RESULTS: The results showed that lipid content of cell dry weight in Snf-β knockout strain was increased by 32 % (from 19 to 25 %). However, in Snf-β overexpressing strain, lipid content of cell dry weight was decreased about 25 % (from 19 to 14.2 %) compared to the control strain. Total fatty acid analysis revealed that the expression of the Snf-β gene did not significantly affect the fatty acid composition of the strains. However, GLA content in biomass was increased from 2.5 % in control strain to 3.3 % in Snf-β knockout strain due to increased lipid accumulation and decreased to 1.83 % in Snf-β overexpressing strain. AMPK is known to inactivate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in lipid synthesis. Snf-β manipulation also altered the expression level of the ACC1 gene which may indicate that Snf-β control lipid metabolism by regulating ACC1 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that Snf-β gene plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11. Moreover, it will be interesting to evaluate the potential of other key subunits of AMPK related to lipid metabolism. Better insight can show us the way to manipulate these subunits effectively for upscaling the lipid production. Up to our knowledge, it is the first study to investigate the role of Snf-β in lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fasting plasma PP concentrations were measured in 104 overweight and obese subjects (46 men and 58 women). In the same subjects, total and regional adipose tissue, including total visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (TSAT), were measured using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Intrahepatocellular lipid content (IHCL) was quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
RESULTS: Fasting plasma PP concentrations positively and significantly correlated with both VAT (r = 0.57, P < .001) and IHCL (r = 0.51, P < .001), but not with TSAT (r = 0.02, P = .88). Fasting PP concentrations independently predicted VAT after controlling for age and sex. Fasting PP concentrations independently predicted IHCL after controlling for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance, (HOMA2-IR) and serum concentrations of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Fasting PP concentrations were associated with serum ALT, TG, TC, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure (P < .05). These associations were mediated by IHCL and/or VAT. Fasting PP and HOMA2-IR were independently significantly associated with hepatic steatosis (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic polypeptide is a novel predictor of visceral and liver fat content, and thus a potential biomarker for cardiovascular risk stratification and targeted treatment of patients with ectopic fat deposition.
RESULTS: A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to production of high-yielding oil palms and have implications for breeding to maximize oil production.