prolonged infusion, results from two recent randomised controlled trials of continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus administration of β-lactams are conflicting. In particular, the larger, double-blind placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial including 443 patients did not demonstrate any difference in clinical outcomes. We believe that a personalised approach is required to truly optimise β-lactam treatment in critically ill patients. This may include therapeutic drug monitoring with real-time adaptive feedback, rapid MIC determination and the use of antibiotic dosing software tools that incorporate patient parameters, dosing history, drug concentration and site of infection. Universal administration of β-lactam antibiotics as prolonged infusion, even if supported by therapeutic drug monitoring, is not yet ready for "prime time", as evidence for its clinical benefit is modest. There is a need for prospective randomised controlled trials that assess patient-centred outcomes (e.g. mortality) of a personalised approach in selected critically ill patients including prolonged infusion of β-lactams compared with the current standard of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous/methods*
  6. Sakijan AS, Tamanang S
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):252-4.
    PMID: 3241586
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  7. Khaleel I, Zaidi STR, Shastri MD, Eapen MS, Ming LC, Wanandy T, et al.
    Eur J Hosp Pharm, 2018 Oct;25(e2):e102-e108.
    PMID: 31157078 DOI: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2017-001225
    Objectives: High dose of intravenous sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole) is often used in immunocompromised patients for the treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Current manufacturer's dilution recommendation for intravenous co-trimoxazole (1:25 v/v) requires the administration of 2 L of additional fluid per day causing serious complications including pulmonary oedema. Intravenous administration of concentrated solution of co-trimoxazole may minimise the risk of fluid overload associated side effects. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the physicochemical stability of concentrated intravenous co-trimoxazole solutions.

    Methods: Four ampoules of intravenous co-trimoxazole were injected into an infusion bag containing either 480 (1:25 v/v), 380 (1:20 v/v), 280 (1:15 v/v) or 180 (1:10 v/v) mL of glucose 5% solution. Three bags for each dilution (total 12 bags) were prepared and stored at room temperature. An aliquot was withdrawn immediately (at 0 hour) and after 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours of storage for high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and additional samples were withdrawn every half an hour for microscopic examination. Each sample was analysed for the concentration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole using a stability indicating HPLC method. Samples were assessed for pH, change in colour (visually) and for particle content (microscopically) immediately after preparation and on each time of analysis.

    Results: Intravenous co-trimoxazole at 1:25, 1:20, 1:15 and 1:10 v/v retained more than 98% of the initial concentration of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole for 4 hours. There was no major change in pH at time zero and at various time points. Microscopically, no particles were detected for at least 4 hours and 2 hours when intravenous co-trimoxazole was diluted at 1:25 or 1:20 and 1:15 v/v, respectively. More than 1200 particles/mL were detected after 2.5 hours of storage when intravenous co-trimoxazole was diluted at 1:15 v/v.

    Conclusions: Intravenous co-trimoxazole is stable over a period of 4 hours when diluted with 380 mL of glucose 5% solution (1:20 v/v) and for 2 hours when diluted with 280 mL glucose 5% solution (1:15 v/v).

    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  8. Subramani B, Pullai CR, Krishnan K, Sugadan SD, Deng X, Hiroshi T, et al.
    Biomed Rep, 2014 Jul;2(4):505-508.
    PMID: 24944796
    Immune cell-based therapies using natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells are under constant scrutiny, with the aim to design an effective and reduced-toxicity therapy, which will benefit patients via improved quality of life and improved prognosis. Four patients with stage IV colon cancer were administered 1, 3, 5 and 6 effector cell intravenous infusions, respectively. Peripheral blood was collected from the patients and the ex vivo activation and expansion of NK and T cells was performed in Good Manufacturing Practice-certified clean rooms for ~12-15 days. Immunophenotypic analysis of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expanded NK and T cells was conducted using flow cytometry and the patients were followed up. On average, 4.8×107 initial PBMCs and 2.7×109 total expanded cells were obtained. The intravenous infusions of the expanded cells were not accompanied by adverse reactions. Improved prognosis, reflected by a considerable decrease in the cancer markers, accompanied by an improved quality of life in the patients were observed. In conclusion, potential strategies are currently under development for the large-scale production of effectors cells; therefore, autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) may be considered as a viable approach to cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  9. Shafiee, M.N., Omar, M.H., Suraya, A., Hatta, M.
    Platinum based adjuvant chemotherapy is generally recommended for ovarian cancer to improve the survival rate. Intravenous route is commonly used, easily administered and less associated complications. However, intraperitoneal route is gaining its popularity as a single procedure or adjunctive to the intravenous route. Numerous questions on its eligibility and safety are still perplexed. A case review on a patient with non optimal debulking surgery of advanced ovarian cancer was studied. Intravenous platinum based chemotherapy combined with paclitaxel failed to bring her to clinical remission. Second line chemotherapy, gemcitabin rendered her to poor response with unresolved debilitating ascites needing recurrent drainage. Surprisingly, a trial of intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin revealed a great response with a complete clinical remission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  10. Chong, K.C., Sulaiman, A.R., Yusof, M.I., Vishvanathan, T., Anwar Hau, M.
    Malays Orthop J, 2010;4(3):3-6.
    Phantom limb pain may reduce ambulation and mobility in amputees, resulting in diminished quality of life. We conducted a prospective study to compare the perioperative analgesic use of intravenous morphine infusion in 27 patients(Group A) and intramuscular diclofenac sodium in 28 patients (Group B) in patients undergoing lower limb amputation. All patients underwent amputation under spinal anaesthesia and reported a Modified Verbal Numerical Pain Score of less than two prior to the procedure. Presence of phantom pain was assessed on the first, second, third and seventh day as well as at the third month and sixth month post-operatively. Twelve (44 %) patients from group A and 21 patients (75 %) from group B developed phantom limb pain following amputation, a statistically significant difference between groups (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  11. Abdul-Aziz MH, Sulaiman H, Mat-Nor MB, Rai V, Wong KK, Hasan MS, et al.
    Intensive Care Med, 2016 Oct;42(10):1535-1545.
    PMID: 26754759 DOI: 10.1007/s00134-015-4188-0
    PURPOSE: This study aims to determine if continuous infusion (CI) is associated with better clinical and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) outcomes compared to intermittent bolus (IB) dosing in critically ill patients with severe sepsis.

    METHODS: This was a two-centre randomised controlled trial of CI versus IB dosing of beta-lactam antibiotics, which enrolled critically ill participants with severe sepsis who were not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The primary outcome was clinical cure at 14 days after antibiotic cessation. Secondary outcomes were PK/PD target attainment, ICU-free days and ventilator-free days at day 28 post-randomisation, 14- and 30-day survival, and time to white cell count normalisation.

    RESULTS: A total of 140 participants were enrolled with 70 participants each allocated to CI and IB dosing. CI participants had higher clinical cure rates (56 versus 34 %, p = 0.011) and higher median ventilator-free days (22 versus 14 days, p MIC than the IB arm on day 1 (97 versus 70 %, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous/methods*
  12. Roberts JA, Abdul-Aziz MH, Davis JS, Dulhunty JM, Cotta MO, Myburgh J, et al.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2016 Sep 15;194(6):681-91.
    PMID: 26974879 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201601-0024OC
    RATIONALE: Optimization of β-lactam antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is an intervention that may improve outcomes in severe sepsis.

    OBJECTIVES: In this individual patient data meta-analysis of critically ill patients with severe sepsis, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of those treated with continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics.

    METHODS: We identified relevant randomized controlled trials comparing continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. We assessed the quality of the studies according to four criteria. We combined individual patient data from studies and assessed data integrity for common baseline demographics and study endpoints, including hospital mortality censored at 30 days and clinical cure. We then determined the pooled estimates of effect and investigated factors associated with hospital mortality in multivariable analysis.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified three randomized controlled trials in which researchers recruited a total of 632 patients with severe sepsis. The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, sex, and illness severity. The rates of hospital mortality and clinical cure for the continuous versus intermittent infusion groups were 19.6% versus 26.3% (relative risk, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.00; P = 0.045) and 55.4% versus 46.3% (relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.40; P = 0.021), respectively. In a multivariable model, intermittent β-lactam administration, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, use of renal replacement therapy, and infection by nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were significantly associated with hospital mortality. Continuous β-lactam administration was not independently associated with clinical cure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with intermittent dosing, administration of β-lactam antibiotics by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with severe sepsis is associated with decreased hospital mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous/methods
  13. Peyman M, Subrayan V
    JAMA Ophthalmol, 2013 Oct;131(10):1368-9.
    PMID: 23929315 DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.4489
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  14. Yahaya B, McLachlan G, Collie DD
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:871932.
    PMID: 23533365 DOI: 10.1155/2013/871932
    The response of S-phase cells labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in sheep airways undergoing repair in response to endobronchial brush biopsy was investigated in this study. Separate sites within the airway tree of anaesthetised sheep were biopsied at intervals prior to pulse labelling with BrdU, which was administered one hour prior to euthanasia. Both brushed and spatially disparate unbrushed (control) sites were carefully mapped, dissected, and processed to facilitate histological analysis of BrdU labelling. Our study indicated that the number and location of BrdU-labelled cells varied according to the age of the repairing injury. There was little evidence of cell proliferation in either control airway tissues or airway tissues examined six hours after injury. However, by days 1 and 3, BrdU-labelled cells were increased in number in the airway wall, both at the damaged site and in the regions flanking either side of the injury. Thereafter, cell proliferative activity largely declined by day 7 after injury, when consistent evidence of remodelling in the airway wall could be appreciated. This study successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of in vivo pulse labelling in tracking cell proliferation during repair which has a potential value in exploring the therapeutic utility of stem cell approaches in relevant lung disease models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  15. Loke SC, Kanesvaran R, Yahya R, Fisal L, Wong TW, Loong YY
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2009 Dec;38(12):1074-80.
    PMID: 20052443
    INTRODUCTION: Intravenous calcium gluconate has been used to prevent postoperative hypocalcaemia (POH) following parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data were obtained for 36 patients with CKD stage 4 and 5 after parathyroid surgery, correlating albumin-corrected serum calcium with the infusion rate of calcium gluconate. Calcium flux was characterised along with excursions out of the target calcium range of 2 to 3 mmol/L. With this data, an improved titration regimen was constructed.

    RESULTS: Mean peak efflux rate (PER) from the extracellular calcium pool was 2.97 mmol/h occurring 26.6 hours postoperatively. Peak calcium efflux tended to occur later in cases of severe POH. Eighty-one per cent of patients had excursions outside of the target calcium range of 2 to 3 mmol/L. Mean time of onset for hypocalcaemia was 2 days postoperatively. Hypocalcaemia was transient in 25% and persistent in 11% of patients.

    CONCLUSION: A simple titration regimen was constructed in which a 10% calcium gluconate infusion was started at 4.5 mL/h when serum calcium was <2 mmol/L, then increased to 6.5 mL/h and finally to 9.0 mL/h if calcium continued falling. Preoperative oral calcium and calcitriol doses were maintained. Blood testing was done 6-hourly, but when a higher infusion rate was needed, 4-hourly blood testing was preferred. Monitoring was discontinued if no hypocalcaemia developed in the fi rst 4 days after surgery. If hypocalcaemia persisted 6 days after surgery, then the infusion was stopped with further monitoring for 24 hours.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  16. Vani S, Lau SY, Lim BK, Omar SZ, Tan PC
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2009 Jan;104(1):28-31.
    PMID: 18922525 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.08.014
    To evaluate the success of external cephalic version (ECV) using an adjusted bolus dose of intravenous salbutamol compared with no tocolysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  17. Harjit K, Zanariah H, Hisham AN
    Asian J Surg, 2007 Jul;30(3):173-7.
    PMID: 17638635
    The hypercalcaemic crisis of hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine emergency that is invariably fatal if untreated. Despite emergency parathyroidectomies to treat hypercalcaemic crisis, mortality rates remain high. The rapid decline of serum calcium levels after removal of an adenoma and its adverse effect on the heart contributes to the development of postoperative complications and death. The cornerstone of surgical treatment for hypercalcaemic crisis is to begin infusion of high doses of calcium immediately after successful removal of parathyroid adenomas to allow gradual and well-controlled decline of serum calcium to avoid fatal myocardial complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  18. Tan PC, Valiapan SD, Tay PY, Omar SZ
    BJOG, 2007 Jul;114(7):824-32.
    PMID: 17506788
    To compare concurrent oxytocin with dinoprostone pessary versus dinoprostone pessary in labour induction for nulliparas with an unfavourable cervix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  19. Gan SH, Ismail R, Wan Adnan WA, Zulmi W, Jelliffe RW
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Oct;29(5):455-63.
    PMID: 15482390
    Although the kinetic behaviour of tramadol has been described, the present study is the first to our knowledge, to report specifically on the population pharmacokinetic modelling of tramadol hydrochloride.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
  20. Tan PC, Soe MZ, Sulaiman S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2013 Feb;121(2 Pt 1):253-259.
    PMID: 23344273 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827e7fd9
    OBJECTIVE: To compare immediate with delayed (4 hours) oxytocin infusion after amniotomy on vaginal delivery within 12 hours and patient satisfaction with the birth process.

    METHODS: Parous women with favorable cervixes after amniotomy for labor induction were randomized to immediate titrated oxytocin or placebo intravenous infusion in a double-blind noninferiority trial. After 4 hours, study infusions were stopped, the women were assessed, and open-label oxytocin was started if required. Maternal satisfaction with the birth process was assessed with a 10-point visual numerical rating scale (lower score, greater satisfaction).

    RESULTS: Vaginal delivery rates at 12 hours were 91 of 96 (94.8%) compared with 91 of 94 (96.8%) (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.04, P=.72), and maternal satisfaction on a visual numerical rating scale (median [interquartile range]) was 3 [3-4] compared with 3 [3-5], P=.36 for immediate compared with delayed arm, respectively). Cesarean delivery, maternal fever, postpartum hemorrhage, uterine hyperactivity, and adverse neonatal outcome rates were similar between arms. The immediate oxytocin arm had a shorter amniotomy-to-delivery interval of 5.3±3.1 compared with 6.9±2.9 hours (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Infusions, Intravenous
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