Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 311 in total

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  1. Goh PS, Ismail AF
    Membranes (Basel), 2021 Feb 25;11(3).
    PMID: 33668700 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11030158
    The design and synthesis of functional nanomaterials have been extensively explored over the last decade, primarily due to their exceptional physico-chemical properties [...].
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures
  2. Abedini A, Bakar AA, Larki F, Menon PS, Islam MS, Shaari S
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2016 Dec;11(1):287.
    PMID: 27283051 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-016-1500-z
    This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures
  3. Akter N, Radiman S, Mohamed F, Reza MI
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Jul;13(9):1327-39.
    PMID: 23544469
    Self-assembled nanocarriers attract increasing attention due to their wide application in various practical fields; among them, one of the most focused fields is drug delivery. Appropriate selection of surfactant is the basis for preparing a successful nanocarrier. Until now, from phospholipid to synthetic surfactants, many surfactants have been used to explore a suitable drug delivery vehicle for the complex in-vivo environment. Among all, bio surfactants are found to be more suitable due to their bio-origin, less-toxicity, biodegradability, cheaper rate and above all, their versatile molecular structures. This molecular property enables them to self assemble into fascinating structures. Moreover, binding DNA, enhancing pH sensitivity and stability allows novelty over their synthetic counterparts and phospholipid. This review paper focuses on the properties and applications of bio-nano-carriers for drug delivery. Micelle, microemulsion, and vesicle are the three nanocarriers which are discussed herein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  4. Yaghoubi A, Mélinon P
    Sci Rep, 2013;3:1083.
    PMID: 23330064 DOI: 10.1038/srep01083
    In recent years, plasma-assisted synthesis has been extensively used in large scale production of functional nano- and micro-scale materials for numerous applications in optoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, magnetism and drug delivery, however systematic formation of these minuscule structures has remained a challenge. Here we demonstrate a new method to closely manipulate mesostructures in terms of size, composition and morphology by controlling permeability at the boundaries of an impermeable plasma surrounded by a blanket of neutrals. In situ and rapid growth of thin films in the core region due to ion screening is among other benefits of our method. Similarly we can take advantage of exceptional properties of plasma to control the morphology of the as deposited nanostructures. Probing the plasma at boundaries by means of observing the nanostructures, further provides interesting insights into the behaviour of gas-insulated plasmas with possible implications on efficacy of viscous heating and non-magnetic confinement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/chemistry*
  5. Dehhaghi M, Tabatabaei M, Aghbashlo M, Kazemi Shariat Panahi H, Nizami AS
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Dec 01;251:109597.
    PMID: 31563049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109597
    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is among the most promising approaches used for the simultaneous treatment of various waste streams, environment conservation, and renewable bioenergy generation (biomethane). Among the latest innovations investigated to enhance the overall performance of this process both qualitatively and quantitatively, the application of some nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted a great deal of attention. Typically, the NPs of potential benefit to the AD process could be divided into three groups: (i) zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs, (ii) metallic and metal oxides NPs, and (iii) carbon-based NPs. The present review focuses on the latest findings reported on the application of these NPs in AD process and presents their various mechanisms of action leading to higher or lower biogas production rates. Among the NPs studies, ZVI NPs could be regarded as the most promising nanomaterials for enhancing biogas production through stabilizing the AD process as well as by stimulating the growth of beneficial microorganisms to the AD process and the enzymes involved. Future research should focus on various attributes of NPs when used as additives in biogas production, including facilitating mixing and pumping operations, enriching the population and diversity of beneficial microorganisms for AD, improving biogas release, and inducing the production and activity of AD-related enzymes. The higher volume of methane-enriched biogas would be translated into higher returns on investment and could therefore, result in further growth of the biogas production industry. Nevertheless, efforts should be devoted to decreasing the price of NPs so that the enhanced biogas and methane production (by over 90%, compared to control) would be more economically justified, facilitating the large-scale application of these compounds. In addition to economic considerations, environmental issues are also regarded as major constraints which should be addressed prior to widespread implementation of NP-augmented AD processes. More specifically, the fate of NPs augmented in AD process should be scrutinized to ensure maximal beneficial impacts while adverse environmental/health consequences are minimized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  6. Thomas P, Duolikun T, Rumjit NP, Moosavi S, Lai CW, Bin Johan MR, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 10;110:103884.
    PMID: 32957191 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103884
    Cellulose constitutes most of a plant's cell wall, and it is the most abundant renewable polymer source on our planet. Given the hierarchical structure of cellulose, nanocellulose has gained considerable attention as a nano-reinforcement for polymer matrices in various industries (medical and healthcare, oil and gas, packaging, paper and board, composites, printed and flexible electronics, textiles, filtration, rheology modifiers, 3D printing, aerogels and coating films). Herein, nanocellulose is considered as a sustainable nanomaterial due to its substantial strength, low density, excellent mechanical performance and biocompatibility. Indeed, nanocellulose exists in several forms, including bacterial cellulose, nanocrystalline cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose, which results in biodegradable and environmentally friendly bionanocomposites with remarkably improved material properties. This paper reviews the recent advances in production, physicochemical properties, and structural characterization of nanocelluloses. It also summarises recent developments in several multifunctional applications of nanocellulose with an emphasis on bionanocomposite properties. Besides, various challenges associated with commercialisation and economic aspects of nanocellulose for current and future markets are also discussed inclusively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  7. Zhang Y, Liu X, Yusoff M, Razali MH
    Scanning, 2021;2021:3839235.
    PMID: 34630820 DOI: 10.1155/2021/3839235
    Flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are successfully synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel and a simple hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized using various techniques to study their physicochemical properties and was tested as a photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation and as an antibacterial material. Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern show that the phase structure of the synthesized TiO2 is anatase with 80-100 nm in diameter and 150-200 nm in length of flower-like nanostructures as proved by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure found that only titanium and oxygen elements are present in the sample. The anatase phase was confirmed further by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) result shows that the sample had a large surface area (108.24 m2/g) and large band gap energy (3.26 eV) due to their nanosize. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the formation of Ti4+ and Ti3+ species which could prevent the recombination of the photogenerated electron, thus increased the electron transportation and photocatalytic activity of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure to degrade the methyl orange (83.03%) in a short time (60 minutes). These properties also support the good performance of flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure as an antibacterial material which is comparable with penicillin which is 13.00 ± 0.02 mm inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  8. Abdul Manaf SA, Mohamad Fuzi SFZ, Low KO, Hegde G, Abdul Manas NH, Md Illias R, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Nov;105(21-22):8531-8544.
    PMID: 34611725 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11616-0
    Carbon nanomaterials, due to their catalytic activity and high surface area, have potential as cell immobilization supports to increase the production of xylanase. Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis used for xylanase production was integrated into a polymeric gel network with carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials were pretreated before cell immobilization with hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking, which contributes to cell immobilization performance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) were further screened using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. Cell loading and agar concentration were the most important factors in xylanase production with low cell leakage. Under optimized conditions, xylanase production was increased by more than 400% compared to free cells. Immobilized cell material containing such high cell densities may exhibit new and unexplored beneficial properties because the cells comprise a large fraction of the component. The use of carbon nanomaterials as a cell immobilization support along with the entrapment method successfully enhances the production of xylanase, providing a new route to improved bioprocessing, particularly for the production of enzymes. KEY POINTS: • Carbon nanomaterials (CNTs, GO) have potential as cell immobilization supports. • Entrapment in a polymeric gel network provides space for xylanase production. • Plackett-Burman design screen for the most important factor for cell immobilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  9. Sudheer S, Bai RG, Muthoosamy K, Tuvikene R, Gupta VK, Manickam S
    Environ Res, 2022 03;204(Pt A):111963.
    PMID: 34450157 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111963
    The demand for the green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained prominence over the conventional chemical and physical syntheses, which often entails toxic chemicals, energy consumption and ultimately lead to negative environmental impact. In the green synthesis approach, naturally available bio-compounds found in plants and fungi can be effective and have been proven to be alternative reducing agents. Fungi or mushrooms are particularly interesting due to their high content of bioactive compounds, which can serve as excellent reducing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Apart from the economic and environmental benefits, such as ease of availability, low synthesis/production cost, safe and no toxicity, the nanoparticles synthesized from this green method have unique physical and chemical properties. Stabilisation of the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is exceedingly high, even after prolonged storage with unperturbed size uniformity. Biological properties were significantly improved with higher biocompatibility, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. These remarkable properties allow further exploration in their applications both in the medical and agricultural fields. This review aims to explore the mushroom-mediated biosynthesis of nanomaterials, specifically the mechanism and bio-compounds involved in the synthesis and their interactions for the stabilisation of nanoparticles. Various metal and non-metal nanoparticles have been discussed along with their synthesis techniques and parameters, making them ideal for specific industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. Only recent developments have been explored in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  10. Faiyaz M, Ganayee MA, Akhtar S, Krishnan S, Flora B, Dogra D, et al.
    Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 2021 10 30;26(10):851-865.
    PMID: 34719210 DOI: 10.52586/4992
    Alzheimer's, a progressive neurodegenerative disease affects brain and neurons through enormous reduction in nerve cell regenerative capacity. Dementia and impairment of cognitive functions are more prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries. Various factors play significant role in molecular cascades that leads to neuronal inflammation, dementia and thereby AD progression. Current medications are symptomatic that alleviates pain while lack in absolute cure, urging researchers to explore targets and therapeutics. Interestingly, nanomedicines developed due to the onset of nanotechnology, are being extensively investigated for the treatment of AD. This review presents the advancement in nanotherapeutic strategies, involving the emergence of nanomaterials that offers advantage to pass through the blood-brain barrier and acts as a therapeutic modality against AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  11. Karimi S, Tahir PM, Karimi A, Dufresne A, Abdulkhani A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Jan 30;101:878-85.
    PMID: 24299851 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.09.106
    Cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast were isolated in three distinct stages. Initially raw kenaf bast fibers were subjected to an alkali pulping process. Then pulped fibers undergone a bleaching process and finally both pulped and bleached fibers were separated into their constituent nanoscale cellulosic fibers by mechanical shearing. The influence of each treatment on the chemical composition of fibers was investigated. Moreover morphology, functional groups, crystallinity, and thermal behavior of fiber hierarchy at different stages of purification were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Microscopy studies revealed that applied procedures successfully isolated nanoscale cellulosic fibers from both unbleached and bleached pulps. Chemical composition analysis and FTIR spectroscopy showed that lignin and hemicellulose were almost entirely removed by the applied treatments. XRD and TGA analyses demonstrated progressive enhancement of properties in fibers, hierarchically, in going from micro to nano scale. Interestingly no significant evolution was observed between obtained data of characterized ubnleached and bleached nanofibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/chemistry*
  12. Ngo TA, Dinh H, Nguyen TM, Liew FF, Nakata E, Morii T
    Chem Commun (Camb), 2019 Oct 15;55(83):12428-12446.
    PMID: 31576822 DOI: 10.1039/c9cc04661e
    DNA is an attractive molecular building block to construct nanoscale structures for a variety of applications. In addition to their structure and function, modification the DNA nanostructures by other molecules opens almost unlimited possibilities for producing functional DNA-based architectures. Among the molecules to functionalize DNA nanostructures, proteins are one of the most attractive candidates due to their vast functional variations. DNA nanostructures loaded with various types of proteins hold promise for applications in the life and material sciences. When loading proteins of interest on DNA nanostructures, the nanostructures by themselves act as scaffolds to specifically control the location and number of protein molecules. The methods to arrange proteins of interest on DNA scaffolds at high yields while retaining their activity are still the most demanding task in constructing usable protein-modified DNA nanostructures. Here, we provide an overview of the existing methods applied for assembling proteins of interest on DNA scaffolds. The assembling methods were categorized into two main classes, noncovalent and covalent conjugation, with both showing pros and cons. The recent advance of DNA-binding adaptor mediated assembly of proteins on the DNA scaffolds is highlighted and discussed in connection with the future perspectives of protein assembled DNA nanoarchitectures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/chemistry
  13. Khalid K, Tan X, Mohd Zaid HF, Tao Y, Lye Chew C, Chu DT, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):328-355.
    PMID: 32138595 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1736240
    With the unique properties such as high surface area to volume ratio, stability, inertness, ease of functionalization, as well as novel optical, electrical, and magnetic behaviors, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in various fields with the common types including nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and fullerenes. With the aim of providing useful insights to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for large-scale production, this review focused on the science and applications of inorganic and organic nanomaterials, emphasizing on their synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications on different fields. The applications of nanomaterials on imaging, cell and gene delivery, biosensor, cancer treatment, therapy, and others were discussed in depth. Last but not least, the future prospects and challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology were also explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/chemistry*
  14. Pulingam T, Thong KL, Appaturi JN, Lai CW, Leo BF
    Chemosphere, 2021 Oct;281:130739.
    PMID: 34004516 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130739
    Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology contributed to the increasing use of nanomaterials in the engineering, health and biological sectors. Graphene oxide (GO) has great potentials as it could be fine-tuned to be adapted into various applications, especially in the electrical, electronic, industrial and clinical fields. One of the important applications of GO is its use as an antibacterial material due to its promising activity against a broad range of bacteria. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action of GO towards bacteria is still lacking and is often less described. Therefore, a comprehensive overview of bactericidal mechanistic actions of GO and the roles of physicochemical factors including size, aggregation, functionalization and adsorption behavior contributing to its antibacterial activities are described in this review. As the use of GO is expected to increase exponentially in the health sector, the cytotoxicity of GO among the cell lines is also discussed. Thus, this review emphasizes the physicochemical characteristics of GO that can be tailored for optimal antibacterial properties that is of importance to the health industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  15. Ishak MI, Jenkins J, Kulkarni S, Keller TF, Briscoe WH, Nobbs AH, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2021 Dec 15;604:91-103.
    PMID: 34265695 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.173
    Nanopillared surfaces have emerged as a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections on medical devices. However, the mechanisms that underpin nanopillar-induced rupture of the bacterial cell membrane remain speculative. In this study, we have tested three medically relevant poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanopillared-surfaces with well-defined nanotopographies against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and contact mechanics analysis were utilised to understand the nanobiophysical response of the bacterial cell envelope to a single nanopillar. Given their importance to bacterial adhesion, the contribution of bacterial surface proteins to nanotopography-mediated cell envelope damage was also investigated. We found that, whilst cell envelope deformation was affected by the nanopillar tip diameter, the nanopillar density affected bacterial metabolic activities. Moreover, three different types of bacterial cell envelope deformation were observed upon contact of bacteria with the nanopillared surfaces. These were attributed to bacterial responses to cell wall stresses resulting from the high intrinsic pressure caused by the engagement of nanopillars by bacterial surface proteins. Such influences of bacterial surface proteins on the antibacterial action of nanopillars have not been previously reported. Our findings will be valuable to the improved design and fabrication of effective antibacterial surfaces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures*
  16. Kianfar AH, Mahmood WA, Dinari M, Azarian MH, Khafri FZ
    PMID: 24637279 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.02.089
    The [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PBu(3))(OH(2))]BF4 and [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(Solv)]BF(4), complexes were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques. The coordination geometry of [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) was determined by X-ray crystallography. It has been found that the complex is containing [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) and [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(EtOH)]BF(4) hexacoordinate species in the solid state. Cobalt atom exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry and the Me(2)Salen ligand has the N2O2 coordinated environment in the equatorial plane. The [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) complex shows a dimeric structure via hydrogen bonding between the phenolate oxygen and hydrogens of coordinated H2O molecule. These complexes were incorporated into Montmorillonite-K10 nanoclay. The modified clays were identified by FT-IR, XRD, EDX, TGA/DTA, SEM and TEM techniques. According to the XRD results of the new nanohybrid materials, the Schiff base complexes are intercalated in the interlayer spaces of the clay. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the resulting hybrid nanomaterials have layer structures. Also, TGA/DTG results show that the intercalation reaction was taken place successfully.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/ultrastructure; Nanostructures/chemistry*
  17. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/administration & dosage*; Nanostructures/chemistry*
  18. Albalawi F, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Masarudin MJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:161-184.
    PMID: 33447033 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S288236
    The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs' toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity; Nanostructures/chemistry*
  19. Yahya N, Al Habashi RM, Koziol K, Borkowski RD, Akhtar MN, Kashif M, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2011 Mar;11(3):2652-6.
    PMID: 21449447
    Aluminum substituted yttrium iron garnet nano particles with compositional variation of Y(3.0-x) A1(x)Fe5O12, where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 were prepared using sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the best garnet phase appeared when the sintering temperature was 800 degrees C. Nano-crystalline particles with high purity and sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were obtained. It was found that the aluminum substitution had resulted in a sharp fall of the d-spacing when x = 2, which we speculated is due to the preference of the aluminum atoms to the smaller tetrahedron and octahedron sites instead of the much larger dodecahedron site. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and electron diffraction (ED) patterns showed single crystal nanoparticles were obtained from this method. The magnetic measurement gave moderate values of initial permeability; the highest value of 5.3 was shown by sample Y3Fe5O12 at more than 100 MHz which was attributed to the morphology of the microstructure which appeared to be homogeneous. This had resulted in an easy movement of domain walls. The substitution of aluminum for yttrium is speculated to cause a cubic to rhombodedral structural change and had weakened the super-exchange interactions thus a fall of real permeability was observed. This might have created a strain in the sub-lattices and had subsequently caused a shift of resonance frequencies to more than 1.8 GHz when x > 0.5.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/ultrastructure*; Nanostructures/chemistry*
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