METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.
RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.
METHODS: A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.
RESULTS: We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.
CONCLUSION: Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.
METHODS: Eight cyclists exercised at three submaximal intensities before completing a TTE100% at sea-level (SEA) and at 1657 m of altitude (ALT), with pre-exercise consumption of 1000 mg of POMx or a placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Data were analysed using a three way (treatment x altitude x intensity) or two-way (treatment x altitude) repeated measures ANOVA with a Fisher's LSD post-hoc analysis. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The effect size of significant interactions was calculated using Cohen's d.
RESULTS: TTE100% performance was reduced in ALT but was not influenced by POMx (p > 0.05). Plasma NO3- were 10.3 μmol greater with POMx vs. PLAC (95% CI, 0.8, 19.7,F1,7 = 7.83, p 0.05). Submaximal VO2 values were not affected by POMx (p ≥ 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The restoration of SEA VO2 values at ALT is likely driven by the high polyphenol content of POMx, which is proposed to improve nitric oxide bioavailability. Despite an increase in VO2, no change in exercise performance occurred and therefore this study does not support the use of POMx as an ergogenic supplement.