Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

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  1. Bhavikatti SK, Karobari MI, Zainuddin SLA, Marya A, Nadaf SJ, Sawant VJ, et al.
    PMID: 34281099 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18137162
    Background-chlorhexidine (CHX) is most commonly used as a chemical plaque control agent. Nevertheless, its adverse effects, including teeth discoloration, taste alteration and calculus build-up, limit its use and divert us to medicinal herbs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antioxidant potential, and cytotoxic effects of Mimusops elengi Linn extract (ME) over normal human cultured adult gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Methods-in vitro phytochemical screening, total flavonoid content, antioxidant potential by DPPH and Nitric Oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, and cytotoxic effects of ME extracts over HGF were explored. The viability of HGF cells was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red uptake, and trypan blue assay after treatment with different concentrations of CHX and ME (0.3125 to 10 µg/mL). Results-ME showed some alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and flavonoids exhibited relatively moderate-to-good antioxidant potential. Increasing the concentration of CHX and ME from 0.3125 to 10 µg/mL reduced cell viability from 29.71% to 1.07% and 96.12% to 56.02%, respectively. At higher concentrations, CHX reduced the viability of cells by 52.36-fold compared to ME, revealed by MTT assay. At 10 µg/mL concentration, the mean cell viability of CHX and ME-treated cells was 2.24% and 57.45%, respectively, revealed by a neutral red assay. The viability of CHX- and ME-treated HGF cells estimated at higher concentrations (10 µg/mL) using trypan blue assay was found to be 2.18% and 47.36%, respectively. A paired t-test showed significance (p < 0.05), and one-way ANOVA difference between the mean cell viability of CHX- and ME-treated cells at different concentrations. One-way ANOVA confirmed the significant difference between the viability of CHX- and ME-treated cells. Conclusions-The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of ME emphasize its potential benefits. Therefore, it could emerge as a herbal alternative and adjunct to conventional oral hygiene methods, that can diminish periodontal tissue destruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  2. Aliyu A, Shaari MR, Ahmad Sayuti NS, Reduan FH, Sithambaram S, Mohamed Mustapha N, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2021 Oct;104(4):368504211004272.
    PMID: 34886737 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211004272
    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is an important multipurpose tree that is largely distributed globally and has been used almost in every aspect of traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses including cancers, diabetes mellitus, asthma, arthritis, etc. This study investigated the effects of oral acute and sub-acute administration of M. oleifera hydroethanolic leaf extract (MOHE) in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds were also determined. Ten (10) female, 8-week old mice were grouped into control and treatment groups for acute toxicity study. A dose of 2000 mg/kg MOHE was given once to the treatment group via oral gavage. However, for the sub-acute toxicity study, 25 mice were grouped into groups A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). MOHE was given via oral gavage to groups B, C, D and E daily for 28 days. Group A received only distilled water. The mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiments and samples were collected for evaluation. The results of the chemical profiling of MOHE revealed the presence of glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol as the major compounds. The treated mice in the acute toxicity study were slightly anaemic and showed evidence of stress leukogram. Moreover, a slight increase in creatinine, significant increases in AST and CK, hepatic degeneration and necrosis, none-obstructive sinusoidal dilatation, renal tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and renal interstitial oedema were observed. It is concluded that the LD50 of MOHE is higher than 2000 mg/kg. However, oral administration of MOHE causes acute mild anaemia and moderate hepato-nephrotoxicity in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds are glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  3. Hassan Z, Singh D, Suhaimi FW, Chear NJ, Harun N, See CP, et al.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2023 Sep;143:105466.
    PMID: 37536550 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2023.105466
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth also known as kratom, is an herbal drug preparation for its therapeutic properties and opioid-replacement therapy. Kratom is consumed in a brewed decoction form in Malaysia and to date, no studies have characterized its chemical and toxicity profile. Thus, this study aims to evaluate kratom decoction's safety and toxicity profile after 28 days of treatment. Mitragynine content was quantified in kratom decoction and used as a marker to determine the concentration. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with vehicle or kratom decoction (10, 50 or 150 mg/kg) and two satellite groups were treated with vehicle and kratom decoction (150 mg/kg). Blood and organs were collected for hematology, biochemical and histopathology analysis at the end of treatment. No mortality was found after 28 days of treatment and no significant changes in body weight and hematology profile, except for low platelet count. High amounts of uric acid, AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase were found in the biochemical analysis. Histological investigation of the heart and lungs detected no alterations except for the kidney, liver and brain tissues. In conclusion, repeated administration of kratom decoction provided some evidence of toxicity in the kidney and liver with no occurrence of mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  4. Syahmi AR, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Kwan YP, Lau YL, et al.
    Molecules, 2010 Nov;15(11):8111-21.
    PMID: 21072022 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15118111
    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  5. Abdul Razak D, Gan EK, Mohamad M, Lajis R, Sam TW
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Mar;39(1):48-51.
    PMID: 6513840
    Studies made on aqueous root extract of Selayak Hitam, a plant alleged to possess abortifacient activity in pregnant mothers established that the extract is teratogenic and did in fact cause abortion in mice. It was also observed that the aqueous root extract is relatively toxic as judged by the number of deaths occuring following administration of the extract. The mechanism by which abortion is brought about is unknown but it is possible that the abortifacient effect is due to the induced teratogenic activity, brought about by the extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  6. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  7. Thangavelu L, Geetha RV, Devaraj E, Dua K, Chellappan DK, Balusamy SR
    Environ Toxicol, 2022 Mar;37(3):446-456.
    PMID: 34800081 DOI: 10.1002/tox.23411
    Acacia catechu Willd (Fabaceae) is a thorny tree widely distributed in India and commonly used as traditional Ayurvedic medicine for various ailments. The current study evaluates the cytotoxic potentials of A. catechu ethanolic seed extract (ACSE) in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. The HepG2 cells were treated with 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 μg/ml of ACSE and the cytotoxic effect was evaluated by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays. The IC50 of ACSE was found at 77.04 μg/ml and therefore, further studies were carried out with the concentrations of 35 and 70 μg/ml. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis-related morphological changes were evaluated. Gene expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C (Cyt-c), caspases-9 and 3 were analyzed by qPCR. The ACSE treatments caused LDH leakage was associated with an increased ROS generation. The increased ROS generation was associated with the downregulation of intracellular antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione content. AO/EB and PI staining also confirmed chromatin condensation and apoptosis. The flow cytometric analysis showed an accumulation of HepG2 cells at sub G0/G1 (apoptotic) phase upon ACSE treatments. The ACSE induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were related to increased apoptotic marker gene expressions such as Bax, Cyt-c, caspase-9 and 3, and decreased anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. The current finding suggests that ACSE has apoptosis-inducing potential via the mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  8. Zahidin NS, Saidin S, Zulkifli RM, Muhamad II, Ya'akob H, Nur H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 31;207:146-173.
    PMID: 28647509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.019
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions.

    THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. This review updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic treatments and also discusses the toxicity issue of Acalypha indica.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. The data was collected from online journals, magazines, and books, all of which were published in English, Malay and Indonesian. Search engine websites such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Researchgate and other online collections were utilized in this review to obtain information.

    RESULTS: The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Several pharmacological properties exhibited certain potentials based on the obtained results that came from different related studies. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound healing medicine. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction.

    CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the current studies of Acalypha indica collected from many regions. This review hopefully will provide a useful and basic knowledge platform for anyone interested in gaining information regarding Acalypha indica.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  9. Ahda M, Jaswir I, Khatib A, Ahmed QU, Mahfudh N, Ardini YD, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2023 Oct 09;13(1):17012.
    PMID: 37813908 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-43251-2
    Ocimum aristatum, commonly known as O. stamineus, has been widely studied for its potential as an herbal medicine candidate. This research aims to compare the efficacy of water and 100% ethanolic extracts of O. stamineus as α-glucosidase inhibitors and antioxidants, as well as toxicity against zebrafish embryos. Based on the study findings, water extract of O. stamineus leaves exhibited superior inhibition activity against α-glucosidase, ABTS, and DPPH, with IC50 values of approximately 43.623 ± 0.039 µg/mL, 27.556 ± 0.125 µg/mL, and 95.047 ± 1.587 µg/mL, respectively. The major active compounds identified in the extract include fatty acid groups and their derivates such as linoleic acid, α-eleostearic acid, stearic acid, oleanolic acid, and corchorifatty acid F. Phenolic groups such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, norfenefrine, caftaric acid, and 2-hydroxyphenylalanine and flavonoids and their derivates including 5,7-Dihydroxychromone, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-4H-chromen-4-one, eupatorin, and others were also identified in the extract. Carboxylic acid groups and triterpenoids such as azelaic acid and asiatic acid were also present. This study found that the water extract of O. stamineus is non-toxic to zebrafish embryos and does not affect the development of zebrafish larvae at concentrations lower than 500 µg/mL. These findings highlight the potential of the water extract of O. stamineus as a valuable herbal medicine candidate, particularly for its potent α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant properties, and affirm its safety in zebrafish embryos at tested concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  10. Ablat A, Mohamad J, Awang K, Shilpi JA, Arya A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:786130.
    PMID: 24688431 DOI: 10.1155/2014/786130
    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  11. Ashraf MF, Abd Aziz M, Stanslas J, Ismail I, Abdul Kadir M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:216894.
    PMID: 24223502 DOI: 10.1155/2013/216894
    The present paper focused on antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of crude and total saponin fraction of Chlorophytum borivilianum as an important medicinal plant. In this study, three different antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and β -carotene bleaching (BCB) activity) of crude extract and total saponin fraction of C. borivilianum tubers were performed. Crude extract was found to possess higher free radical scavenging activity (ascorbic acid equivalents 2578 ± 111 mg AA/100 g) and bleaching activity (IC50 = 0.7 mg mL(-1)), while total saponin fraction displayed higher ferrous ion chelating (EC50 = 1 mg mL(-1)). Cytotoxicity evaluation of crude extract and total saponin fraction against MCF-7, PC3, and HCT-116 cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay indicated a higher cytotoxicity activity of the crude extract than the total saponin fraction on all cell lines, being most effective and selective on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  12. Ping KY, Darah I, Chen Y, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2013 Sep;3(9):692-6.
    PMID: 23998008 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60140-9
    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  13. Wesam RK, Ghanya AN, Mizaton HH, Ilham M, Aishah A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2013 Oct;6(10):811-6.
    PMID: 23870471 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60143-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity of standardized aqueous of dry leaves of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) in human HepG2 and WRL68 cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxicity of E. cuneatum extract was evaluated by both MTS and LDH assays. Genotoxicity study on E. cuneatum extract was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The protective effect of E. cuneatum against menadione-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated.

    RESULTS: Results from this study showed that E. cuneatum extract exhibited cytotoxic activities towards the cells with IC50 value of (125±12) and (125±14) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 cells respectively, after 72 h incubation period as determined by MTS assay. LDH leakage was detected at (251±19) and (199.5±12.0) μg/mL for HepG2 and WRL68 respectively. Genotoxicity study results showed that treatment with E. cuneatum up to 1 mg/mL did not cause obvious DNA damage in WRL68 and HepG2 cells. Addition of E. cunaetum did not show significant protection towards menadione in WRL68 and HepG2 Cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. cuneatum standardized aqueous extract might be developed in order to establish new pharmacological possibilities for its application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  14. Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Oct;2(10):826-9.
    PMID: 23569855 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60237-8
    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  15. Yuet Ping K, Darah I, Yusuf UK, Yeng C, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 26;17(7):7782-91.
    PMID: 22735780 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077782
    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  16. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  17. Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 10;17(4):4326-42.
    PMID: 22491681 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044326
    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  18. Pour BM, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Jun;1(3):230-2.
    PMID: 23569765 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60033-6
    To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  19. Latha LY, Darah I, Jain K, Sasidharan S
    Pharm Biol, 2010 Jan;48(1):101-4.
    PMID: 20645763 DOI: 10.3109/13880200903046203
    The methanol extract of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae), which exhibited antimicrobial activity, was tested for toxicity. In an acute toxicity study using mice, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg, and we found no pathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. As well as the oral acute toxicity study, the brine shrimp lethality test was also done. Brine shrimp test LC(50) values were 3.87 mg/mL (6 h) and 2.72 mg/mL (24 h), exhibiting no significant toxicity result. In conclusion, the methanol extract of V. cinerea did not produce toxic effects in mice and brine shrimp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*
  20. Sangetha S, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Suryani S
    Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, 2008;49(4):299-304.
    PMID: 19001757
    The fungicidal activity of Cassia spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the disk diffusion technique and the broth dilution method. The extract showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans with a minimum inhibition concentration(MIC) value of 6.25 mg / ml. Apart from the fungicidal effects, imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted in the SEM studies were the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 5-fold decrease in Candida in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g / kg body weight). In an acute toxicity study using mice, the acute minimum fatal dose of the extract was greater than 2000 mg / kg, and we found no histopathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. We conclude that the extract may be safely used as an anticandidal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
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