In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.
Sentiment analysis classification has been typically performed by combining features that represent the dataset at hand. Existing works have employed various features individually such as the syntactical, lexical and machine learning, and some have hybridized to reach optimistic results. Since the debate on the best combination is still unresolved this paper addresses the empirical investigation of the combination of features for product review classification. Results indicate the Support Vector Machine classification model combined with any of the observed lexicon namely MPQA, BingLiu and General Inquirer and either the unigram or inte-gration of unigram and bigram features is the top performer.
The title compound, C28H24N2O3, is a flexible Schiff base, having a dihedral angle of 59.53 (5)° between the mean planes of two phenyl rings bounded in the centre by a single O atom. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the phenyl rings bonded to the central O atom and the mean planes of the terminal methyl-phenol rings are 31.47 (6) and 36.03 (5)°, respectively. The sp2-hybridized character of the azanylylidene groups is confirmed by their bond lengths and bond angles. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by weak C-H⋯N inter-actions and connected into dimeric chains through weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. These chains are inter-connected into a two-dimensional network parallel to (1[Formula: see text]1) via weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.
While lab-scale synthesis of trigonal-Zr2N2S, hexagonal-Zr2N2S and hexagonal-Zr2N2Se has been reported, meaningful data on the photophysical properties of IV-nitride chalcogenides in general are scarcely available. The first-principles calculations and genetic algorithm modeling in our work reveal the existence of remarkably stable, indirect gap trigonal-Zr2N2Se and trigonal-Hf2N2Se phases, which progress to direct gap, monoclinic materials in monolayer form. These structures display the desired optoelectronic properties, such as exceptionally high visible-UV absorption spectra (105-106 cm-1) and exciton binding energy below 0.02 eV. Strong hybridization between the Zr-d, N-p and Se-p orbitals is accounted for by the polysilicon comparable Vickers hardness (10.64-12.77 GPa), while retaining ductile nature.
The use of fibers in cementitious composites yields numerous benefits due to their fiber-bridging capabilities in resisting cracks. Therefore, this study aimed to improve the shear-resisting capabilities of conventional concrete through the hybridization of multiple synthetic fibers, specifically on reinforced concrete structures in seismic-prone regions. For this study, 16 hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes (HyFRC) were developed from the different combinations of Ferro macro-synthetic fibers with the Ultra-Net, Super-Net, Econo-Net, and Nylo-Mono microfibers. These hybrids were tested under direct shear, resulting in improved shear strength of controlled specimens by Ferro-Ultra (32%), Ferro-Super (24%), Ferro-Econo (44%), and Ferro-Nylo (24%). Shear energy was further assessed to comprehend the effectiveness of the fiber interactions according to the mechanical properties, dosage, bonding power, manufactured material, and form of fibers. Conclusively, all fiber combinations used in this study produced positive synergistic effects under direct shear at large crack deformations.
The quality of a nucleotide-based library such as a synthetic antibody library is highly dependent on the diversity available. Diversity can be generated using degenerate oligonucleotides introduced during gene assembly. Conventional approaches to gene assembly are not efficient for oligonucleotides with long stretches of degeneracy. We propose an efficient alternative for simultaneous introduction of three randomized regions in a synthetic antibody gene via temperature cascading. The strategy takes advantage of DNA reannealing kinetics. The strategy can be adopted for generating diversity of gene inserts during the construction of nucleotide-based libraries.
A study was carried out to determine optimal assay conditions for an in-house hybridisation assay for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome in serum samples. Pre-treatment of samples, blot treatment and hybridisation conditions were found to affect assay performance. The indirect serum blot procedure was more robust and reliable than direct serum blotting. In the former, viral particles were isolated from the sample, lysed and then extracted. In comparison, no approaches to the direct serum spot method performed adequately. Sensitivity studies showed that labelling of the nucleic acid probe with dCTP was more efficient than with dATP. Using probes labelled to a specific activity of > 1 x 10(8) and an autoradiography period of about 48 h we could achieve a detection limit of < 1 pg. Specificity was achieved by use of a highly purified probe and moderately stringent hybridisation and wash conditions. Background binding was minimal and there was no non-specific binding of probe to negative control samples. Factors affecting speed of the assay were studied to identify steps that could be modified to shorten assay time without sacrificing performance. A shorter centrifugation step and the use of a high specific-activity probe permitted completion of an assay within four days.
Hybridisation plays a significant role in the evolution and diversification of plants. Hybridisation among Nepenthes species is extensive, either naturally or man-made. To investigate the effects of hybridisation on the chemical compositions, we carried out metabolomics study on pitcher tissue of Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes rafflesiana and their hybrid, Nepenthes × hookeriana. Pitcher samples were harvested and extracted in methanol:chloroform:water via sonication-assisted extraction before analysed using LC-TOF-MS. MS data were analysed using XCMS online version 2.2.5. This is the first MS data report towards the profiling, identification and comprehensive comparison of metabolites present in Nepenthes species.
This study aims to investigate the void content, tensile, vibration and acoustic properties of kenaf/bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The composites were made using the hand lay-up method. The weight ratios of kenaf/bamboo were 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30. Further, kenaf and bamboo composites were fabricated for the purpose of comparison. The hybridization of woven kenaf/bamboo reduced the void content. The void contents of hybrid composites were almost similar. An enhancement in elongation at break, tensile strength and modulus of hybrid composites was observed until a kenaf/bamboo ratio of 50:50. Kenaf/bamboo (50:50) hybrid composite displays the highest elongation at break, tensile strength and modulus compared to the other hybrid composites which are 2.42 mm, 55.18 MPa and 5.15 GPa, respectively. On the other hand, the highest natural frequency and damping factors were observed for Bamboo/Kenaf (30:70) hybrid composites. The sound absorption coefficient of composites were measured in two conditions: without air gap and with air gap (10, 20, 30 mm). The sound absorption coefficient for testing without air gap was less than 0.5. Introducing an air gap improved the sound absorption coefficient of all composites. Hence, hybrid kenaf/bamboo composites exhibited less void content, as well as improved tensile, vibration and acoustic properties.
The text clustering is considered as one of the most effective text document analysis methods, which is applied to cluster documents as a consequence of the expanded big data and online information. Based on the review of the related work of the text clustering algorithms, these algorithms achieved reasonable clustering results for some datasets, while they failed on a wide variety of benchmark datasets. Furthermore, the performance of these algorithms was not robust due to the inefficient balance between the exploitation and exploration capabilities of the clustering algorithm. Accordingly, this research proposes a Memetic Differential Evolution algorithm (MDETC) to solve the text clustering problem, which aims to address the effect of the hybridization between the differential evolution (DE) mutation strategy with the memetic algorithm (MA). This hybridization intends to enhance the quality of text clustering and improve the exploitation and exploration capabilities of the algorithm. Our experimental results based on six standard text clustering benchmark datasets (i.e. the Laboratory of Computational Intelligence (LABIC)) have shown that the MDETC algorithm outperformed other compared clustering algorithms based on AUC metric, F-measure, and the statistical analysis. Furthermore, the MDETC is compared with the state of art text clustering algorithms and obtained almost the best results for the standard benchmark datasets.
Understanding the excited-state dynamics and conformational relaxation in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules, including conformations that potentially support intramolecular through-space charge transfer, can open new avenues for TADF molecular design as well as elucidate complex photophysical pathways in structurally complex molecules. Emissive molecules comprising a donor (triphenylamine, TPA) and an acceptor (triphenyltriazine, TRZ) bridged by a second donor (9,9-dimethyl-9-10-dihydroacridin, DMAC, or phenoxazine, PXZ) are synthesized and characterized. In solution, the flexibility of the sp3-hybridized carbon atom in DMAC of DMAC-TPA-TRZ, compared to the rigid PXZ, allows significant conformational reorganization, giving rise to multiple charge-transfer excited states. As a result of such a reorganization, the TRZ and TPA moieties become cofacially aligned, driven by a strong dipole-dipole attraction between the TPA and TRZ units, forming a weakly charge-transfer dimer state, in stark contrast to the case of PXZ-TPA-TRZ where the rigid PXZ bridge only supports a single PXZ-TRZ charge transfer (CT) state. The low-energy TPA-TRZ dimer is found to have a high-energy dimer local triplet state, which quenches delayed emission because the resultant singlet CT local triplet energy gap is too large to mediate efficient reverse intersystem crossing. However, organic light-emitting diodes using PXZ-TPA-TRZ as an emitting dopant resulted in external quantum efficiency as high as 22%, more than two times higher than that of DMAC-TPA-TRZ-based device, showing the impact that such intramolecular reorganization and donor-acceptor dimerization have on TADF performance.
Three strains of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with haemorrhagic colitis harboured plasmids ranging in size from 2.7 kb to 91.2 kb. Those plasmids ranging from 2.7 kb to 6.8 kb hybridized to Shiga-like toxin I and Shiga-like toxin II gene probes.
Electron beam irradiation, without any addition of cross-linking agents, was investigated at varying
doses of EB-Irradiation to develop an environmentally friendly hybridized kenaf (bast)/ pineapple leaf
fibre (PALF) bio-composites. Improvement in tensile property of the hybrid was achieved with the result
showing a direct proportionality relationship between tensile properties and increasing radiation dose.
Statistical analysis software (SAS) was employed to validate the result. HDPE has been shown to have
self-cross-linked, enabling interesting tensile properties with irradiation. Statistical analysis validated
the results obtained and also showed that adequate mixing of fibres and matrix had taken place at 95%
confidence level. Hybridization and subsequent irradiation increased the tensile strength and modulus
of HDPE up to 31 and 185%, respectively, at about 100kGy. Meanwhile, SEM was used to view the
interaction between the fibres and matrix.
Application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor in detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) is demonstrated. A total of four biotinylated probes namely Tnosb, P35Sb, LECb and TSQb were successfully immobilized onto the SA chip. Results analysis indicated that the SPR system with the sensor chip immobilized with the Tnosb, P35Sb, LECb and TSQb biotinylated probes potentially detect complementary standard fragments as low as 1 nM. Biospecific interaction analysis (BIA), employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and biosensor technologies provide easy, rapid and automatable approach in detection of GMOs. Short assay times, label free DNA hybridization reaction and no toxic compounds are required, i.e. ethidium bromide, and the reusability of the sensor surface are some of the factors that contribute to the general advantages of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system in detection of GMOs.
The genus Pseudomonas has one of the largest diversity of species within the Bacteria kingdom. To date, its taxonomy is still being revised and updated. Due to the non-standardized procedure and ambiguous thresholds at species level, largely based on 16S rRNA gene or conventional biochemical assay, species identification of publicly available Pseudomonas genomes remains questionable. In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of all Pseudomonas genomes with species designation (excluding the well-defined P. aeruginosa) and re-evaluated their taxonomic assignment via in silico genome-genome hybridization and/or genetic comparison with valid type species. Three-hundred and seventy-three pseudomonad genomes were analyzed and subsequently clustered into 145 distinct genospecies. We detected 207 erroneous labels and corrected 43 to the proper species based on Average Nucleotide Identity Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) sequence similarity to the type strain. Surprisingly, more than half of the genomes initially designated as Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens should be classified either to a previously described species or to a new genospecies. Notably, high pairwise average nucleotide identity (>95%) indicating species-level similarity was observed between P. synxantha-P. libanensis, P. psychrotolerans-P. oryzihabitans, and P. kilonensis- P. brassicacearum, that were previously differentiated based on conventional biochemical tests and/or genome-genome hybridization techniques.
The evolutionary history of the wolf-like canids of the genus Canis has been heavily debated, especially regarding the number of distinct species and their relationships at the population and species level [1-6]. We assembled a dataset of 48 resequenced genomes spanning all members of the genus Canis except the black-backed and side-striped jackals, encompassing the global diversity of seven extant canid lineages. This includes eight new genomes, including the first resequenced Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis), one dhole (Cuon alpinus), two East African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus), two Eurasian golden jackals (Canis aureus), and two Middle Eastern gray wolves (Canis lupus). The relationships between the Ethiopian wolf, African golden wolf, and golden jackal were resolved. We highlight the role of interspecific hybridization in the evolution of this charismatic group. Specifically, we find gene flow between the ancestors of the dhole and African hunting dog and admixture between the gray wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), golden jackal, and African golden wolf. Additionally, we report gene flow from gray and Ethiopian wolves to the African golden wolf, suggesting that the African golden wolf originated through hybridization between these species. Finally, we hypothesize that coyotes and gray wolves carry genetic material derived from a "ghost" basal canid lineage.
A one-pot green sonochemical process assisted by ascorbic acid as the reducing agent to produce highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is demonstrated. A complete removal of oxygen-containing group in the GO sheets was confirmed by no observation of the peak corresponds to C-O, C=O and -OH bond. The unexpected decrease of peak intensity corresponds to sp2 hybridized C=C group is explained by a so-called bond polarity effect. The peak observed at ~400 nm seems to show the presence of AgNPs and the red shifting of C=C peak to ~270 nm after the introduction of ascorbic acid indicates the formation of highly reduced GO. The increase of AgNPs size and the crumpled silk-like morphology after the introduction of ascorbic acid also indicate the aggressive reduction of both AgNPs and GO. The increase of ID/IG ratio after the introduction of ascorbic acid seems to indicate the increase of the number of small sp2 domains, the presence of unrepaired defects and the restoration of the sp2 network. This work provides the promising green sonochemical approach by utilizing non-toxic and environmental-friendly reducing agent to produce highly reduced GO decorated with AgNPs for various applications.
is a fundamental thermophysical property that measures the heat storage capacity of the nanofluids.
is usually determined through experimental measurement. As it is known, experimental procedures are characterised with some complexities, which include, the challenge of preparing stable nanofluids and relatively long periods to conduct experiments. So far, two correlations have been developed to estimate the
The accuracies of these models are still subject to further improvement for many nanofluid compositions. This study presents a four-input support vector regression (SVR) model hybridized with a Bayesian algorithm to predict the specific heat capacity of metallic oxides/ethylene glycol-based nanofluids. The bayesian algorithm was used to obtain the optimum SVR hyperparameters. 189 experimental data collected from published literature was used for the model development. The proposed model exhibits low average absolute relative deviation (AARD) and a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.40 and 99.53 %, respectively. In addition, we analysed the accuracies of the existing analytical models on the considered nanofluid compositions. The model based on the thermal equilibrium between the nanoparticles and base fluid (model II) show good agreement with experimental results while the model based on simple mixing rule (model I) overestimated the specific heat capacity of the nanofluids. To further validate the superiority of the proposed technique over the existing analytical models, we compared various statistical errors for the three models. The AARD for the BSVR, model II, and model I are 0.40, 0.82 and 4.97, respectively. This clearly shows that the model developed has much better prediction accuracy than existing models in predicting the specific heat capacity of metallic oxides/ethylene glycol-based nanofluids. We believe the presented model will be important in the design of nanofluid-based applications due to its improved accuracy.
There are four species of mud crabs within the genus Scylla, and most of them live sympatrically in the equatorial region. Apart from a report in Japan about the finding of a natural Scylla hybrid more than a decade ago after the division of genus Scylla into four species by Keenan, Davie & Mann (1998), no subsequent sighting was found. Thus, this study investigates the possible natural occurrence of potential hybridization among Scylla species in the wild. A total of 76,211 individuals from mud crab landing sites around the Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Sulu Sea were screened. In addition to the four-purebred species, four groups (SH 1, n = 2, 627; SH 2, n = 136; SH 3, n = 1; SH 4, n = 2) with intermediate characteristics were found, mostly at Sulu Sea. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that all Scylla species, including SH 1 - 4, are distinguishable via their morphometric ratios. The most powerful discriminant ratios for each character and the top five discriminant ratios of males and females were suggested. The carapace width of SH 1 males and females were significantly smaller than pure species. Based on the discriminant ratios and the description of morphological characters, we hypothesize that the additional four groups of Scylla with intermediate characteristics could be presumed hybrids. Future work at the molecular level is urgently needed to validate this postulate.
A DNA macroarray was previously developed to detect major fungal and oomycete pathogens of solanaceous crops. To provide a convenient alternative for researchers with no access to X-ray film-developing facilities, specific CCD cameras or Chemidoc XRS systems, a chromogenic detection method with sensitivity comparable with chemiluminescent detection, has been developed. A fungal (Stemphylium solani) and an oomycete (Phytophthora capsici) pathogen were used to develop the protocol using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled targets. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2, was used as the target gene and polymerase chain reaction amplified as in the previous protocol. Various amounts of species-specific oligonucleotides on the array, quantities of DIG-labeled ITS amplicon, and hybridization temperatures were tested. The optimal conditions for hybridization were 55°C for 2 h using at least 10 pmol of each species-specific oligonucleotide and labeled target at 10 ng/ml of hybridization buffer. Incubation of the hybridized array with anti-DIG conjugated alkaline phosphatase substrates, NBT/BCIP, produced visible target signals between 1 and 3 h compared with 1 h in chemiluminescent detection. Samples from pure cultures, soil, and artificially inoculated plants were also used to compare the detection using chemiluminescent and chromogenic methods. Chromogenic detection was shown to yield similar results compared with chemiluminescent detection in regard to signal specificity, duration of hybridization between the array and targets, and cost, though it takes 1 to 2 h longer for the visualization process, thus providing a convenient alternative for researchers who lack darkroom facilities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DNA macroarray detection of plant pathogens using a chromogenic method.