Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 186 in total

  1. Duraipandi S, Selvakumar V, Er NY
    PMID: 25885542 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0568-9
    Ghritas are ayurvedic lipid based preparations in which oil or ghee is boiled with prescribed kasaya (polyherbal decoction) and kalka (fine paste of herbs) until the evaporation of aqueous phase transfers the contents into oily phase. The polyherbal decoction used in the preparation predominantly contains water soluble Active Botanical Ingredients (ABIs).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  2. Dharmalingam SR, Madhappan R, Ramamurthy S, Chidambaram K, Srikanth MV, Shanmugham S, et al.
    PMID: 25435611
    BACKGROUND: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity study using Swiss albino mice was performed in accordance with OECD guidelines. The EtAI and AqAI extracts of Aristolochia indica Linn were studied for antidiarrhoeal property using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and charcoal-induced gastrointestinal motility test in Swiss albino mice.

    RESULTS: Among the tested doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, the extracts reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhoea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extract delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control and the results were statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: Experimental findings showed that ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica Linn root possess significant antidiarrheal activity and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug in future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  3. Saad LB, Hwi KK, Quah T
    PMID: 25371587
    BACKGROUND: There are severe adverse effects of analgesic drugs on human body. Extraction of analgesic drugs from natural products has therefore become the prime objective of the study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the pomegranate fruit.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and compared with aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.) which was considered as the standard drug. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of the plant species was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the writhing test, the index of pain inhibition (IPI) was 37% for ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), and 59% for aspirin. In the hot tail flick test, the ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), has shown significant analgesia reaching its peak at 60 min maximum possible analgesia (MPA), was 24.1% as compared with aspirin 37.5%. Hyperalgesia was successfully induced by the plantar test and the ethanol extract of pomegranate (100,150,200mg/kg, p.o.), reduced the hyperalgesia in a dose dependent manner comparable to aspirin at (100mg/kg, p.o.). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B.

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  4. Chong UR, Abdul-Rahman PS, Abdul-Aziz A, Hashim OH, Mat-Junit S
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:459017.
    PMID: 24455694 DOI: 10.1155/2013/459017
    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  5. Pandy V, Narasingam M, Mohamed Z
    PMID: 23082808 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-186
    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  6. Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 10;17(4):4326-42.
    PMID: 22491681 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044326
    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  7. Sangetha S, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Suryani S
    Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, 2008;49(4):299-304.
    PMID: 19001757
    The fungicidal activity of Cassia spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the disk diffusion technique and the broth dilution method. The extract showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans with a minimum inhibition concentration(MIC) value of 6.25 mg / ml. Apart from the fungicidal effects, imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted in the SEM studies were the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 5-fold decrease in Candida in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g / kg body weight). In an acute toxicity study using mice, the acute minimum fatal dose of the extract was greater than 2000 mg / kg, and we found no histopathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. We conclude that the extract may be safely used as an anticandidal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  8. Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS
    J Food Sci, 2008 Oct;73(8):C595-8.
    PMID: 19019102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00929.x
    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  9. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  10. Mohamed EA, Yam MF, Ang LF, Mohamed AJ, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013 Feb;6(1):31-40.
    PMID: 23433053 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2013.01.005
    Orthosiphon stamineus is a popular folk medicine widely used to treat many diseases including diabetes. Previous studies have shown that the sub-fraction of chloroform extract was able to inhibit the rise of blood glucose levels in a glucose tolerance test. This study was carried out to evaluate the chronic effect and possible mechanism of action of the bioactive chloroform sub-fraction of O. stamineus using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro methods. Administration of the chloroform extract sub-fraction 2 (Cƒ2-b) at a dose of 1 g/kg twice daily on diabetic rats for 14 days showed a significant lowering (p < 0.05) of the final blood glucose level compared to the pretreatment level. However, there were no significant differences in the plasma insulin levels post-treatment compared to the pretreatment levels for all doses of Cƒ2-b. Conversely, Cƒ2-b at a concentration of 2 mg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.001) the glucose uptake by the rat diaphragm muscle. The increase in glucose uptake was also shown when the muscle was incubated in a solution containing 1 IU/mL of insulin or 1 mg/mL of metformin. Furthermore, the effect of this sub-fraction on glucose absorption in the everted rat jejunum showed that Cƒ2-b at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and, 2 mg/mL significantly reduced the glucose absorption of the jejunum (p < 0.05-0.001). Similarly, the absorption of glucose was also inhibited by 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of metformin (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the effect of Cƒ2-b may be due to extra-pancreatic mechanisms. There was no evidence that the plant extract stimulated the release of insulin in order to lower the blood glucose level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  11. Fateh AH, Mohamed Z, Chik Z, Alsalahi A, Md Zain SR, Alshawsh MA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 May 10;235:88-99.
    PMID: 30738113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.007
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, Verbena officinalis L. has been used for reproductive and gynaecological purposes. However, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of V. officinalis have not been extensively investigated.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the in vitro mutagenicity and in vivo genotoxicity of aqueous extract of V. officinalis leaves using a modified Ames test and rat bone marrow micronucleus assay according to OECD guidelines.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro Ames test was carried out using different strains of Salmonella (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA (pKM101) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 mixture). For micronucleus experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were received a single oral daily dose of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of V. officinalis extract for three days. Negative and positive control rats were received distilled water or a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, respectively. Following dissection, femurs were collected and bone marrow cells were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa solution for micronucleus assessment.

    RESULTS: Ames test results demonstrated that 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of V. officinalis extract induced a significant mutagenic effect against TA100 and TA98 strains (with and without metabolic activation). Findings of the animal study showed there were no significant increase in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) and no significant alterations in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio of treated rats as compared with their negative control. Meanwhile, significantly increased in the MNPEs was seen in the cyclophosphamide-treated group only.

    CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of V. officinalis has mutagenic effect against TA98 and TA100 strains as demonstrated by Ames test, however, there is no in vivo clastogenic and myelotoxic effect on bone marrow micronucleus of rats indicating that the benefits of using V. officinalis in traditional practice should outweigh risks.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  12. Thangavelu L, Balusamy SR, Shanmugam R, Sivanesan S, Devaraj E, Rajagopalan V, et al.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2020 Jun;113:104640.
    PMID: 32169672 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104640
    Acacia catechu (A. catechu) or Khair (Hindi) is used in several herbal preparations in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. Traditionally, this drug is beneficial against several gastrointestinal and stomach related ailments, and leprosy. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-acute oral toxicity of the ethanolic extract of A. catechu seeds in Wistar albino rats. Results obtained from the quantitative chemical analysis of A. catechu seed extract were compared with commercially available standards. A. catechu seed extract was administered orally at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. daily for 28 days. General behavior, bodyweight and mortality were examined during the entire study period. At the end of 28 days, hematological and biochemical parameters along with the relative organ weights were determined. It was observed that the extract did not induce death or any significant changes in the body weight, relative weight of vital organs and in hematological parameters for up to a dose of 1000 mg/kg. The oral administration of the plant extract did not produce any significant changes in the levels of glucose. In addition, there were no significant changes in the activity of both hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic marker enzymes in the serum. Oral administration of A. catechu also did not produce any significant changes in the levels of oxidative markers. Furthermore, the findings from the biochemical studies were, well corroborated with the histological findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  13. Chin JH, Abas HH, Sabariah I
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):9-16.
    PMID: 18600199
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Family: Lamiaceae) or locally known as Misai Kucing has been widely used in Malaysia for treating kidney problems, gout, and diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the possible toxic effect after following fourteen days oral administration of methanol extract of O. stamineus in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Control groups were treated orally with distilled water (vehicle) while the four test groups were treated up to fourteen days with 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg body weight of methanol extract of O. stamineus respectively. Toxicity of the methanol extract of O. stamineus was evaluated by the incident of lethality, side-cage observation and blood serum biochemical parameters. No lethality or adverse toxic signs were seen during the experimental period. A significant decrease in several serum biochemical parameters i.e. AST and ALT and increase in liver weight was observed in young female SD rat after being fed fourteen days with methanol extract of O. stamineus. No delayed toxic effect and lethality was observed in all rats during fourteen days of recovery period. In conclusion, methanol extract of O. stamineus within these range and treatment duration would not cause any severe toxic effects and organ damages in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  14. Singh D, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Kasinather V, Chan MSA, Ho ETW, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Jul 15;221:30-36.
    PMID: 29626673 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.005
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.

    RESULTS: We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.

    CONCLUSION: Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  15. Crum EM, Che Muhamed AM, Barnes M, Stannard SR
    PMID: 28572749 DOI: 10.1186/s12970-017-0172-0
    BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that pomegranate extract (POMx) may improve performance during aerobic exercise by enhancing the matching of vascular oxygen (O2) provision to muscular requirements. POMx is rich in ellagitannin polyphenols and nitrates (NO3-), which are both associated with improvements in blood flow and O2 delivery. Primarily, this study aimed to determine whether POMx improves performance in a cycling time trial to exhaustion at 100%VO2max (TTE100%) in highly-trained cyclists. In addition, we investigated if the O2 cost (VO2) of submaximal exercise was lower with POMx, and whether any changes were greater at high altitude where O2 delivery is impaired.

    METHODS: Eight cyclists exercised at three submaximal intensities before completing a TTE100% at sea-level (SEA) and at 1657 m of altitude (ALT), with pre-exercise consumption of 1000 mg of POMx or a placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Data were analysed using a three way (treatment x altitude x intensity) or two-way (treatment x altitude) repeated measures ANOVA with a Fisher's LSD post-hoc analysis. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The effect size of significant interactions was calculated using Cohen's d.

    RESULTS: TTE100% performance was reduced in ALT but was not influenced by POMx (p > 0.05). Plasma NO3- were 10.3 μmol greater with POMx vs. PLAC (95% CI, 0.8, 19.7,F1,7 = 7.83, p  0.05). Submaximal VO2 values were not affected by POMx (p ≥ 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The restoration of SEA VO2 values at ALT is likely driven by the high polyphenol content of POMx, which is proposed to improve nitric oxide bioavailability. Despite an increase in VO2, no change in exercise performance occurred and therefore this study does not support the use of POMx as an ergogenic supplement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  16. Rajapakse S, de Silva NL, Weeratunga P, Rodrigo C, Sigera C, Fernando SD
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Oct 11;19(1):265.
    PMID: 31601215 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2678-2
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya (CP) extract is becoming popular as an unlicensed herbal remedy purported to hasten recovery in dengue infection, mostly based on observations that it may increase platelet counts. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to critically analyze the evidence from controlled clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of CP extract in the treatment of dengue infection.

    METHODS: PubMed, LILACS and Google Scholar were searched for randomized or non-randomized trials enrolling patients with suspected or confirmed dengue where CP extract was compared, as a treatment measure, against standard treatment. Recovery of platelet counts as well as other clinical indicators of favourable outcome (duration of hospital stay, prevention of plasma leakage, life threatening complications, and mortality) were assessed.

    RESULTS: Nine studies (India-6, Pakistan-1, Indonesia-1, Malaysia-1) met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies showed an increase in platelet counts in patients receiving CP extract, while one study showed no significant difference between the two groups, and direct comparison was not possible in the remaining study. Serious adverse events were not reported. CP extract may reduce the duration of hospital stay (mean difference - 1.98 days, 95% confidence interval - 1.83 to - 2.12, 3 studies, 580 participants, low quality evidence), and cause improvement in mean platelet counts between the first and fifth day of treatment (mean difference 35.45, 95% confidence interval 23.74 to 47.15, 3 studies, 129 participants, low quality evidence). No evidence was available regarding other clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The clinical value of improvement in platelet count or early discharge is unclear in the absence of more robust indicators of favourable clinical outcome. Current evidence is insufficient to comment on the role of CP extract in dengue. There is a need for further well designed clinical trials examining the effect of CP on platelet counts, plasma leakage, other serious manifestations of dengue, and mortality, with clearly defined outcome measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  17. Rahman HS, Othman HH, Hammadi NI, Yeap SK, Amin KM, Abdul Samad N, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:2439-2483.
    PMID: 32346289 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S227805
    Many types of research have distinctly addressed the efficacy of natural plant metabolites used for human consumption both in cell culture and preclinical animal model systems. However, these in vitro and in vivo effects have not been able to be translated for clinical use because of several factors such as inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising agents that significantly contribute to this disconnection. Over the past decades, extraordinary advances have been made successfully on the development of novel drug delivery systems for encapsulation of plant active metabolites including organic, inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles. The advanced formulas are confirmed to have extraordinary benefits over conventional and previously used systems in the manner of solubility, bioavailability, toxicity, pharmacological activity, stability, distribution, sustained delivery, and both physical and chemical degradation. The current review highlights the development of novel nanocarrier for plant active compounds, their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, and their biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  18. Nasir NLM, Kamsani NE, Mohtarrudin N, Tohid SFM, Zakaria ZA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Sep;33(5):2009-2016.
    PMID: 33824108
    Muntingia calabura (M. calabura), locally known as "kerukup siam" or "buah ceri" belongs to the family Muntingiaceae and has been scientifically demonstrated to exert various pharmacological activities. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the antioxidant activities and to determine the subchronic toxicity of 90 days orally-administered methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) in male Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=6). Vehicle control received 8% tween 80 and treatment group received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg of MEMC orally administered daily for 90 days. Blood collection was carried out to obtain the hematological and biochemical profile of the rats. The organs harvested were subjected to histopathological analysis. For the antioxidant test, the extract was subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide anion-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and phytochemical screening. Results obtained show that no adverse effects were observed during the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical analysis also showed no significant changes in this toxicity study. Besides, antioxidant analyses revealed that MEMC has higher DPPH- and SOD-radical scavenges activity as well as higher TPC value. In conclusion, M. calabura is safe for consumption and possesses beneficial antioxidant effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  19. Ang HH, Lee KL, Kiyoshi M
    J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol, 2004;15(3-4):303-9.
    PMID: 15803965 DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp.2004.15.3-4.303
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  20. Ang HH, Sim MK
    Exp Anim, 1997 Oct;46(4):287-90.
    PMID: 9353636 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.46.287
    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the libido of sexually experienced male rats after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily of different fractions of E. longifolia Jack for 10 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in mounting frequency of the treated animals with 400 mg/kg of chloroform, methanol, water and butanol fractions resulting in mounting frequencies of 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.7 and 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 800 mg/kg further increased them to 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 0.2 respectively but there were no erections, intromissions, ejaculations or seminal emissions during the 20-min observation period which allowed for the measurement of sexual arousal reflected by mounting frequency uninfluenced by other behavioural components. This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of sexual arousal in sexually vigorous male rats in the absence of feedback from genital sensation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
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