MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and caprine MFGM proteins were isolated and analyzed, initially by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and subsequently by quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This was then followed by database search and gene ontology analysis. In general, this method selectively analyzed the abundantly expressed proteins in milk MFGM.
RESULTS: Human MFGM contains relatively more abundant bioactive proteins compared with caprine. While a total of 128 abundant proteins were detected in the human MFGM, only 42 were found in that of the caprine. Seven of the bioactive proteins were apparently found to coexist in both human and caprine MFGM.
RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Among the commonly detected MFGM proteins, lactotransferrin, beta-casein, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, and butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 were highly expressed in human MFGM. On the other hand, alpha-S1-casein and EGF factor 8 protein, which are also nutritionally beneficial, were found in abundance in caprine MFGM. The large number of human MFGM abundant proteins that were generally lacking in caprine appeared to mainly support human metabolic and developmental processes.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated superiority of human MFGM by having more than one hundred nutritionally beneficial and abundantly expressed proteins, which are clearly lacking in caprine MFGM. The minor similarity in the abundantly expressed bioactive proteins in caprine MFGM, which was detected further, suggests that it is still nutritionally beneficial, and therefore should be included when caprine milk-based formula is used as an alternative.
METHODS: Reviewing literature and integrating relevant information facilitated the appraisal of this important topic. This article reviewed neonatal jaundice, the entry of bilirubin into the immature brain and how breastfeeding may impact jaundice in the neonate.
RESULTS: While some substances in breast milk may be responsible for jaundice on the one hand, there is an irrefutable spectrum of advantages conferred by continued breastfeeding, on the other. As the breastfed infant benefits from fewer infections, enhanced organ and physiological barrier maturity, as well as the prospect of genetic modification of certain diseases, these useful actions could also reduce risks of early jaundice and its complications.
DISCUSSION: An exciting field for further research, holistic integration of knowledge clarifies both the overall advantages of breastfeeding and wisdom of its continued counsel. In fact, breast milk jaundice may reflect a holistic expression of tissue protection and enhanced neonatal survival.