Lignosus rhinocerus (L. rhinocerus), which is known locally as Tiger Milk mushroom, is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma by indigenous communities in Malaysia. However, to date, its efficacy on asthma has not been confirmed by scientific studies and there is also sparse information available on its active constituents. In this study, the volatile constituent of L. rhinocerus hot water extract was investigated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The potential effects of L. rhinocerus extract for anti-asthmatic activity was further investigated on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized asthmatic Sprague Dawley rats.
Mitragyna speciosa Korth, or better known as ketum, has long been used by traditional folk around Southeast Asia to prevent fatigue from working under hot tropical weather and as a replacement of opium, which can then cause addiction. To date, no findings have been reported of the toxic effect of ketum subchronically (28 days). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of subchronic effect of standardized methanolic extract of ketum (SMEMS) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered with 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of SMEMS for 28 days. Body weights were recorded daily. They were terminated at day 28 to obtain data for hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the brain, liver, kidney, lung, heart, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. The SMEMS affected body weight compared to control group. Biochemistry findings showed that liver and kidney were affected with the abnormal values in AST, creatinine, globulin, glucose, total protein, and urea. However, SMEMS produced toxic effect more to liver, kidney, and lung than other organs as observed histopathologically. The results suggested subchronic exposure of ketum is toxic to the physiology of the animals.
BACKGROUND: Mitragyna speciosa (MS) or ketum is primarily found in Southeast Asia, particularly in northern Malaysia and Thailand. The medicinal value of this plant has attracted significant attention from both herbal medicine practitioners and scientists worldwide. Despite having illegal consumption status, the plant merits study. We conducted a series of experiments to test our hypothesis that ketum impairs both learning and memory in rats.
METHODS: Ketum leaves were extracted using methanol and standardised for the amount of its pure compound, mitragynine. Rats were divided into groups for a passive avoidance task and long-term potentiation (LTP) extracellular recording. In the extracellular recording condition, rats were grouped into control, MS100 (100 mg/kg of ketum extract), MS200 (200 mg/kg of ketum extract), and MS500 (500 mg/kg of ketum extract) groups. An additional group that received morphine was included in the passive avoidance task (10 mg/kg), and there were six animals per group. Rats received daily treatments orally for 28 days for both experiments.
RESULT: Using a passive avoidance task, our data revealed that the rats' memory significantly increased with increasing doses of MS compared to the morphine-treated group. Our findings from LTP recordings showed that LTP was fully blocked by the higher doses of MS.
CONCLUSION: We speculate on the possibility that additional factors were involved in the passive avoidance task because it was an in vivo animal study, while the LTP experiment solely involved brain slices.
Statins are HMGCoA reductase inhibitors and had been demonstrated to stimulate bone formation in rodents after high oral doses. Observational studies on patients treated with oral statins were varied. Delta-tocotrienol had been found to stimulate the cleavage of HMGCoA reductase and inhibit its activity. Tocotrienols were found to have both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone in different animal models of osteoporosis. The current study aimed to ascertain the effects of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on biochemical and static bone histomorphometric parameters in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses. 48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1) baseline control group; (2) sham-operated control group; (3) ovariectomised control group; (4) ovariectomised and 11 mg/kg lovastatin; (5) ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol; (6) ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol + 11 mg/kg lovastatin. These treatments were given daily via oral gavage for 8 weeks. Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women.
Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
Hiperkolesterolemia merupakan suatu keadaan yang dikaitkan dengan perubahan aras lipid serum serta peningkatan aras peroksidaan lipid. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk melihat kesan ekstrak akues isi dan kulit buah Hylocereus polyrhizus (HP) terhadap jumlah kolesterol dan trigliserid (TG) serum serta aras malonaldehid (MDA-TBAR) hati tikus teraruh hiperkolesterolemia. Tikus Sprague dawley jantan diaruh menjadi hiperkolesterolemia dengan pemberian diet rat chow bersama 15% minyak sapi selama 8 minggu dan 0.02 g kolesterol secara suap paksa dua kali seminggu. Tikus-tikus diberi perlakuan ekstrak isi dan kulit buah HP, 300 mg/kg secara suap paksa selama 10 hari. Hasil menunjukkan aras kolesterol menurun secara signifikan (p<0.05) pada kedua-dua kumpulan hiperkolesterolemia yang diberi rawatan ekstrak isi dan kulit buah HP sebanyak 43.53% dan 51.36% berbanding tikus kawalan hiperkolesterolemia. Aras TG menunjukkan penurunan secara signifikan (p<0.05) sebanyak 38.0% bagi kumpulan tikus yang diberi rawatan ekstrak isi dan 42.98% bagi rawatan dengan ekstrak kulit buah HP. Peningkatan aras MDA-TBAR hati telah direncat dengan penurunan aras MDA-TBAR sebanyak 56.85% bagi kumpulan tikus yang diberi ekstrak kulit serta sedikit penurunan iaitu 10.27% bagi tikus yang diberi ekstrak isi berbanding tikus kawalan hiperkolesterolemia. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kedua-dua ekstrak akues isi dan kulit buah HP merendahkan aras lipid serum serta aras MDA-TBAR hati pada tikus teraruh hiperkolesterolemia. Walau bagaimanapun, kesan ekstrak kulit lebih jelas berbanding ekstrak isi yang mungkin disebabkan oleh kandungan betasianin yang lebih tinggi dalam kulit berbanding isi buah HP.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the main health problems in aging women. It was due to several factors including oxidative stress, which can be controlled through intake of antioxidants from food sources. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is one of the natural product rich in antioxidants and has been proven to protect osteoporotic bone. This study was conducted to gain in-depth understanding on virgin coconut oil’s activity on osteoporosis at molecular level. Thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely Sham operated group, ovariectomized control group (Ovx+Ctrl), ovariectomized with VCO treatment (Ovx+VCO), and ovariectomized with estrogen treatment (Ovx+E). All treatments were administered orally for ten weeks. Bone samples were obtained to examine changes on expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) genes. The results indicated that rats receiving VCO treatment had experienced significant increments in SOD, GPX and osteocalcin gene expressions compared to the ovariectomized control group, besides the gene expressions of Runx2 which also showed an increment pattern. In conclusion, VCO helps to protect bone in osteoporotic rat model by increasing the expressions of antioxidant genes and genes which increase the osteoblast acitivities.
Keywords: Osteoporosis; ovariectomized rat model; postmenopausal; virgin coconut oil
Averrhoa carambola is a species of tree native to tropical Southeast Asia. It possesses antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemia effects and has traditionally been used to treat a variety of ailments. However, the presence of oxalic acid in its fruits might restrict its consumption by individuals suffering from kidney disease, and caramboxin can cause neurotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the methanolic extract of A. carambola leaves (MEAC) in male and female rats. In the acute study, female rats were given a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of MEAC and closely examined for distinct indications of toxic effects during the first 4 h, periodically for 48 h, and daily thereafter for 14 days. Rats of both sexes were employed in the sub-chronic investigation for the 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study. Results of the acute study revealed the safety of MEAC up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg where the rats did not show changes or signs of toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, MEAC (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) administration did not affect the body weight, food, and water consumption, motor coordination, behavior, or mental alertness in the treated rats. In addition, no variations in hematological or biochemical markers were found in MEAC-treated rats. In conclusion, these findings pinpoint the safety of MEAC at doses up to 5000 mg/kg. The leaves of A. carambola could be safely consumed by people with kidney disease to treat other ailments.
Cornsilk is traditionally used to treat illnesses related to kidney and as diuretic agent. The study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Malaysian cornsilk in elevating diuresis and their dose response relationship in normal Sprague-Dawley rat. The diuresis activity was determined by administered the rats with different dose treatments of 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 mg/kg. Cumulative urine was significantly increased with the dosage levels (400-600 mg/ kg) ranging from 14.06 - 20.13 mL. Cumulative urine of aqueous extract of cornsilk (AEC) at 400 mg/kg (14.06 mL) and 500 mg/kg (15.21 mL) treatments found to be significantly lower than positive control (21.25 mL). In addition, Na+ content was significantly higher compared with negative control at dosages of 500, 600, 700 and 800 mg/kg. At any rate, K+ and Cl- content of all AEC treatments were not significantly different during 24 h monitoring. The pH values were increased paralleled with the increment of AEC dosages, though it was not significant. On the other result, the ED50 of AEC was observed at 454.10 mg/kg. Malaysian AEC had shown a mild diuretic activity in elevating urine and Na+ content at dosages from 500 to 800 mg/kg. Whilst, AEC also showed an effect of potassium sparing diuretics. Thus, it is suggested that Malaysian cornsilk can be used as an alternative natural diuretic agent.
Chronic pain conditions within clinical populations are correlated with a high incidence of depression, and researchers have reported their high rate of comorbidity. Clinically, chronic pain worsens the prevalence of depression, and depression increases the risk of chronic pain. Individuals suffering from chronic pain and depression respond poorly to available medications, and the mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression remain unknown. We used spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in a mouse model to induce comorbid pain and depression. We combined behavioral tests, electrophysiological recordings, pharmacological manipulation, and chemogenetic approaches to investigate the neurocircuitry mechanisms of comorbid pain and depression. SNL elicited tactile hypersensitivity and depression-like behavior, accompanied by increased and decreased glutamatergic transmission in dorsal horn neurons and midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons, respectively. Intrathecal injection of lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, and gabapentin ameliorated SNL-induced tactile hypersensitivity and neuroplastic changes in the dorsal horn but not depression-like behavior and neuroplastic alterations in the vlPAG. Pharmacological lesion of vlPAG glutamatergic neurons induced tactile hypersensitivity and depression-like behavior. Chemogenetic activation of the vlPAG-rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) pathway ameliorated SNL-induced tactile hypersensitivity but not SNL-elicited depression-like behavior. However, chemogenetic activation of the vlPAG-ventral tegmental area (VTA) pathway alleviated SNL-produced depression-like behavior but not SNL-induced tactile hypersensitivity. Our study demonstrated that the underlying mechanisms of comorbidity in which the vlPAG acts as a gating hub for transferring pain to depression. Tactile hypersensitivity could be attributed to dysfunction of the vlPAG-RVM pathway, while impairment of the vlPAG-VTA pathway contributed to depression-like behavior.
Honey is one of the oldest substances used in wound management. Efficacy of Gelam honey in wound healing was evaluated in this paper. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 24 rats each (untreated group, saline group, Intrasite Gel group, and Gelam honey group) with 2 cm by 2 cm full thickness, excisional wound created on neck area. Wounds were dressed topically according to groups. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 of treatments. Wounds were then processed for macroscopic and histological observations. Gelam-honey-dressed wounds healed earlier (day 13) than untreated and saline treated groups, as did wounds treated with Intrasite Gel. Honey-treated wounds exhibited less scab and only thin scar formations. Histological features demonstrated positive effects of Gelam honey on the wounds. This paper showed that Gelam honey dressing on excisional wound accelerated the process of wound healing.
Tissue recovery is important in preventing tissue deterioration, which is induced by pressure and may lead to pressure ulcers (PU). Reactive hyperaemia (RH) is an indicator used to identify people at risk of PU. In this study, the effect of different recovery times on RH trend is investigated during repetitive loading. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485 g, were categorised into three groups and subjected to different recovery times with three repetitive loading cycles. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 min), moderate (10 min), and prolonged (40 min) recovery, respectively, while fixed loading time and pressure (10 min and 50 mmHg, respectively). Peak hyperaemia was measured in the three cycles to determine trends associated with different recovery times. Three RH trends (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent) were observed. As the recovery time is increased (3 min vs. 10 min vs. 40 min), the number of samples with increasing RH trend decreases (57% vs. 29% vs. 14%) and the number of samples with inconsistent RH trend increases (29% vs. 57% vs. 72%). All groups consists of one sample with decreasing RH trend (14%). Results confirm that different recovery times affect the RH trend during repetitive loading. The RH trend may be used to determine the sufficient recovery time of an individual to avoid PU development.
BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
Of the twenty microorganisms screened for metabolism of goniothalamin only Streptomyces aurofaciens ATCC 10762 and Nocardia species NRRL 5646 produced two metabolites, 3,4-dihydrogoniothalamin and 3,4,7,8 tetrahydrogoniothalamin. The identity of the isolated metabolites were established using TLC, HPLC, MS, IR, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the substrate had been transformed into two unknown metabolites by Aspergillus niger ATCC 11394 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737 in low yield. Three of the metabolites were also detected and identified in the urine and blood samples of the goniothalamin-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The obtained results are in agreement with and support the principle of microbial models of mammalian metabolism.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder that has a poor prognosis of recovery. Animal models of SCI are useful to understand the pathophysiology of SCI and the potential use of therapeutic strategies for human SCI. Ex vivo models of central nervous system (CNS) trauma, particularly mechanical trauma, have become important tools to complement in vivo models of injury in order to reproduce the sequelae of human CNS injury. Ex vivo organotypic slice cultures (OSCs) provide a reliable model platform for the study of cell dynamics and therapeutic intervention following SCI. In addition, these ex vivo models support the 3R concept of animal use in SCI research - replacement, reduction and refinement. Ex vivo models cannot be used to monitor functional recovery, nor do they have the intact blood supply of the in vivo model systems. However, the ex vivo models appear to reproduce many of the post traumatic events including acute and secondary injury mechanisms. Several well-established OSC models have been developed over the past few years for experimental spinal injuries ex vivo in order to understand the biological response to injury. In this study, we investigated cell viability in three ex vivo OSC models of SCI: stab injury, transection injury and contusion injury. Injury was inflicted in postnatal day 4 rat spinal cord slices. Stab injury was performed using a needle on transverse slices of spinal cord. Transection injury was performed on longitudinal slices of spinal cord using a double blade technique. Contusion injury was performed on longitudinal slices of spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon impactor device. At days 3 and 10 post-injury, viability was measured using dual staining for propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate. In all ex vivo SCI models, the slices showed more live cells than dead cells over 10 days in culture, with higher cell viability in control slices compared with injured slices. Although no change in cell viability was observed between time-points in stab- and contusion-injured OSCs, a reduction in cell viability was observed over time in transection-injured OSCs. Taken together, ex vivo SCI models are a useful and reliable research tool that reduces the cost and time involved in carrying out animal studies. The use of OSC models provides a simple way to study the cellular consequences following SCI, and they can also be used to investigate potential therapeutics regimes for the treatment of SCI.
The effects of topical application of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extract on the rate of wound healing and histology of the healed wound were assessed. Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. A thin layer of blank placebo was applied topically to wounds of Group 1 rats. Wounds of experimental animals (Group 2 and 3) were dressed with placebo containing 5% and 10% O. stamineus extract, respectively. A thin layer of Intrasite gel® was applied topically to wounds of Group 4 animals as reference. Macroscopically, wounds dressed with placebo containing 5% (healed on day 14.50 ± 0.43) and 10% (healed on day 13.83 ± 0.21) O. stamineus extract each or Intrasite gel® (healed on day 13.13 ± 0.42) significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing compared to wounds dressed with blank placebo. Histological analysis of healed wounds confirmed the results. Wounds dressed with placebo containing 5%, 10% O.stamineus or Intrasite gel® showed markedly less scar width at wound enclosure and granulating tissue contained markedly more collagen, proliferating fibroblast with angiogenesis, and no inflammatory cells compared to wounds dressed with blank placebo. In conclusion, placebo containing 5% or 10% O. stamineus on extract-dressed wounds significantly accelerated the rate of wound healing in rats.
This study investigated the protein quality of two sets of Roselle seeds processed differently (dried and boiled). Twenty weanling Sprague Dawley rats were used to conduct the growth and nitrogen balance studies. Rats were fed with 10% (w/w) protein from dried (DS) and boiled (BS) Roselle seeds powder for 4 weeks. Casein was used in this study as a standard reference protein. There was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) food intake and weight gain by rats fed with BS compared with DS. In the growth study, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) of BS compared to DS, but it was significantly different with casein (CD). PER value of rats fed with DS was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than casein. In the nitrogen balance study, true nitrogen absorption (TNA) and nitrogen balance (NB) of BS group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than DS group. However, apparent digestibility (AD), true digestibility (TD) and biological value (BV) for both diets was not significantly different. This study showed that the protein quality of dried Roselle seeds was similar to the Roselle seeds boiled at 100oC for 30 minutes.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of soursop (Annona muricata L.) extract on Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to in vivo 28-day repeated doses. The extract was given to the study group via force feeding. In the 28-day study, Annona muricata L. extract was dosed at 0 (CD, control dose), 0.5 (LD, low dose), 1.0 (MD, medium dose), 2.0g/kg (HD, high dose) body weight. For control group, distilled water was given to the animals. Administration of Annona muricata L. extract did not cause negative effect in blood hematology even though a statistically significant (p
Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) is a potential decontaminating agent of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). However, few studies have investigated the influence of diet, especially a high protein (HP) diet, on the binding of AFB1 by probiotics. This research was conducted to determine the effect of HP diet on the ability of LcS to bind AFB1 and reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in AFB1-induced rats. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: A (HP only), B (HP + 108 CFU LcS + 25 μg AFB1/kg BW), and C (HP + 25 μg AFB1/kg BW). Levels of AST and ALP were higher in all groups but other liver function's biomarkers were in the normal range, and the liver's histology showed no structural changes. The urea level of rats in group B (10.02 ± 0.73 mmol/l) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of rats in group A (10.82 ± 0.26 mmol/l). The presence of carcinoma in the small intestine and colon was more obvious in group C than in group B. Moreover, rats in group B had significantly (p < 0.05) lower AFM1 concentration (0.39 ± 0.01 ng/ml) than rats in group C (5.22 ± 0.28 ng/ml). Through these findings, LcS supplementation with HP diet alleviated the adverse effects of AFB1 by preventing AFB1 absorption in the small intestine and reducing urinary AFM1.