In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.
In 2006 a report on the analysis for lead in 80 new residential paints from four countries in Asia revealed high levels in three of the countries (China, India and Malaysia) and low levels in a fourth country (Singapore) where a lead in paint regulation was enforced. The authors warned of the possible export of lead-painted consumer products to the United States and other countries and the dangers the lead paint represented to children in the countries where it was available for purchase. The need for a worldwide ban on the use of lead in paints was emphasized to prevent an increase in exposure and disease from this very preventable environmental source. Since the earlier paper almost 300 additional new paint samples have been collected from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were recalled because the lead content exceeded the United States standard. High lead paints were detected in all 12 countries. The average lead concentration by country ranged from 6988 (Singapore) to 31,960ppm (Ecuador). One multinational company sold high lead paint in one country through January 2007 but sold low lead paint later in 2007 indicating that a major change to cease adding lead to their paints had occurred. However, the finding that almost one-third of the samples would meet the new United States standard for new paint of 90ppm, suggests that the technology is already available in at least 11 of the 12 countries to produce low lead enamel paints for domestic use. The need remains urgent to establish effective worldwide controls to prevent the needless poisoning of millions of children from this preventable exposure.
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) has been recognised as an effective technique to analyse car paint. This study was conducted to assess the combination of Py-GC-MS and chemometric techniques to classify car paint primer, the inner layer of car paint system. Fifty car paint primer samples from various manufacturers were analysed using Py-GC-MS, and data set of identified pyrolysis products was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). The PCA rendered 16 principal components with 86.33% of the total variance. The DA was useful to classify the car paint primer samples according to their types (1k and 2k primer) with 100% correct classification in the test set for all three modes (standard, stepwise forward and stepwise backward). Three compounds, indolizine, 1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile and p-terphenyl, were the most significant compounds in discriminating the car paint primer samples.
This study reports the concentrations and congener partners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially available paints. Polycyclic-type pigments containing dioxazine violet (pigment violet (PV) 23, PV37) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (PR254, PR255) were found to contain PCB-56, PCB-77, PCB-40, PCB-5, and PCB-12, and PCB-6, PCB-13, and PCB-15, respectively, as major congeners. Dioxazine violet is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from o-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent during synthesis, and diketopyrrolopyrrole is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from p-chlorobenzonitrile. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PV23 or PV37 was 0.050-29 mg/kg, and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values ranged 1.1-160 pg-TEQ/g. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PR254 or PR255 was 0.0019-2.4 mg/kg. Naphthol AS is an azo-type pigment, and PCB-52 was detected in paint containing pigment red (PR) 9 with 2,5-dichloroaniline as its source. PCB-146, PCB-149, and PCB-153 were identified from paint containing PR112 produced from 2,4,5-trichloroaniline, as major congeners. These congeners have chlorine positions similar to aniline, indicating that these congeners are by-products obtained during the synthesis of pigments. The concentrations of PCBs in paints containing PR9 and PR112 were 0.0042-0.43 and 0.0044-3.8 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding TEQ for PR112 was 0.0039-8.6 pg-TEQ/g.
Scramjets have become a main focus of study for many researchers, due to their application as propulsive devices in hypersonic flight. This entails a detailed understanding of the fluid mechanics involved to be able to design and operate these engines with maximum efficiency even at their off-design conditions. It is the objective of the present cold-flow investigation to study and analyse experimentally the mechanics of the fluid structures encountered within a generic scramjet inlet at M = 5. Traditionally, researchers have to rely on stream-thrust analysis, which requires the complex setup of a mass flow meter, a force balance and a heat transducer in order to measure inlet-isolator performance. Alternatively, the pitot rake could be positioned at inlet-isolator exit plane, but this method is intrusive to the flow, and the number of pitot tubes is limited by the model size constraint. Thus, this urgent need for a better flow diagnostics method is addressed in this paper. Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has been applied to investigate the flow characteristics on the compression ramp, isolator surface and isolator sidewall. Numerous shock-shock interactions, corner and shoulder separation regions, as well as shock trains were captured by the luminescent system. The performance of the scramjet inlet-isolator has been shown to improve when operated in a modest angle of attack.
Some restorative materials are susceptible to erosion but whether it also causes microleakage is still questionable. The aim of this study was to assess the microleakage of few restorative materials after immersion in acidic solution. Standardized ‘U’ shaped cavity of 4mm diameter and 2mm depth were prepared on buccal or lingual surface of 52 human premolar and molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 4 groups which contains 13 samples and 3 controls for each and were restored either with Filtek Z250 (Group 1), Fuji IX (Group 2), Fuji II LC (Group 3), or Silverfill amalgam (Group 4).
All surfaces were painted with nail varnish leaving only 2mm of tooth structure surrounding the restoration before the study samples were immersed in acidic solution, lemon juice (pH 2.74) and control samples in deionised distilled water for 24 hours. Surface photos for erosion were taken before immersion in methylene blue for 7 days. After sectioning, the assessment of dye penetration was done using Leica Imaging System DMLM (Germany). Photos showed that Fuji IX demonstrated severe erosion but no obvious changes were seen on other materials. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that microleakage between all four groups were statistically significant. The most significant difference was between Filtek Z250 and Fuji IX (p
Radon-222 emanation from selected locally produced samples of building materials, used in Malaysia were measured using the Professional Continuous Radon Monitor Model 1027, which is a patented electronic detecting-junction photodiode sensor to measure the concentration of radon gas. Each sample was placed for 72 hours inside a 3.11 x 10 -2 m 3 sealed container. It was found that the average radon concentration Bqm -3 of air for concrete bricks, concrete brick with cemented coatings, concrete brick with cemented coatings and paint samples were, 303.7 Bq/m 3, 436.6 Bqm -3, and 410.7 Bqm -3, respectively. (Bqm -3 ) for brown clay brick, brown clay brick with cemented coatings, brown clay brick with cemented coatings and paint were 166.5 Bqm -3, 166.5 Bqm -3, and 148 Bqm -3, respectively. (Bqm -3 ) for sample of compact ceramic tile was 0 Bqm -3. The findings show that concrete brick samples are important source of radon emanation, while brown clay brick have been accepted as the recommendation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and ceramic tiles had no emanation of radon gas due to their compact surface, or the glazed layer created on the tile surface during the manufacturing process, which blocks radon emanation. A positive correlation between radon emanation and radium content has been observed for both brown clay brick and concrete brick samples whereas a negative correlation for ceramic tile has been observed. Consequently from the findings, in order to reduce radon emanation and radon exposure in house dwellings and in addition to EPA recommendation of sealed cracks and established good ventilation, we recommend concrete walls to be painted and concrete floors to be paved with ceramic tiles.
Dengue is a serious mosquito borne disease common in tropical and sub-tropical countries including Malaysia. There is at present a lack of specific treatment and an effective tetravalent vaccine against dengue. The control of dengue depends solely on the suppression of the two most important vectors namely, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus. Despite intensive and extensive control efforts by health agencies, the disease continues to spread. This paper updates various innovations on control of dengue vectors. Gene-based sterile insect technique using the RIDL technology for both Aedes aegypti & Ae albopictus control has now been actively researched and field trials are pursued to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology. The release of Wolbachia-infected Ae aegypti is another dengue control innovation. The infected mosquito cannot support development of dengue virus and has shorter life span. Other innovations include: auto-dissemination of insect control agents using ovitrap, autocidal adult and larva trap, outdoor residual spraying, insecticidal paint and biocontrol agent. In other innovation, outbreak prediction capability is enhanced by developing model based on environmental data and analysis utilising neural network.
The volume of waste generated from surface coating industries is of global concern. The disposal of this waste in the form of effluent has put enormous pressure on land and also poses as a health hazard when it leaches into soil and underground water. The study aims to examine the utilization of vinyl acetate effluents from water based paint factories as an admixture in concrete. Concrete specimens containing 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% of vinyl acetate effluents by weight of cement were prepared. The specimens were tested for drying shrinkage for 28 days and porosity was tested using mercury intrusion porosimetry. Findings show that concrete containing various proportions of vinyl acetate effluents manifests higher shrinkage behaviour compared to the control item. An investigation of pore size distribution reveals that polymer effluents have particles size larger than 50 nm which are categorize as macroporous in accordance to IUPAC classification. It can be concluded that adding polymer vinyl acetate effluents affects concrete deformation due to the condition of its pore structures. The utilization of this material may provide beneficial effect in terms of the durability performance of concrete and minimize environmental pollution.
Environmental pollution is one of the major concerns in the 21st century; where billions of tonnes
of harmful chemicals are produced by industries such as petroleum, paints, food, rubber, and
plastic. Phenol and its derivatives infiltrate the ecosystems and have become one of the top major
pollutants worldwide. This review covers the major aspects of immobilization of phenoldegrading
bacteria as a method to improve phenol bioremediation. The use of various forms of
immobilization matrices is discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of each of the
immobilization matrices especially when environmental usage is warranted. To be used as a
bioremediation tool, the immobilized system must not only be effective, but the matrices must be
non-toxic, non-polluting and if possible non-biodegradable. The mechanical, biological and
chemical stability of the system is paramount for long-term activity as well as price is an
important factor when the very large scale is a concern. The system must also be able to tolerate
high concentration of other toxicants especially heavy metals that form as co-contaminants, and
most immobilized systems are geared towards this last aspect as immobilization provides
protection from other contaminants.
Irgarol 1051 and diuron are photosystem II inhibitors in agricultural activities and antifouling paints in the shipping sector. This study focused on three major ports (western, southern, and eastern) surrounding Peninsular Malaysia to construct the distribution of both biocides on the basis of the seasonal and geographical changes. Surface seawater samples were collected from November 2011 to April 2012 and pretreated using the solid-phase extraction technique followed by quantification with GC-MS and LC-MS-MS for Irgarol 1051 and diuron, respectively. Generally, the distribution of Irgarol 1051 was lowest during November 2011 and highest during April 2012, and similar patterns were observed at all ports, whereas the distribution of diuron was rather vague. The increasing pattern of Irgarol 1051 from time to time is probably related to its accumulation in the seawater as a result of its half-life and consistent utilization. On the basis of the discriminant analysis, the temporal distribution of Irgarol 1051 varied at Klang North Port, Klang South Port, and Pasir Gudang Port, whereas diuron was temporally varied only at Kemaman Port. Furthermore, Irgarol 1051 was spatially varied during November 2011, whereas diuron did not show any significant changes throughout all sampling periods. Ecological risk assessment exhibited a high risk for diuron and Irgarol 1051, but Irgarol 1051 should be of greater concern because of its higher risk compared to that of diuron. Thus, it is recommended that the current Malaysian guidelines and regulations of biocide application should be reevaluated and improved to protect the ecosystem, as well as to prevent ecological risks to the aquatic environment.
Worldwide prohibitions on lead gasoline additives were a major international public health accomplishment, the results of which are still being documented in parts of the world. Although the need to remove lead from paints has been recognized for over a century, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints for household use, some containing more than 10% lead, are readily available for purchase in some of the largest countries in the world. Sixty-six percent of new paint samples from China, India, and Malaysia were found to contain 5000 ppm (0.5%) or more of lead, the US definition of lead-based paint in existing housing, and 78% contained 600 ppm (0.06%) or more, the limit for new paints. In contrast, the comparable levels in a nearby developed country, Singapore, were 0% and 9%. In examining lead levels in paints of the same brands purchased in different countries, it was found that some brands had lead-based paints in one of the countries and paints meeting US limits in another; another had lead-free paint available in all countries where samples were obtained. Lead-based paints have already poisoned millions of children and likely will cause similar damage in the future as paint use increases as countries in Asia and elsewhere continue their rapid development. The ready availability of lead-based paints documented in this article provides stark evidence of the urgent need for efforts to accomplish an effective worldwide ban on the use of lead in paint.
Microbial colonization of prepainted steel, commonly used in roofing applications, impacts their aesthetics, durability, and functionality. Understanding the relevant organisms and the mechanisms by which colonization occurs would provide valuable information that can be subsequently used to design fouling prevention strategies. Here, next-generation sequencing and microbial community finger printing (T-RFLP) were used to study the community composition of microbes colonizing prepainted steel roofing materials at Burrawang, Australia and Kapar, Malaysia over a 52-week period. Community diversity was low and was dominated by Bacillus spp., cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum nigrum, and Teratosphaeriaceae sp. Cultivation-based methods isolated approximately 20 different fungi and bacteria, some of which, such as E. nigrum and Cladosporium sp., were represented in the community sequence data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging showed that fungi were the most dominant organisms present. Analysis of the sequence and T-RFLP data indicated that the microbial communities differed significantly between locations and changed significantly over time. The study demonstrates the utility of molecular ecology tools to identify and characterize microbial communities associated with the fouling of painted steel surfaces and ultimately can enable the targeted development of control strategies based on the dominant species responsible for fouling.
Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes.
Polyaniline (PANI) and polyaniline composites with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) were prepared using the in situ polymerization method. The composites were then blended with acrylic paint and applied to carbon steel panels. The coated steel panels were evaluated for corrosion using the immersion test technique. The results revealed that the steel panels coated with polyaniline composites and with Al2O3 containing coatings had small corrosion as compared to the bare sample and the samples coated with polyaniline and paint alone. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). In addition, the morphology of the finished samples was observed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This novel composite was used as a paint pigment for enhancing the barrier properties and the paint protectable against aggressive ions. Meanwhile, corrosion was evaluated through visual monitoring using a digital camera after 60 days of fully immersion test in 5% NaCl. The weight loss method was also used to evaluate corrosion.
Water-borne emerging pollutants are among the greatest concern of our modern society. Many of these pollutants are categorized as endocrine disruptors due to their environmental toxicities. They are harmful to humans, aquatic animals, and plants, to the larger extent, destroying the ecosystem. Thus, effective environmental remediations of these pollutants became necessary. Among the various remediation techniques, adsorption and photocatalytic degradation have been single out as the most promising. This review is devoted to the compilations and analysis of the role of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their composites as potential materials for such applications. Emerging organic pollutants, like dyes, herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceutical products, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and perfluorinated alkyl substances, have been extensively studied. Important parameters that affect these processes, such as surface area, bandgap, percentage removal, equilibrium time, adsorption capacity, and recyclability, are documented. Finally, we paint the current scenario and challenges that need to be addressed for MOFs and their composites to be exploited for commercial applications.
Adhesives serve many functions in daily life, starting from sticking envelopes to rejoining broken
materials. Adhesives are usually developed for a specific purpose and the performances can vary
according to their specific end-use. Most of the commercially available adhesives comprised nonrenewable or petroleum derived raw materials. Thus, in order to mitigate negative impact of using nonrenewable material as the raw material for adhesives, a new type of adhesive containing epoxidised
natural rubber (NR) latex is developed. Epoxidised NR latex adhesive was initially prepared and pigment
was subsequently added to produce desired colours of the adhesive. Hence, the newly developed adhesive
can serve as adhesive and also as paint for art. The adhesives were characterised and the results indicated
that they were free from heavy metal contents and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adhesives
exhibited comparable odour concentration to commercial synthetic-based adhesive. In terms of toxicity
level, the adhesive developed exhibited low acute oral toxicity. Peel adhesion test of A4 and drawing
papers on stainless steel and glass substrates, opacity and glossiness were also investigated in the present
study. This coloured adhesive is deemed to support the STEM (science, technology, engineering and
mathematics) learning by indirectly imparting polymer science and technology in art education and
further promotes creative learning among school children. The adhesive is also derived from renewable
material rendering it more environmentally friendly.
There has been increasing concern over the toxic effects of microplastics (MP), nanoplastics (NP), and copper (Cu) on microalgae. However, the combined toxicity of the metal in the presence of polystyrene (PS) MP/NP on microalgae has not been well studied, particularly after long-term exposure (i.e., longer than 4 days). The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PS MP and NP on Cu toxicity on two freshwater microalgae, namely Chlorella sp. TJ6-5 and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata NIES-35 after acute exposure for 4 days and up to 16 days. The results showed that both microalgae were sensitive to Cu, but tolerant to MP/NP. However, MP/NP increased the toxicity of Cu at EC50 in both microalgae, which was only noticeable in chronic exposure. Single and combined treatment of MP/NP and Cu induced higher oxidative stress and caused morphological and ultrastructural changes in both microalgae. The adsorption of Cu to MP and NP was low (0.23-14.9%), with most of the Cu present in free ionic form (81.6-105.8%). The findings on different sensitivity of microalgae to Cu in the presence of MP/NP may have significant implication as microalgae are likely to be exposed to a mixture of both MP/NP and Cu in the environment. For example, in air-blasting technology, MP and NP are used as abrasive medium to remove Cu-containing antifouling paints on hulls of ship and submerged surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants receive household wastes containing MP and NP, as well as stormwater runoffs and industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals.
This study discloses a method for painting artwork using a CO2 laser. The continuous-wave laser beam, at a predetermined heat flux and a predetermined number of laser beam passes, mixes and displaces the plurality of colored polymer-based compositions, respectively, by way of melting and vaporizing them. Experiments showed a great accuracy of colors and designed patterns between the computer aided design (CAD) drawing and what was achieved after laser discoloration. It was found that lower values of power and speed provide sufficient energy and time to make a melt pool of colors and cause their vaporization from the surface. A detailed numerical simulation was performed to obtain a detailed understanding of the physics of laser interaction with paint using ABAQUS software. The comparative analysis indicated that the top layer of paint (including yellow and green colors) melted upon increasing cutting speed and employing one laser pass. For blue and red paints, two passes of lasers are required; in the case of red color, lower laser speed is also necessary to intensify the heat. This method can be applied for making art designs on each surface color because it is based on melting and vaporization using a laser.