Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 147 in total

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  1. Duraipandi S, Selvakumar V, Er NY
    PMID: 25885542 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0568-9
    Ghritas are ayurvedic lipid based preparations in which oil or ghee is boiled with prescribed kasaya (polyherbal decoction) and kalka (fine paste of herbs) until the evaporation of aqueous phase transfers the contents into oily phase. The polyherbal decoction used in the preparation predominantly contains water soluble Active Botanical Ingredients (ABIs).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  2. Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 10;17(4):4326-42.
    PMID: 22491681 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044326
    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  3. Pandy V, Narasingam M, Mohamed Z
    PMID: 23082808 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-186
    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  4. Saad LB, Hwi KK, Quah T
    PMID: 25371587
    There are severe adverse effects of analgesic drugs on human body. Extraction of analgesic drugs from natural products has therefore become the prime objective of the study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the pomegranate fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  5. Dharmalingam SR, Madhappan R, Ramamurthy S, Chidambaram K, Srikanth MV, Shanmugham S, et al.
    PMID: 25435611
    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  6. Sathasivam K, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM, Haris MR, Wernsdorfer WH
    Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 2009 Oct;121 Suppl 3:19-22.
    PMID: 19915811 DOI: 10.1007/s00508-009-1229-0
    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  7. Sangetha S, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Suryani S
    Med Mycol J, 2008;49(4):299-304.
    PMID: 19001757
    The fungicidal activity of Cassia spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the disk diffusion technique and the broth dilution method. The extract showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans with a minimum inhibition concentration(MIC) value of 6.25 mg / ml. Apart from the fungicidal effects, imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted in the SEM studies were the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 5-fold decrease in Candida in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g / kg body weight). In an acute toxicity study using mice, the acute minimum fatal dose of the extract was greater than 2000 mg / kg, and we found no histopathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. We conclude that the extract may be safely used as an anticandidal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  8. Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS
    J. Food Sci., 2008 Oct;73(8):C595-8.
    PMID: 19019102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00929.x
    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  9. Chin JH, Abas HH, Sabariah I
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):9-16.
    PMID: 18600199
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Family: Lamiaceae) or locally known as Misai Kucing has been widely used in Malaysia for treating kidney problems, gout, and diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the possible toxic effect after following fourteen days oral administration of methanol extract of O. stamineus in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Control groups were treated orally with distilled water (vehicle) while the four test groups were treated up to fourteen days with 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg body weight of methanol extract of O. stamineus respectively. Toxicity of the methanol extract of O. stamineus was evaluated by the incident of lethality, side-cage observation and blood serum biochemical parameters. No lethality or adverse toxic signs were seen during the experimental period. A significant decrease in several serum biochemical parameters i.e. AST and ALT and increase in liver weight was observed in young female SD rat after being fed fourteen days with methanol extract of O. stamineus. No delayed toxic effect and lethality was observed in all rats during fourteen days of recovery period. In conclusion, methanol extract of O. stamineus within these range and treatment duration would not cause any severe toxic effects and organ damages in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  10. Chong UR, Abdul-Rahman PS, Abdul-Aziz A, Hashim OH, Mat-Junit S
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:459017.
    PMID: 24455694 DOI: 10.1155/2013/459017
    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  11. Mohamed EA, Yam MF, Ang LF, Mohamed AJ, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013 Feb;6(1):31-40.
    PMID: 23433053 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2013.01.005
    Orthosiphon stamineus is a popular folk medicine widely used to treat many diseases including diabetes. Previous studies have shown that the sub-fraction of chloroform extract was able to inhibit the rise of blood glucose levels in a glucose tolerance test. This study was carried out to evaluate the chronic effect and possible mechanism of action of the bioactive chloroform sub-fraction of O. stamineus using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro methods. Administration of the chloroform extract sub-fraction 2 (Cƒ2-b) at a dose of 1 g/kg twice daily on diabetic rats for 14 days showed a significant lowering (p < 0.05) of the final blood glucose level compared to the pretreatment level. However, there were no significant differences in the plasma insulin levels post-treatment compared to the pretreatment levels for all doses of Cƒ2-b. Conversely, Cƒ2-b at a concentration of 2 mg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.001) the glucose uptake by the rat diaphragm muscle. The increase in glucose uptake was also shown when the muscle was incubated in a solution containing 1 IU/mL of insulin or 1 mg/mL of metformin. Furthermore, the effect of this sub-fraction on glucose absorption in the everted rat jejunum showed that Cƒ2-b at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL and, 2 mg/mL significantly reduced the glucose absorption of the jejunum (p < 0.05-0.001). Similarly, the absorption of glucose was also inhibited by 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of metformin (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the effect of Cƒ2-b may be due to extra-pancreatic mechanisms. There was no evidence that the plant extract stimulated the release of insulin in order to lower the blood glucose level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  12. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  13. Ang HH, Ikeda S, Gan EK
    Phytother Res, 2001 Aug;15(5):435-6.
    PMID: 11507738
    The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  14. Ang HH, Sim MK
    Exp. Anim., 1997 Oct;46(4):287-90.
    PMID: 9353636
    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the libido of sexually experienced male rats after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily of different fractions of E. longifolia Jack for 10 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in mounting frequency of the treated animals with 400 mg/kg of chloroform, methanol, water and butanol fractions resulting in mounting frequencies of 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.7 and 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 800 mg/kg further increased them to 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 0.2 respectively but there were no erections, intromissions, ejaculations or seminal emissions during the 20-min observation period which allowed for the measurement of sexual arousal reflected by mounting frequency uninfluenced by other behavioural components. This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of sexual arousal in sexually vigorous male rats in the absence of feedback from genital sensation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  15. Ang HH, Lee KL, Kiyoshi M
    J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol, 2004;15(3-4):303-9.
    PMID: 15803965
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  16. Low BS, Ng BH, Choy WP, Yuen KH, Chan KL
    Planta Med., 2005 Sep;71(9):803-7.
    PMID: 16206032
    A validated HPLC analysis of eurycomanone (1), a bioactive quassinoid, in rat plasma following oral and intravenous administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract was developed for pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies. Relatively high plasma eurycomanone concentrations were detected after an intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg extract F2 containing 1.96 mg/kg of the quassinoid. However, it declined rapidly to zero after 8 h. Its mean elimination rate constant (k(e)), biological half-life (t(1/2)), volume of distribution (V(d)) and clearance (CL) were 0.88 +/- 0.19 h (-1), 1.00 +/- 0.26 h, 0.68 +/- 0.30 L/kg and 0.39 +/- 0.08 L/h/kg, respectively. Following oral administration of eurycomanone, its Cmax and Tmax values were detected as 0.33 +/- 0.03 microg/mL and 4.40 +/- 0.98 h, respectively. The plasma concentration of the quassinoid after oral administration was much lower than after intravenous application in spite of the oral dose being 5 times higher. The results indicate that eurycomanone is poorly bioavailable when given orally. A comparison of the AUC (0-->infinity) obtained orally to that obtained after an intravenous administration (normalized for dose differences) revealed that the absolute bioavailability of the compound was low with 10.5 %. Furthermore, the compound appeared to be well distributed in the extravascular fluids because of its relatively high V(d) value. The poor oral bioavailability was not attributed to instability problems because eurycomanone has been shown to be stable under different pH conditions. Thus, its poor oral bioavailability may be due to poor membrane permeability in view of its low P value and/or high first-pass metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  17. Singh D, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Kasinather V, Chan MSA, Ho ETW, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Jul 15;221:30-36.
    PMID: 29626673 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.005
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.

    RESULTS: We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.

    CONCLUSION: Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  18. Crum EM, Che Muhamed AM, Barnes M, Stannard SR
    PMID: 28572749 DOI: 10.1186/s12970-017-0172-0
    BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that pomegranate extract (POMx) may improve performance during aerobic exercise by enhancing the matching of vascular oxygen (O2) provision to muscular requirements. POMx is rich in ellagitannin polyphenols and nitrates (NO3-), which are both associated with improvements in blood flow and O2 delivery. Primarily, this study aimed to determine whether POMx improves performance in a cycling time trial to exhaustion at 100%VO2max (TTE100%) in highly-trained cyclists. In addition, we investigated if the O2 cost (VO2) of submaximal exercise was lower with POMx, and whether any changes were greater at high altitude where O2 delivery is impaired.

    METHODS: Eight cyclists exercised at three submaximal intensities before completing a TTE100% at sea-level (SEA) and at 1657 m of altitude (ALT), with pre-exercise consumption of 1000 mg of POMx or a placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Data were analysed using a three way (treatment x altitude x intensity) or two-way (treatment x altitude) repeated measures ANOVA with a Fisher's LSD post-hoc analysis. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The effect size of significant interactions was calculated using Cohen's d.

    RESULTS: TTE100% performance was reduced in ALT but was not influenced by POMx (p > 0.05). Plasma NO3- were 10.3 μmol greater with POMx vs. PLAC (95% CI, 0.8, 19.7,F1,7 = 7.83, p  0.05). Submaximal VO2 values were not affected by POMx (p ≥ 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The restoration of SEA VO2 values at ALT is likely driven by the high polyphenol content of POMx, which is proposed to improve nitric oxide bioavailability. Despite an increase in VO2, no change in exercise performance occurred and therefore this study does not support the use of POMx as an ergogenic supplement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  19. Zabidi Z, Wan Zainulddin WN, Mamat SS, Shamsahal Din S, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2012;21(5):501-3.
    PMID: 22517296 DOI: 10.1159/000337406
    To determine the potential antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using various established rat models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  20. Sarmadi B, Aminuddin F, Hamid M, Saari N, Abdul-Hamid A, Ismail A
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):905-11.
    PMID: 23107706 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.202
    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
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