Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

  1. Chow AY, Simpson IA
    J Trop Pediatr (Lond), 1956 Sep;2(2):69-76.
    PMID: 24544134
    (1) The effect has been studied of the oral administration of supplementary thiamine on the thiamine content of milk from sixteen women, whose initial thiamine content was low ; and of the parenteral administration of thiamine to ten women, some of whom initially showed mild, clinical symptoms of beriberi.
    (2) The response in the milk content of thiamine to supplementary thiamine, administered either orally or by injection, showed marked variation in different women. While comparatively small doses taken by mouth evoked a marked response in some women, fairly large doses administered by injection failed to produce much response in others.
    (3) In some women, a marked increase in the thiamine content of their milk occurred soon after the administration of thiamine, either orally or parenterally. In others, the response was slow and meagre.
    (4) The highest thiamine level obtained in a sample of milk was 38.9 ug./100 ml., after the injection, twice daily, of 20 mg. thiamine for six days — a total intake of 240 mg. of thiamine parenterally. The initial milk thiamine level in this case was 2.3 ug./100 ml., but had increased to 16.2ug./100 ml., by the supply of a good diet alone, before the course of injections was commenced.
    (5) It would appear, that, in cases where the thiamine content of the milk is low, initial parenteral administration of thiamine must be supplemented by a continued intake of additional thiamine, if a satisfactory level of thiamine in the milk is to be maintained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
  2. Yadav M, Nagappan N, Iyngkaran N
    J. Pediatr., 1980 Mar;96(3 Pt 1):515-6.
    PMID: 7359251
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/immunology*
  3. Boo NY
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):223-227.
    PMID: 28028291 MyJurnal
    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC. Some investigators have reported an increase in the incidence of NEC in their NICU when the percentage of infants with pathogens isolated from their gut increased, and decreased when gut colonisation rate was low. Both bacteria and viruses have been reported to be associated with outbreaks of NEC. The majority (>90%) of the NEC cases occurred in neonates on enteral feeding. Studies have shown that milk (whether EBM or formula) fed to neonates was not sterile and were further contaminated during collection, transport, storage and/or feeding. Other investigators have reported a reduction in the incidence of NEC when they improved infection control measures and hygienic procedures in handling milk. It is, therefore, hypothesised that the most common cause of NEC is due to the feeding of neonates, particularly the vulnerable very preterm small neonates, with milk heavily contaminated during collection at source, transport, storage and/or feeding. Because of the immaturity of the immune system of the neonates, excessive inflammatory response to the pathogen load in the gut leads to the pathogenesis of NEC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/microbiology*
  4. Prameela KK
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):166-9; quiz 170.
    PMID: 22106709
    Essential nutritive and immunological ingredients abundantly present in breastmilk make it the choice infant nutrition. The uniqueness of mother's milk, in contrast to most therapeutics and immunizations, lies in its potential to adapt itself to the requirements of the infant so that timely immune defenses are tapped from its constituents by immune regulation, modulation and immune acceleration to stimulate novel substances; these render it pertinent as defense when faced with challenging organisms. While it is appreciated that immunity can be transferred from mother to infant through breastmilk following maternal influenza vaccination, the immense benefits conferred by breastfeeding per se during influenza pandemics may not be fully valued. This is substantiated by debates and ambiguities for continued breastfeeding in the face of maternal influenza infections. This article emphasises the utmost importance of breastfeeding in viral pandemics in the light of the changing immunological strategies used by viruses at different times and the urgent need for such opportune defenses. The prolific interaction of its constituents is frequently understated as enormous advantages to the suckling infant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/immunology*
  5. Prameela KK, Vijaya LR
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Apr;18(1):103-11.
    PMID: 23713234 MyJurnal
    Globally, rotaviral vaccines in use today have contributed to the reduction of the incidence of rotaviral diarrhoeas. Despite the substantial protection conferred by the current vaccines against the rotaviral strains, it is only prudent to recognise that other protective factors, like breastfeeding, also provide some degree of protection against this disease. This article has attempted to review some important mechanisms of protection in breast milk against the rotaviruses and highlight the oft forgotten non-immunoglobulin fraction in breast milk as an additional tool of protection against rotavirus disease. The adaptive capacity of breast milk to environment is another compelling reason to continue breastfeeding as it can usefully complement and be significant in the use of many vaccines. Vital immunoprotective constituents in breast milk beneficially protect the infant by initiating and strengthening many immune responses and should be borne in mind as essential tools of defence even in an era where vaccines play a pivotal role in the combat against certain diseases. It is impressive that besides nutritive advantages, the suckling infant enjoys appreciable immunoprotection via exclusive breastfeeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/immunology; Milk, Human/chemistry
  6. Radzi, Z., Yahya, N.A.
    Ann Dent, 2005;12(1):-.
    Breast-feeding offers many benefits to the baby and the mother. For instance, breast milk provides the right balance of nutrients to help an infant grow into a strong and healthy toddler. Even though breastfeeding is a natural process, it is not always easy. In certain situations, some mothers are unable to breastfeed their babies or the babies are unable to adapt to breastfeeding. This will lead to the use of bottle-feeding. The effect of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding on physical growth has been well established but less has been concentrated on the craniofacial growth and dental development. This review reveals the effects of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding on craniofacial growth and dentoalveolar development based on the available literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human
  7. Asmah Rahmat, Rozita Rosli, Tan, Mui Hoon, Nasir Umar-Tsafe, Abdul Manaf Ali, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar
    Objective: Previous studies have shown milk to contain cancer inhibitors. In this context, this study was conducted to screen the potential cytotoxic properties of four different types of milk, namely cow's milk, goat's milk, mare's milk and human milk.
    Methods: In evaluating the cytotoxic properties of milk, two different human leukemia cell lines namely, Raji and CEM-SS were used. The treated and untreated cells of milk were cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 5 days according to standard guidelines. The CellTiter 96® Aqueous (MTS) assay was carried out on the first, third and fifth days to measure cell viability. The percentage of cell viability was determined by comparing the optical density of the treated cells against the untreated controls. One-way ANOYA at p
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human
  8. Koe, Swee-Lee
    It is ironical to realize that a perfect and free nutritional product, individually produced and naturally distributed to all families, is not universally used. This product is of course breast milk that nurtures the optimal health, growth and development of the human young. Breast milk also protects infants and young children from and prevents diseases in the short and long term. (Copied from article)
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human
  9. Norita Kamaruddin, Nora'inan Bahari, Zanariah Dimon, Nurhayati Abd Ghani
    The awareness of the Muslim community on the importance of understanding breastfeeding according
    to Islamic perspective needs to be emphasized in promoting the implementation of breastfeeding in the
    best way. This proved that breast milk is the major food after birth and a mother should know the right
    and the regulation of breastfeeding in order to be in line with Islamic law. This article aims to discuss
    the level of awareness among the Muslim community in Selangor regarding breast milk donation. Data
    were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 400 respondents involving three locations in
    Selangor, namely in the northern zone (Hulu Selangor district), central zone (Klang district) and
    southern zone (Sepang district). The findings showed that the respondents had a moderate level of
    awareness regarding milk donation laws with average mean value of 3.26. This finding shows that the
    Muslim community in Selangor are concerned about the rights and the regulation of breastfeeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human
  10. Prameela KK
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):644-51.
    PMID: 23770969 MyJurnal
    Breastmilk protects the infant from many diseases and many short- term and long- term benefits accrue. At the same time it is also known that breastfeeding acts as a vehicle for some infective agents. It is now accepted that breastmilk transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus- 1 (HIV-1) is an important mode of paediatric infection . Despite this fact, many researchers have observed that corresponding to the volume of milk consumed by the infant, maternal transmission via breastmilk is still comparatively low. Some have noted the long latency period of breastmilk HIV transmission with evidence of numerous anti-HIV factors in breastmilk. Although there are accepted standard guidelines on infant feeding in mothers who are HIV positive in many countries, it maybe equally important to realize gaps in our knowledge of mother- to -child HIV transmission. From an evolutionary perspective, the role of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) and of breastmilk , in contributing to and possibly in influencing HIV-1 transmission is intriguing. The presence of HIV-1 or of other viruses in maternal milk seem to be a requisite to spur immunological defenses to optimize necessary protection to the infant. This article reviews some aspects of the science of HIV transmission through breastmilk and reflects the concept -based understanding of current policies on HIV and breastfeeding. At the same time, it highlights uncertainties in this field and the urgency for future research in this direction. Accepting current notions of breastmilk HIV transmission, greater deliberation by research may throw more light on why breastfeeding with its abundant advantages is fraught with the hazards of transmission of a deadly disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human
  11. Boo NY, Nordiah AJ, Alfizah H, Nor-Rohaini AH, Lim VK
    J. Hosp. Infect., 2001 Dec;49(4):274-81.
    PMID: 11740876
    The objective of this study was to compare the rates of bacterial contamination of expressed breast milk (EBM) obtained by manual expression and breast pumps in mothers of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (<1501 g). This was a randomized, controlled study carried out on 28 mothers of such babies and 92 specimens of EBM were collected: 41 specimens from 13 mothers assigned to the manual group and 51 specimens from 15 mothers in the breast-pump group. EBM was cultured quantitatively by the Miles and Misra method. Breast milk expressed by breast pumps (86.3% or 44/51 specimens) had a significantly higher rate of bacterial contamination than milk expressed by the manual method (61.0% or 25/41 specimens) (P= 0.005). When breast milk was expressed in the hospital, there was no significant difference in contamination rates between the two methods. When breast milk was expressed at home, the rates of bacterial contamination by staphylococci (P= 0.003) and Gram-negative bacilli (P= 0.002) were significantly higher in the breast-pump group than the manual group. In conclusion, the rate of bacterial contamination of EBM of mothers of VLBW infants was high, especially when EBM was obtained by the breast pump or when expression was carried out at home.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/microbiology*
  12. Simpson IA, Chow AY
    J Trop Pediatr (Lond), 1956 Jun;2(1):3-17.
    PMID: 24544028 DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.tropej.a057405
    (1) The use of the thiochrome method for the estimation of thiamine in human milk is discussed, with special reference to the possible production of an artefact, following the incubation of the milk with pepsin, in addition to the use of takadiastase (clarase). No evidence could be found to suggest that an artefact resembling thiamine was produced by the method of analysis described.
    (2) The thiamine content of 91 samples of full lactation human milk from apparently "normal" Malay, Chinese and Indian women in Malaya is recorded. The mean milk thiamine level of 11.3 ug/100 ml. found is considerably lower than the levels recorded for milk samples from apparently "normal " women in the United Kingdom and the U.S.A.; and slightly lower than that recorded in Australia. The results suggest that the dietary
    intake of thiamine in Malaya is inadequate to maintain optimum thiamine levels in the milk of lactating women.
    (3) No significant difference was found in the mean thiamine content of milk from women of the three principal racial groups in Malaya ; nor was any significant difference found to be associated with the parity or age of the women or, in the case of full lactation milks, with the time after parturition at which the sample was collected. No significant difference was found in samples collected from the same woman at different times of the day or before and after a main meal.
    (4) Marked differences were found in the thiamine content of samples of milk from individual women, and the possible reasons for this are discussed.
    (5) The examfnation of 48 samples of milk collected during the first month after parturition confirmed previous recorded observations that the thiamine content of such milks, initially low, gradually increases to reach "normal" levels towards the end of the first month of lactation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1964 Sep;58:425-31.
    PMID: 14206699
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
  14. Juvarajah T, Wan-Ibrahim WI, Ashrafzadeh A, Othman S, Hashim OH, Fung SY, et al.
    Breastfeed Med, 2018 11;13(9):631-637.
    PMID: 30362820 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2018.0057
    BACKGROUND: Bioactive proteins from milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) play extensive roles in cellular processes and defense mechanisms in infants. The aims of this study were to identify differences in protein compositions in human and caprine MFGM using proteomics and evaluate possible nutritional benefits of caprine milk toward an infant's growth, as an alternative when breastfeeding or human milk administration is not possible or inadequate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and caprine MFGM proteins were isolated and analyzed, initially by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and subsequently by quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This was then followed by database search and gene ontology analysis. In general, this method selectively analyzed the abundantly expressed proteins in milk MFGM.

    RESULTS: Human MFGM contains relatively more abundant bioactive proteins compared with caprine. While a total of 128 abundant proteins were detected in the human MFGM, only 42 were found in that of the caprine. Seven of the bioactive proteins were apparently found to coexist in both human and caprine MFGM.

    RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Among the commonly detected MFGM proteins, lactotransferrin, beta-casein, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, and butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 were highly expressed in human MFGM. On the other hand, alpha-S1-casein and EGF factor 8 protein, which are also nutritionally beneficial, were found in abundance in caprine MFGM. The large number of human MFGM abundant proteins that were generally lacking in caprine appeared to mainly support human metabolic and developmental processes.

    CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated superiority of human MFGM by having more than one hundred nutritionally beneficial and abundantly expressed proteins, which are clearly lacking in caprine MFGM. The minor similarity in the abundantly expressed bioactive proteins in caprine MFGM, which was detected further, suggests that it is still nutritionally beneficial, and therefore should be included when caprine milk-based formula is used as an alternative.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  15. Alnakshabandi K, Fiester A
    Paediatr Int Child Health, 2016 Feb;36(1):4-6.
    PMID: 26750779 DOI: 10.1080/20469047.2015.1110336
    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
  16. McJarrow P, Radwan H, Ma L, MacGibbon AKH, Hashim M, Hasan H, et al.
    Nutrients, 2019 Oct 08;11(10).
    PMID: 31597293 DOI: 10.3390/nu11102400
    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  17. Prameela KK
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 12;74(6):527-533.
    PMID: 31929480
    INTRODUCTION: Exclusive breastfeeding for the initial six months of life is crucial and it is recommended . Breast milk jaundice is an innocuous condition that occurs in some healthy, breastfed infants. However, the potential dangers of jaundice in the neonate such as bilirubin induced neuronal pathology, mandates a better understanding of the pathophysiology of breast milk jaundice and the impact of breastfeeding during jaundice. In this context , advice on continued breastfeeding must consider both the benefits of breastfeeding and the possible disadvantages of the jaundice.

    METHODS: Reviewing literature and integrating relevant information facilitated the appraisal of this important topic. This article reviewed neonatal jaundice, the entry of bilirubin into the immature brain and how breastfeeding may impact jaundice in the neonate.

    RESULTS: While some substances in breast milk may be responsible for jaundice on the one hand, there is an irrefutable spectrum of advantages conferred by continued breastfeeding, on the other. As the breastfed infant benefits from fewer infections, enhanced organ and physiological barrier maturity, as well as the prospect of genetic modification of certain diseases, these useful actions could also reduce risks of early jaundice and its complications.

    DISCUSSION: An exciting field for further research, holistic integration of knowledge clarifies both the overall advantages of breastfeeding and wisdom of its continued counsel. In fact, breast milk jaundice may reflect a holistic expression of tissue protection and enhanced neonatal survival.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/metabolism
  18. Hsu HT, Fong TV, Hassan NM, Wong HL, Rai JK, Khalid Z
    Breastfeed Med, 2012 Apr;7(2):118-22.
    PMID: 22011131 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0006
    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
  19. Shokryazdan P, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Liang JB, Alitheen NB, Faseleh Jahromi M, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:927268.
    PMID: 25105147 DOI: 10.1155/2014/927268
    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/microbiology
  20. Jan Mohamed HJ, Rowan A, Fong B, Loy SL
    PLoS One, 2014;9(7):e100705.
    PMID: 24992199 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100705
    Vitamin D deficiency has become a global health issue in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of maternal vitamin D status by measuring maternal serum and breast milk 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and to determine the association between maternal serum and milk 25(OH)D levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/metabolism*
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