Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

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  1. Zi-Ni T, Rosma A, Napisah H, Karim AA, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2015 Apr;80(4):H875-82.
    PMID: 25739421 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12817
    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  2. Kalidas NR, Saminathan M, Ismail IS, Abas F, Maity P, Islam SS, et al.
    Food Chem, 2017 Nov 01;234:348-355.
    PMID: 28551246 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.159
    In this study, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) were isolated from palm kernel cake by aqueous extraction using high temperature and pressure. Structural characterization of MOS was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, ESI-MS/MS and 1D/2D NMR. The prebiotic activity of MOS was evaluated in vitro using two probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Sugar analysis indicated the presence of mannose in each of the oligomers. Methylation and 1D/2D NMR analysis indicated that the MOS have a linear structure consisting of (1→4)-β-d-mannopyranosyl residues. ESI-MS/MS results showed that the isolated mannan oligomers, MOS-III, MOS-IV, MOS-V and MOS-VI consist of tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-saccharides with molecular weights of 689, 851, 1013 and 1151Da, respectively. Based on the in vitro growth study, MOS-III and MOS-IV was found to be effective in selectively promoting the growth of Lactobacillus reuteri C1 strain as evidenced by the optical density of the culture broth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  3. Phang, Y.L., Chan, H.K.
    MyJurnal
    A study was done on the feasibility of inulin, a fructooligosaccharides with the health benefits of prebiotic, as partial sugar replacer in “kaya” by investigating the effects of different substitution levels (0%; control, 10%, 30% and 50%) on the sensory properties. The samples were investigated by 10 descriptive panelists for colour, sweetness, smoothness, firmness, adhesiveness and spreadability attributes before further evaluated by 100 consumers for acceptance levels. Consistent with the descriptive panel, the evaluation by the consumers showed formulated samples at 10% and 30% were comparable to the commercial “kaya” being no significant difference (p>0.05) found in acceptability scores. 50% substitution received lower acceptability scores and was significantly different (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  4. Scott KP, Grimaldi R, Cunningham M, Sarbini SR, Wijeyesekera A, Tang MLK, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2020 Apr;128(4):934-949.
    PMID: 31446668 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14424
    AIMS: The concept of using specific dietary components to selectively modulate the gut microbiota to confer a health benefit, defined as prebiotics, originated in 1995. In 2018, a group of scientists met at the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics annual meeting in Singapore to discuss advances in the prebiotic field, focussing on issues affecting functionality, research methodology and geographical differences.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The discussion ranged from examining scientific literature supporting the efficacy of established prebiotics, to the prospects for establishing health benefits associated with novel compounds, isolated from different sources.

    CONCLUSIONS: While many promising candidate prebiotics from across the globe have been highlighted in preliminary research, there are a limited number with both demonstrated mechanism of action and defined health benefits as required to meet the prebiotic definition. Prebiotics are part of a food industry with increasing market sales, yet there are great disparities in regulations in different countries. Identification and commercialization of new prebiotics with unique health benefits means that regulation must improve and remain up-to-date so as not to risk stifling research with potential health benefits for humans and other animals.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This summary of the workshop discussions indicates potential avenues for expanding the range of prebiotic substrates, delivery methods to enhance health benefits for the end consumer and guidance to better elucidate their activities in human studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics/administration & dosage; Prebiotics/analysis; Prebiotics/standards*
  5. Ghorbani M, Rajandas H, Parimannan S, Stephen Joseph GB, Tew MM, Ramly SS, et al.
    Psychiatr Genet, 2021 Apr 01;31(2):39-49.
    PMID: 33252574 DOI: 10.1097/YPG.0000000000000270
    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder with marked symptoms of hallucination, delusion, and impaired cognitive behaviors. Although multidimensional factors have been associated with the development of schizophrenia, the principal cause of the disorder remains debatable. Microbiome involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia has been widely researched due to the advancement in sequencing technologies. This review describes the contribution of the gut microbiome in the development of schizophrenia that is facilitated by the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota is connected to the gut-brain axis via several pathways and mechanisms, that are discussed in this review. The role of the oral microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics in shaping the gut microbiota are also highlighted. Lastly, future perspectives for microbiome research in schizophrenia are addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  6. Zaman SA, Sarbini SR
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Jun;36(3):578-84.
    PMID: 25582732 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993590
    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  7. Mustafa SE, Mustafa S, Ismail A, Abas F, Abd Manap MY, Ahmed Hamdi OA, et al.
    Heliyon, 2020 Oct;6(10):e05298.
    PMID: 33134584 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05298
    The influence of commercial prebiotics (fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) and sugars (glucose and sucrose) on enhancing equol production from soymilk isoflavones by Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 was evaluated in vitro. Sterilized soymilk was inoculated with each bacterial species at 37 °C for 48 h. The growth and β-glucosidase enzyme activity for the two Bifidobacterium species in soymilk throughout fermentation were assessed. The highest viable count for B. breve (8.75 log CFU/ml) was reached at 36 h and for B. longum (8.55 log CFU/ml) at 24 h. Both bacterial species displayed β-glucosidase activity. B. breve showed increased enzyme activity (4.126 U) at 36 h, while B. longum exhibited maximum activity (3.935 U) at 24 h of fermentation. Among the prebiotics screened for their effect in isoflavones transformation to equol, inulin delivered the highest effect on equol production. The co-culture of B. longum BB536 and B. breve ATCC15700 in soymilk supplemented with inulin produced the highest level (11.49 mmol/l) of equol at 48 h of fermentation process. Level of daidzin declined whereas that of daidzein increased, and then gradually decreased due to formation of equol when soymilk was fermented using bifidobacterial. This suggests that the nutritional value of soymilk may be increased by increasing bioavailability of the bioactive ingredients. Collectively these data identify probiotics and prebiotic combinations suitable for inclusion in soymilk to enhance equol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  8. Jia TZ, Chandru K, Hongo Y, Afrin R, Usui T, Myojo K, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 08 06;116(32):15830-15835.
    PMID: 31332006 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902336116
    Compartmentalization was likely essential for primitive chemical systems during the emergence of life, both for preventing leakage of important components, i.e., genetic materials, and for enhancing chemical reactions. Although life as we know it uses lipid bilayer-based compartments, the diversity of prebiotic chemistry may have enabled primitive living systems to start from other types of boundary systems. Here, we demonstrate membraneless compartmentalization based on prebiotically available organic compounds, α-hydroxy acids (αHAs), which are generally coproduced along with α-amino acids in prebiotic settings. Facile polymerization of αHAs provides a model pathway for the assembly of combinatorially diverse primitive compartments on early Earth. We characterized membraneless microdroplets generated from homo- and heteropolyesters synthesized from drying solutions of αHAs endowed with various side chains. These compartments can preferentially and differentially segregate and compartmentalize fluorescent dyes and fluorescently tagged RNA, providing readily available compartments that could have facilitated chemical evolution by protecting, exchanging, and encapsulating primitive components. Protein function within and RNA function in the presence of certain droplets is also preserved, suggesting the potential relevance of such droplets to various origins of life models. As a lipid amphiphile can also assemble around certain droplets, this further shows the droplets' potential compatibility with and scaffolding ability for nascent biomolecular systems that could have coexisted in complex chemical systems. These model compartments could have been more accessible in a "messy" prebiotic environment, enabling the localization of a variety of protometabolic and replication processes that could be subjected to further chemical evolution before the advent of the Last Universal Common Ancestor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  9. Abd Rahman Jabir Mohd Din, Shaharudin Abdul Razak, Sabaratnam V
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1197-1203.
    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of mushroom supplementation as a prebiotic compound in an insect-based diet on the growth performance and feed utilization of red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). A total of 120 fingerlings were divided in triplicates for each treatment. Four experimental diets were offered to the fishes within a 56 days treatment period. Out of the four diets, three contained mushroom stalk meal (MSM) supplementation at various levels of inclusion of prebiotic compound (0.5% MSM; 1.0% MSM; 1.5% MSM) and the fourth a control diet without MSM inclusion. During the growth test, fish receiving diet containing prebiotic showed significantly higher (p<0.05) mean individual body weight in comparison with the control diet. The best effect was obtained in fish fed with Diet 2, where the specific growth rate (SGR) was 1.74%, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was 0.58, protein efficiency ratio (PER) was 5.17 and survival was 93.33%. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in whole body protein and ash contents among the fish feeding on these diets. All water quality parameters showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in all treatments. The result of this feeding trial indicated that the 10% supplementation level of MSM as a prebiotic for tilapia could be used in the insect-based diet, Zophobas morio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics
  10. Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Jan 30;94(2):341-8.
    PMID: 24037967 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6365
    In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  11. Azmi AF, Mustafa S, Hashim DM, Manap YA
    Molecules, 2012 Feb 07;17(2):1635-51.
    PMID: 22314383 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021635
    Bamboo shoot crude polysaccharides (BSCP) extracted from the shoots of Gigantochloa levis gave about 3.27 ± 0.18% on dry basis and a very minute percentage of protein (0.02 ± 0.01%). The molecular weight of BSCP estimated by gel chromatography was found to be around 7.49 × 103 Da, while the molecular weights of purified fractions (F1 to F5) were around 1550.96, 1471.63, 1685.78, 1691.61 and 1551.67 Da, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of BSCP revealed the possibility that the extract contains β-glucan, which can be considered a valuable compound for the medical and food industries. These relate to the resistance of BSCP towards artificial human gastric juice which is more than 99%. Prebiotic activity tested using BSCP as a carbon source showed significant increase in the growth of B. animalis ATCC 1053, B. longum BB 536 and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as compared to the use of FOS. Survivality of S. choleraesuis JCM 6977 was found to be slower in both BSCP and FOS. Study conducted reflects a good sign for the BSCP to be exploited as a promising prebiotic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  12. Heidarpour F, Mohammadabadi MR, Zaidul IS, Maherani B, Saari N, Hamid AA, et al.
    Pharmazie, 2011 May;66(5):319-24.
    PMID: 21699064
    The oral route is considered the most patient-convenient means of drug administration. In recent years there has been a tendency to employ smart carrier systems that enable controlled or timed release of a bioactive material, thereby providing a better dosing pattern and minimizing side effects. Nano-encapsulation systems (nanocarriers) offer important advantages over conventional drug delivery techniques. Nanocarriers can protect the drug from chemical/enzymatic degradation and enhance bioavailability. Prebiotics are ideal ingredients for the nano-encapsulation and oral drug delivery due to their natural ability to protect the encapsulated compound in the upper gasterointestinal (GI) tract. Here the potential of prebiotics for oral delivery of drugs and other bioactives is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  13. Yeo SK, Liong MT
    J Agric Food Chem, 2011 Feb 9;59(3):885-97.
    PMID: 21235273 DOI: 10.1021/jf103974d
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on the growth of probiotics and bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. Previous studies have shown that ultrasound elevated microbial enzymatic activity and growth by altering cellular membranes. The growth of probiotics was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) immediately after ultrasound treatment, attributed to membrane permeabilization, cell lysis, and membrane lipid peroxidation upon ultrasound treatment. The ultrasound treatment also caused alteration at the acyl chain, polar head, and interface region of the probiotic membrane phospholipid bilayers. The cells treated with ultrasound showed recovery from injury with subsequent increase in growth upon fermentation in soymilk (P < 0.05). Ultrasound treatment at 100 W for 2 and 3 min also enhanced (P < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of probiotics, leading to increased (P < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to aglycones in the prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that ultrasound treatment could produce bioactive synbiotic-soymilk with increased concentrations of bioactive aglycones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  14. Ooi LG, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(6):2499-522.
    PMID: 20640165 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11062499
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  15. Yeo SK, Ooi LG, Lim TJ, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Oct;10(8):3517-30.
    PMID: 20111692 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10083517
    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  16. Shuhaimi M, Kabeir BM, Yazid AM, Nazrul Somchit M
    J Appl Microbiol, 2009 Jan;106(1):191-8.
    PMID: 19054238 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03991.x
    This study demonstrated the optimum growth of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 with prebiotics via statistical model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  17. Al-Alimi A, Taiyeb-Ali T, Jaafar N, Noor Al-hebshi N
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:291305.
    PMID: 26351631 DOI: 10.1155/2015/291305
    AIM: Qat chewing has been reported to induce subgingival microbial shifts suggestive of prebiotic-like properties. The objective here was to assess the effect of qat chewing on a panel of classical and new putative periopathogens in health and periodontitis.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 qat chewers and 40 nonchewers, equally stratified by periodontal health status, were recruited. Taqman, real-time PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Synergistetes, and TM7s in pooled subgingival biofilm samples. Differences in microbial parameters between the study groups were analysed using ordinal regression.
    RESULTS: In health, the qat chewers harboured significantly lower relative counts of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, Synergistetes, and TM7s after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P ≤ 0.007). At nominal significance level, they also carried lower counts of TM7s and P. micra (P ≤ 0.05). In periodontitis, the chewers had lower counts of all taxa; however, only T. denticola withstood correction for multiple comparisons (P ≤ 0.0063).
    CONCLUSIONS: Qat chewing is associated with lower proportions of periopathogens, particularly in subjects with healthy periodontium, which supports previous reports of its prebiotic-like properties. This potentially beneficial biological effect can be exploited by attempting to isolate the active fraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics/administration & dosage*
  18. Farhangi MA, Javid AZ, Sarmadi B, Karimi P, Dehghan P
    Clin Nutr, 2018 08;37(4):1216-1223.
    PMID: 28669666 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.06.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine the efficacy of a resistant dextrin on immune-mediated inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    METHODS: Females (n = 55) with T2DM were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 25), in which they received 10 g/d of Nutriose®06 (a resistant dextrin) or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure immune system related parameters like white blood cell count, CD4, CD8, interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL12, IL4, IL10), cortisol, tryptophan (TRP), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Kynurenine (KYN) and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning and end of trial. Mental health was assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS).

    RESULTS: Resistant dextrin caused a significant decrease in levels of cortisol, KYN, KYN/TRP ratio, IFNγ, IL12, IFNγ/IL10 ratio, LPS, and a significant increase in the monocyte, GHQ, DASS, CD8, IL10, IL4 in the intervention group as compared with baseline. A significant decrease in the level of LPS (-6.20 EU/mL, -17.8%), IFNγ (-0.6 pg/ml, -26.8%), cortisol (-2.6 μg/dl, -20.9%), IFNγ/IL10 ratio (0.01, 10%), GHQ (-5.1, -12.5%), DASS (-10.4, -38.4%), KYN/TRP ratio (6.8, 29.1%), and a significant increase in levels of CD8 (6.4%, 6.1%) and IL10 (2.6 pg/ml, 21.6%) in the intervention group as compared with the control group (P  0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Supplementation of Nutriose®06 may have beneficial effects on mental health and the immune system response in women with T2DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  19. Firmansyah A, Chongviriyaphan N, Dillon DH, Khan NC, Morita T, Tontisirin K, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016 Dec;25(4):652-675.
    PMID: 27702710 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.092016.02
    Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role. There is an ever increasing association between nutrition and gut microbiota composition and development, with life health status of an individual. This review summarizes the latest knowledge in the infant gut microbiota from preterms to healthy newborns, as well as in malnourished children in developing countries. The impact of inulin or mixtures thereof on infants, toddlers and young children with respect to intestinal function and immunity in general, is reviewed. Possible benefits of prebiotics to support the gut microbiome of malnourished infants and children, especially those with infections in the developing world, are considered, as well as for the pregnant mothers health. Importantly, novel insights in metabolic programming are covered, which are being increasing recognized for remarkable impact on long term offspring health, and eventual potential beneficial role of prebiotic inulins. Overall increasing findings prompt the potential for gut microbiota-based therapy to support health or prevent the development of certain diseases from conception to adulthood where inulin prebiotics may play a role.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
  20. Lee S, Katya K, Hamidoghli A, Hong J, Kim DJ, Bai SC
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2018 Dec;83:283-291.
    PMID: 30217508 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.09.031
    This study evaluated the synergistic effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis WB60 and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in juvenile Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Seven treatment diets were formulated to contain three different levels of B. subtilis (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 × 107 CFU/g diet denoted as BS0, BS0.5, and BS1, respectively) with two MOS levels (0 and 5 g/kg diet denoted as M0 and M5, respectively), and one diet with oxytetracycline (OTC) at 5 g/kg diet. Each diet (BS0M0 (CON), BS0M5, BS0.5M0, BS0.5M5, BS1M0, BS1M5, and OTC) was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish averaging 9.00 ± 0.11 g (mean ± SD) for eight weeks. Average weight gain, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the BS0.5M5 and BS1M5 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON, BS0.5M0 and OTC diets (P  0.05). Therefore, the results for growth performance, non-specific immune responses, intestinal morphology, and disease resistance demonstrated that supplementation of B. subtilis at 0.5 × 107 CFU/g diet and mannanoligosaccharide at 5 g/kg diet could have beneficial synergistic effects in Japanese eel. The isolated probiotic from eel and the selected prebiotic could lead to the development of a specific and potential synbiotic in Japanese eel aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prebiotics*
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