Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Mahmood ND, Nasir NL, Rofiee MS, Tohid SF, Ching SM, Teh LK, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2014 Dec;52(12):1598-623.
    PMID: 25068675 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.908397
    Different parts of Muntingia calabura L. (Elaeocarpaceae), or "kerukup siam" in Malay, have been reported to possess medicinal value, supported by a number of scientific studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  2. Bruguière A, Derbré S, Coste C, Le Bot M, Siegler B, Leong ST, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2018 Nov;131:59-64.
    PMID: 30321650 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.10.003
    Usually isolated from Garcinia (Clusiaceae) or Hypericum (Hypericaceae) species, some Polycyclic Polyprenylated AcylPhloroglucinols (PPAPs) have been recently reported as potential research tools for immunotherapy. Aiming at exploring the chemodiversity of PPAPs amongst Garcinia genus, a dereplication process suitable for such natural compounds has been developed. Although less sensitive than mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy is perfectly reproducible and allows stereoisomers distinction, justifying the development of 13C-NMR strategies. Dereplication requires the use of databases (DBs). To define if predicted DBs were accurate enough as dereplication tools, experimental and predicted δC of natural products usually isolated from Clusiaceae were compared. The ACD/Labs commercial software allowed to predict 73% of δC in a 1.25 ppm range around the experimental values. Consequently, with these parameters, the major PPAPs from a Garcinia bancana extract were successfully identified using a predicted DB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  3. Barkia I, Saari N, Manning SR
    Mar Drugs, 2019 May 24;17(5).
    PMID: 31137657 DOI: 10.3390/md17050304
    Microalgae represent a potential source of renewable nutrition and there is growing interest in algae-based dietary supplements in the form of whole biomass, e.g., Chlorella and Arthrospira, or purified extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. The commercial production of bioactive compounds from microalgae is currently challenged by the biorefinery process. This review focuses on the biochemical composition of microalgae, the complexities of mass cultivation, as well as potential therapeutic applications. The advantages of open and closed growth systems are discussed, including common problems encountered with large-scale growth systems. Several methods are used for the purification and isolation of bioactive compounds, and many products from microalgae have shown potential as antioxidants and treatments for hypertension, among other health conditions. However, there are many unknown algal metabolites and potential impurities that could cause harm, so more research is needed to characterize strains of interest, improve overall operation, and generate safe, functional products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  4. Bello I, Shehu MW, Musa M, Zaini Asmawi M, Mahmud R
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 02;189:253-76.
    PMID: 27220655 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.049
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant.

    METHOD: The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books.

    RESULTS: Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  5. Supriatno, Nurlelasari, Herlina T, Harneti D, Maharani R, Hidayat AT, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2018 Nov;32(21):2610-2616.
    PMID: 29368952 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1428600
    A new limonoid, pentandricine (1), along with three known limonoids, ceramicine B (2), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxochisocheton (3), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxo-7-O-deacetylchisocheton (4), have been isolated from the stembark of Chisocheton pentandrus. The chemical structures of the new compound were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. All of the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compounds 1-4 showed weak and no cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 369.84, 150.86, 208.93 and 120.09 μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  6. Al-Hatamleh MAI, Hatmal MM, Sattar K, Ahmad S, Mustafa MZ, Bittencourt MC, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Oct 29;25(21).
    PMID: 33138197 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25215017
    The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite the established antimicrobial and immune-boosting potency described for honey, to date there is still a lack of evidence about its potential role amid COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the previously explored antiviral effects and phytochemical components of honey, we review here evidence for its role as a potentially effective natural product against COVID-19. Although some bioactive compounds in honey have shown potential antiviral effects (i.e., methylglyoxal, chrysin, caffeic acid, galangin and hesperidinin) or enhancing antiviral immune responses (i.e., levan and ascorbic acid), the mechanisms of action for these compounds are still ambiguous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work exclusively summarizing all these bioactive compounds with their probable mechanisms of action as antiviral agents, specifically against SARS-CoV-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  7. Saleem H, Usman A, Mahomoodally MF, Ahemad N
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2021 Feb 10;266:113356.
    PMID: 32956758 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113356
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bougainvillea glabra (Choisy). (Family: Nyctinaginacea) is a valuable ornamental plant with culinary uses and also utilized in traditional medicine for treating common ailments. It is traditionally employed against several diseases such as diarrhoea, hypotension, intestinal disorders, stomachache, nausea, inflammation-related ailments, and in pain management. Though widely validated via in vitro and in vivo models, to date no endeavour has been made to compile in a single review the traditional, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of B. glabra.

    AIMS: To provide an up-to-date, authoritative review with respect to the traditional uses, chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, and toxicological estimations accomplished either utilizing the crude extracts or, wherever applicable, the bioactive compounds isolated from B. glabra. Besides, a critical evaluation of the published literature has been undertaken with regards to the current biochemical and toxicological data.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Key databases per se, Ovid, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google scholar amongst others were probed for a systematic search using keywords to retrieve relevant publications on this plant. A total of 52 articles were included for the review depending on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

    RESULTS: The studies conducted on either crude extracts, solvent fractions or isolated pure compounds from B. glabra had reported a varied range of biological effects comprising antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical analysis of different parts of B. glabra unveiled 105 phytochemicals, belonging to phenolic, flavonoid, betacyanin, terpenoid, glycoside and essential oils classes of secondary metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: Most of the pharmacological activities of crude extracts from this plant have been reported. A very few studies have reported the isolation of compounds responsible for observed biological potential of this plant. Moreover, the toxicity studies of this plant still need to be explored comprehensively to ensure its safety parameters. Additional investigations are recommended to transmute the ethnopharmacological claims of this plant species in folklore medicines into scientific rationale-based information.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  8. Md Yusof AH, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Zainudin BH
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781448 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040711
    This study investigates the ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Malaysian cocoa shell extracts, and optimization using response surface methodology. There are three variables involved in this study, namely: ethanol concentration (70⁻90 v/v %), temperature (45⁻65 °C), and ultrasound irradiation time (30⁻60 min). All of the data were collected and analyzed for variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R²) and the model was significant in interaction between all variables (98% and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, the lack of fit test for the model was not of significance, with p > 0.0684. The ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time that yielded the maximum value of the total flavonoid content (TFC; 7.47 mg RE/g dried weight (DW)) was 80%, 55 °C, and 45 min, respectively. The optimum value from the validation of the experimental TFC was 7.23 ± 0.15 mg of rutin, equivalent per gram of extract with ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time values of 74.20%, 49.99 °C, and 42.82 min, respectively. While the modelled equation fits the data, the T-test is not significant, suggesting that the experimental values agree with those predicted by the response surface methodology models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  9. Asmilia N, Fahrimal Y, Abrar M, Rinidar R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2020;2020:2739056.
    PMID: 32395086 DOI: 10.1155/2020/2739056
    Malacca (Phyllanthus emblica) is one of the plants that is often by the community in the Aceh Besar district of Indonesia as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungals, antivirals, antimutagenic, antimalaria, and antiallergic. This research was conducted to analyze the content of chemical compounds in the ethanol extract of the Malacca leaf (EEDM) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS). Malacca leaves were extracted by the maceration method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The GC-MS analysis showed EEDM contained 22 chemical compounds. The highest chemical content of EEDM is octadecanoic acid reaching 22.93%, 9,12-octadecanoic acid 14.99%, octadecanoic acid 7.59%, 9-hexadecenoic acid 6.17%, octadecanoic acid 5.95%, octadecanal 5.59%, 9,12-octadecanoic acid 5.06%, 3-eicosyne 4.75%, 1-hexadecenoic acid 4.08%, 11-tetradecen-1-ol 2.92%, 2-furanmethanol 2.83%, delta-guaiene 2.43%, cyclohexane 2.13%, hexadecanoic acid 1.99%, sativen 1.87%, octadecanoic acid 1.52%, 1H-cyclopropaanaphthalene 1.40%, tetradecanoic acid 1.40%, 3,7,11-tridecatrienenitrile 1.20%, caryophellene 1.11%, 2H-pyran 1.07%, and trans-caryophellene 1.03%. This study clearly shows the presence of fatty acids which play a major role in the efficacy of these traditional medicines particularly as antioxidant and antimalarial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification*
  10. Taher M, Shaari SS, Susanti D, Arbain D, Zakaria ZA
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 04;25(11).
    PMID: 32512727 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112611
    Almost 50 species of Ophiorrhiza plants were reviewed in this work and the main objective is to critically analyse their distribution, phytochemical content, biological activity, and propagation. Moreover, the information would be useful in promoting the relevant uses of the plant, especially in the medicinal fields based on in vitro and in vivo studies. To this end, scientific sources, including theses, PubMed, Google Scholar, International Islamic University Malaysia IIUM EBSCO, PubChem, and Elsevier, were accessed for publications regarding the Ophiorrhiza genus in this review. Scientific literature regarding the Ophiorrhiza plants revealed their wide distribution across Asia and the neighbouring countries, whereby they were utilised as traditional medicine to treat various diseases. In particular, various active compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, were reported in the plant. Furthermore, the Ophiorrhiza species showed highly diverse biological activities, such as anti-cancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and more. The genus propagation reported could produce a high quality and quantity of potent anticancer compound, namely camptothecin (CPT). Hence, it is believed that the relevant uses of natural compounds present in the plants can replace the existing crop of synthetic anticancer drugs associated with a multitude of unbearable side effects. Additionally, more future studies on the Ophiorrhiza species should be undertaken to establish the links between its traditional uses, active compounds, and pharmacological activities reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  11. Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, Ramaiya SD
    PLoS One, 2021;16(2):e0247327.
    PMID: 33626109 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247327
    Currently, bee-gathered pollen (bee pollen) is commonly used worldwide as a dietary supplement and is recognized for its curative properties. Floral pollen is also important but is less recognized due to a lack of investigation. This study aims to determine the morphological characteristics and nutritional and phytochemical properties of floral maize pollen. Fresh pollen grains harvested from a farm of maize plants are yellow in colour and spheroid in shape. They change to amber and indented prismatic solid shapes when dehydrated. The main composition of floral maize pollen is carbohydrates (44.30±3.73%), followed by moisture (23.38±5.73%), crude proteins (17.16±3.13%), crude fibres (9.56±0.92%), and ash (4.98±0.11%), while the lowest content is observed for crude fats (0.62±0.06%). The predominant mineral is potassium (768.50±11.40 mg 100 g-1), followed by sodium (695.10±9.70 mg 100 g-1), calcium (147.20±12.60 mg 100 g-1), and magnesium (97.30±2.9 mg 100 g-1). The microelements (with average values) consist of iron (49.50±3.30 mg 100 g-1) and zinc (30.00±3.70 mg 100 g-1). Excellent phytochemical properties add value to floral maize pollen. Maize pollen contains a high total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 783.02 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 1706.83 mg QE 100 g-1, respectively, and possesses strong antioxidant activity of 10.54 mg mL-1. Maize floral pollen and derived products can serve as future food resources for human consumption and as a source of functional and bioactive compounds in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification*
  12. Babar ZM, Jaswir I, Tareq AM, Ali Reza ASM, Azizi WM, Hafidz M, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Aug;35(16):2793-2798.
    PMID: 31578877 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1667348
    The WSE is a highly polar, gummy and mucilaginous bioactive content of the Nigella sativa (L.) seeds. This study reports the anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of WSE investigated using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Hole-Board Test (HBT) in adult mice and human RBCs haemolysis inhibition and protein denaturation respectively. The oral WSE treatment (100 & 200 mg/kg b.w/day) for 72 hours has exhibited slightly better anxiolytic effect (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  13. Ado MA, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Ghazali HM, Shaari K, Abas F
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Sep;35(17):2992-2996.
    PMID: 31631709 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1679138
    Phytochemical investigation on the soluble fractions of n-hexane and dichloromethane of methanolic leaves extract of the Callicarpa maingayi K. & G. led to the isolation of three triterpenoids [euscaphic acid (1), arjunic acid (2), and ursolic acid (3)] together with two flavones [apigenin (4) and acacetin (5)], two phytosterols [stigmasterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (6) and sitosterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (7)], and a fatty acid [n-hexacosanoic acid (8)]. Six (6) compounds (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8) are reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated and identified by extensive NMR techniques, GC-MS and comparison with the previously reported literature. Compound 3 was found to displayed good inhibition against acetylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 21.5 ± 0.022 μM, while 1 and 2 exhibited pronounced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 22.4 ± 0.016 μM and 24.9 ± 0.012 μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  14. Al-Amin M, Eltayeb NM, Khairuddean M, Salhimi SM
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Sep;35(18):3166-3170.
    PMID: 31726856 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1690489
    Rhizomes of Curcuma caesia are traditionally used to treat cancer in India. The aim is to isolate chemical constituents from C. caesia rhizomes through bioassay-guided fractionation. The extract, hexanes and chloroform fractions showed effect on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells in cell viability assay. The chromatographic separation afforded germacrone (1), zerumbone (2), furanodienone (3), curzerenone (4), curcumenol (5), zederone (6), curcumenone (7), dehydrocurdione (8) from hexanes fraction and curcuminol G (9), curcuzederone (10), (1S, 10S), (4S,5S)-germacrone-1 (10), 4-diepoxide (11), wenyujinin B (12), alismoxide (13), aerugidiol (14), zedoarolide B (15), zedoalactone B (16), zedoarondiol (17), isozedoarondiol (18) from chloroform fraction. This is first report of compounds 2, 9-13, 15-18 from C. caesia. The study demonstrated compounds 1-4 and 10 are the bioactive compounds. The effect of curcuzederone (10) on MDA-MB-231 cell migration showed significant inhibition in scratch and Transwell migration assays. The results revealed that curcuzederone could be a promising drug to treat cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  15. Low JS, Mak KK, Zhang S, Pichika MR, Marappan P, Mohandas K, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2021 Oct;154:105026.
    PMID: 34480992 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2021.105026
    Wounds still pose a huge burden on human health and healthcare systems in many parts of the world. Phytomedicines are being used to heal the wounds since ancient times. Now-a-days also many researchers are exploring the wound healing activity of phytomedicines. Wound healing is a complex process thus, it is always a question mark regarding the best test model (in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro) model to assess the wound healing activity of phytomedicines. In general, the researchers would opt for in vivo model - probably because of closer physiological relevance to human wounds. However, in vivo experimental models are not suitable for high throughput screening and not ethical in terms of initial screening of the phytomedicines. The in vivo models are associated with difficulties in obtaining the ethical approvals, requires huge budget, and resources. We argue that judicious selection of cell types would serve the purpose of developing a physiologically relevant in vitro experimental model. A lot of progress has been made in molecular biology techniques to bridge the gap between in vitro models and their physiological relevance. The in vitro models are the best suited for high throughput screening and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. The main aim of this review is to provide insights on selection of the cell types for developing physiologically relevant in vitro wound healing assays, which can be used to improve the value of phytomedicines further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  16. Salleh WMNHW, Abed SA, Taher M, Kassim H, Tawang A
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2021 Mar 01;73(1):1-21.
    PMID: 33791809 DOI: 10.1093/jpp/rgaa034
    OBJECTIVES: The genus Ferulago belonging to the family Apiaceae is a flora widely distributed in Central Asia and the Mediterranean and used in folk medicine. It is administered as a sedative, tonic, digestive, aphrodisiac, also as a treatment for intestinal worms and haemorrhoids. Herein, we reported a review on phytochemistry and its biological activities reported from 1990 up to early 2020. All the information and reported studies concerning Ferulago plants were summarized from the library and digital databases (e.g. Scopus, Medline, Scielo, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Google Scholar).

    KEY FINDINGS: The phytochemical investigations of Ferulago species revealed the presence of coumarins as the main bioactive compounds, including daucane derivatives, sesquiterpenes aryl esters, phenol derivatives, flavonoids and essential oils. Moreover, the therapeutic potentials of the pure compounds isolated from the genus Ferulago possess promising properties namely anticholinesterase, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, antileishmanial, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative.

    SUMMARY: Today, significant advances in phytochemical and biological activity studies of different Ferulago species have been revealed. The traditional uses and reported biological results could be correlated via the chemical characterization of these plants. All these data will support the biologists in the elucidation of the biological mechanisms of these plants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  17. Primus PS, Ismail MH, Adnan NE, Wu CH, Kao CL, Choo YM
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2022 Feb;24(2):146-152.
    PMID: 33565351 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2021.1883590
    Three new compounds, i.e. stenophyllols A-C (1-3), were isolated from the rhizome of Boesenbergia stenophylla. The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, NMR and HRESIMS). In-vitro neuroblastoma cell viability assay showed stenophyllol A (1) was able to reduce the N2A cell viability to 20% within 24 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  18. Teoh WY, Tan HP, Ling SK, Abdul Wahab N, Sim KS
    Nat Prod Res, 2016;30(4):448-51.
    PMID: 25738869 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1017726
    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  19. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):3291-340.
    PMID: 22489153 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13033291
    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
  20. Hashim YZ, Kerr PG, Abbas P, Mohd Salleh H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 02;189:331-60.
    PMID: 27343768 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.06.055
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aquilaria spp. (agarwood) has been a part of Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Agarwood has also been used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asian countries, Bangladesh and Tibet. Its common uses include the treatment of joint pain, inflammatory-related ailments, and diarrhoea, as well as a stimulant, sedative and cardioprotective agent. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal use, pharmacological activities and safety of plant materials from Aquilaria spp. as an evidence base to further appraise its potential use as a source of health beneficial compounds.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature abstracts and full text articles from journals, books, reports and electronic searches (Google Scholar, Elsevier, PubMed, Read Cube, Scopus, Springer, and Web of Science), as well as from other relevant websites, are surveyed, analysed and included in this review.

    RESULTS: A literature survey of agarwood plant materials showed that they contain sesquiterpenes, 2(-2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivatives, genkwanins, mangiferins, iriflophenones, cucurbitacins, terpenoids and phenolic acids. The crude extracts and some of the isolated compounds exhibit anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-ischemic, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, laxative, and mosquitocidal properties and effects on the central nervous system. Agarwood plant materials are considered to be safe based on the doses tested. However, the toxicity and safety of the materials, including the smoke from agarwood incense burning, should be further investigated. Future research should be directed towards the bio-guided isolation of bioactive compounds with proper chemical characterisation and investigations of the underlying mechanisms towards drug discovery.

    CONCLUSIONS: The traditional medicinal use of agarwood plant materials has provided clues to their pharmacological properties. Indeed, agarwood contains a plethora of bioactive compounds that now elegantly support their use in traditional medicine. As wild agarwood trees are critically endangered and vulnerable, sustainable agricultural and forestry practices are necessary for the further development and utilization of agarwood as a source of health beneficial compounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
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