The habit of chewing betel quid has been practised since ancient times. Although the world has gone through modernization, a significant proportion of people still practices this habit. Substantial evidence has shown that betel quid chewing is associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and precancerous lesions, which has a tremendous psychosocial impact on an individual's life. Thus it becomes significantly important to dentistry to look into this matter. Since betel quid chewing is one of the causes of oral cancer, effort in cha~ging this habit is essential. This article addresses this issue.
This is an intervention study utilising Community Counsellors ( CC) for social change. Each CC is allocated to problematic families and is asked to do Outreach Family Intervention (OFI) in the form of family diagnosis, counselling and therapy for a period of six utonths. The findings revealed that the outreach activities are moderately successful. With only minimal efforts; 33.3% ofthe total Family»Counsellors Contacts (FCC) and 56.6% ofthe total Duration of Visits (DV), CCs are capable of bringing almost 40% ofthe expected. change, understanding 57% ofthe family problems and taking action on 44% ofthe problems. This study has proven that OFI utilising CCs is quite a useful tool to bring change in the society.
Demographic, economic and social changes have had major impact on health and illness globally, including in Malaysia, and present significant challenges to the structure and delivery of health services. While these changes have influenced the epidemiology of disease, the diagnosis, experience and response to changes in health status for individuals and their families are influenced by additional environmental and personal factors. We describe these factors in relation to our ongoing research program on personal and social aspects of impairment and disability. The Resilience study aims to understand how people with impairments and their families live with chronic health conditions, how these conditions impact on self-esteem, social relationships and societal participation, and how structure, context and environment affect individual functioning, disability and well-being. We described our methodology and summarize the baseline data that will inform our future enquiries.
The central question to be examined in this study is associated with the value of the Malays traditional culinary practices of Malay chef in preparing the traditional food in Malaysian hotels. Present understanding highlighted that hotels are giving high priority on their superior services, such as luxury accommodations and intimate hospitalities. As such, promoting local foods in their dining establishment has taken a back seat. Research from past scholars indicated that hotel in Malaysia can be the one stop center for the local and international tourists to get the first hand information about local food specialities. On the hindsight, very limited efforts have been put into practice on the promotions of local food especially Malay cuisines in hotels. Main issue such as mass-produced Malay cuisines in the commercial kitchens, for example, should be highlighted to ensure that hotels are not jeopardizing the originality of traditional food preparations. Therefore, a qualitative reasearch focusing in in-depth interview with 10 Malay chefs was conducted in hotels around the Klang Valley. The results are so profound that majority of the Malay chefs under study shared similar understandings on technology advancements and modernizations that have taken place in their daily food preparations. Another finding revealed that one of the most challenging factors in preventing the Malay chefs to prepare the Malay food as it has been done traditionally is the attitude and awareness of the young generations to understand the values in traditional culinary practices. This study concludes with suggestion that aggressive knowledge sharing and information dissemination among the Malay chefs in hotels are needed to effectively market the traditional Malay food.
The concept of 'unwanted pregnancy' is a recent in human history and is associated with social stresses of modern life. The purposes of the law, maqasid al shari'at, and its principles, qawa'id a shari'at, focus on preventing 'unwanted pregnancy', protecting the rights of the fetus and infant, and mitigating the adverse effects of 'unwanted pregnancy' by social measures. 'Unwanted pregnancy' is associated with general social determinants (hedonistic life styles, sexual transgression, addiction to drugs, fear of poverty, and low female status) and specific antecedent causes (sexual crimes, egoistic greed, maternal/fetal disease, and gender discrimination). It is prevented by sexual hygiene, marriage, contraception, deterring sexual crimes, and raising the status of women. The adverse sequelae of 'unwanted pregnancy' (feticide, infanticide, or child abuse and neglect) can be prevented by defending the basic human right of the fetus and infant to life, promoting social institutions for child welfare (nuclear family, extended family, foster care, and open adoption). Closed adoption is forbidden by Law but care in a foster home is allowed and is encouraged if the nuclear and extended families are unwilling or are unable to care for children. Abortion at any stage of pregnancy is a crime against humanity. It is not a solution to the problem but is part of the problem. It will encourage more 'unwanted pregnancies'.
The interest in epidemic hysteria has been due to an increased prevalence of the phenomena in Malaysia in recent years. This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of epidemic hysteria in Malaysia. An outbreak in a rural Malay lower secondary girls' school was described and the factors precipitating the outbreak were studied in detailed. The social interactions, native interpretation and psychodynamic constellations in the microcosm of tensions and interpersonal conflicts leading to the outbreak of hysteria were analysed and discussed. The paper also deals with the problem of social change within a closed-in rural community and how the various key personalities involved grappled with a problem thereby instituting social change.
Throughout the years, the construction industry has made an important contribution to the Malaysian economy. Moreover, the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006–2010) has also played a significant role in the demands of executing major residential housing project developments where it has been observed that construction waste was one of the priority waste streams. Due to the increasing number in the population that is actively involved in economic activities, and the modernization of the country, the types of construction waste that are being produced, and identifying the source such as waste are becoming more complex. Therefore, appropriate actions and approaches are needed to be taken with respect to its effective management in handling the solid waste from construction sites. This paper is intended to review the issues and the challenges enclosed within the supply chain management mechanisms in order for improving construction waste management. Throughout this review, useful information and better understanding concerning the current issues, challenges and the supply chain management mechanisms would be made inclusive in the field to be explored. The findings would also assist in improving the quality and awareness on the construction waste management that is being practiced.
Background: Reflection on the process of learning is an essential ingredient in transforming novice into expert learners. Learning to compile portfolio encourages reflective skills, which help students to work systemically in translating metacognition into self-regulatory control in order to adjust their action and monitor their learning objectives. Introducing to compile portfolio in the early years of postgraduate training is an effective tool to stimulate students’ reflective abilities. Reflective learners are better motivated than the conventional learners to take the responsibilities as researcher in future. Reflective skills achieve both learning in right direction and learning for whole life. However, use of formal methods of reflective portfolio to monitor the learning objectives is an uncommon practice in postgraduate training, primarily due to intensive time and labor required. Challenged with those constraints in Master’s of Surgery Program of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery in School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia, a structured self-reflective portfolio was introduced to determine its feasibility and acceptance among supervisors and trainees. Portfolio was practiced as one of the tool for formative assessment and for making recommendations to certify independent thyroid surgery allowed to practice in future. Methodology: A self-reflective structured portfolio was introduced to monitor the learning objectives in trainees of 2007 cohort, using a model as "mentor-system for authentic and structured learning with self-reflective assessment" (MASSRA). Initially a semi-structured portfolio comprising of 12 items and guidelines to compile a portfolio was followed by a structured format in training of thyroid module in sub-specialty of Head and Neck Surgery. Mentoring was organized by putting one-mentor verses 9 students to provide general pastoral guidance to compile portfolio as two entries a year. Mentors held the counseling session with student twice a year after evaluating the portfolios to monitor their progress. Besides, candidates were also observed for their performance in thyroid surgery during a 4-years training program. Those identified with problems for their level of training were referred to "Joint Committee for Surgical Training" comprising of 3 supervisors from Head and Neck Surgery Sub-specialty and a chairman supposedly the head of the department. 7 randomly selected students were also interviewed for direct feedback to evaluate this model. Result: 28 trainees at different level of their training compiled a self-reflection structured portfolio minimum twice a year with instructional feedback from the mentor, which was used as a tract for their personal development plan (produced by each trainee) for training in thyroid surgery. Initial analysis of portfolio revealed interesting feedback from the trainees reflecting on their knowledge, surgical skills and attitude towards thyroid surgery seen in tables 2-4. Conclusion: Self-reflections about each structured items in portfolio-helped trainees to identify their problems, seek mentors guidance and work systemically to help adjust their actions by revising learning objectives. Though time and labor intensive, portfolio was rated as feasible and practical.
The industrialized world has entered a new era of widespread automation, and although this may create long-term gains in economic productivity and wealth accumulation, many professions are expected to disappear during the ensuing shift, leading to potentially significant disruptions in labor markets and associated socioeconomic difficulties. Food production, like many other industrial sectors, has also undergone a century of mechanization, having moved toward increasingly large-scale monoculture production-especially in developed economies-with higher yields but detrimental environmental impacts on a global scale. Certain characteristics of the food sector and its products cast doubts on whether future automation will influence it in the same ways as in other sectors. We conceptualize a model of future food production within the socioeconomic conditions created by widespread automation. We ideate that despite immediate shocks to the economy, in the long run higher productivity can free up human activity to be channeled toward more interactive, skill-intensive food production systems, where communal efforts can reduce industrial reliance, diversify farming, and reconnect people to the biosphere-a realization of human well-being that resembles the classical philosophical ideal of Eudaimonia. We explore food production concepts, such as communal gardens and polyculture, and the economic conditions and institutions needed to underwrite them [e.g., a universal basic income (UBI)]. However, arguments can be raised as to why social-ecological systems would benefit from more labor-intensive food production. In this paper we: (1) discuss the current state of the food system and the need to reform it in light of its environmental and social impacts; (2) present automation as a lever that could move society toward more sustainable food production; (3) highlight the beneficial attributes of a Eudaimonian model; and (4) discuss the potential challenges to its implementation. Our purpose is to highlight a possible outcome that future research will need to refine and expand based on evidence and successful case studies. The ultimate aim is to promote a food system that can provide food security while staying within the safe operating space of planetary boundaries, produce more nutritious diets, enhance social capital, and reconnect communities with the biosphere.
Logistics development of Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) involving the Malaysian Army (TDM),
Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) and Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) have been developed since
1957. Since the 1990s, ATM has been through the process of modernization which is can seen through
the rapid and strong capabilities in logistics aspect. Defense policy development has involved the
development of the logistical aspects of ATM. Purchasing of defense equipments such as the most
modern warship in Armed Force in 1990, Scorpene submarines, fighter aircraft which is used by the
developed countries such as the MiG-29, FA/18 Hornet and Sukhoi 30MKM, battle tanks from Poland
and so on with the transfer package technology is essential to ensure that the principle of self-reliance
defense ATM can be achieved. This process has force the government to allocate a large amount of
money in providing modern logistics equipments so it can be used to the maximum by the defense forces. In fact, the development of the defense and Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) also growing
along with the development of technology, defense policy, doctrine of current world logistics. However
the logistics development has raised questions because of the capabilty of logistic and Malaysian
Armed Forces (ATM) itself which are caused various accidents and issues affecting ATM.
BACKGROUND: The lifelong nature of autism in a child has deep implications on parents as they are faced with a range of challenges and emotional consequences in raising the child. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to explore the perspectives of parents in raising a child with autism in the childhood period to gain an insight of the adaptations and beliefs of parents toward autism, their family and social experiences, as well as their perceptions toward health and educational services.
METHODS: A systematic search of six databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects [DARE]) was conducted from inception up to September 30, 2014. Full-text English articles of qualitative studies describing parents' perceptions relating to the care of children younger than 12 years of age and diagnosed with a sole disorder of autism were included.
RESULTS: A total of 50 eligible articles were appraised and analyzed, identifying four core themes encompassing all thoughts, emotions, and experiences commonly expressed by parents: 1) The Parent, 2) Impact on the Family, 3) Social Impact, and 4) Health and Educational Services. Findings revealed that parents who have a child with autism experienced multiple challenges in different aspects of care, impacting on parents' stress and adaptation.
CONCLUSION: Health care provision should be family centered, addressing and supporting the needs of the whole family and not just the affected child, to ensure the family's well-being and quality of life in the face of a diagnosis of autism.
WHO's Declaration of the "Health for All" (HFA) goal was pronounced in 1978 in Alma Ata, and it was planned that HFA would be achieved through primary health care programmes and approaches by 2000. However, it is now 2002 and despite the technological advancements in medicine, science, and ICT, Health for All is far from reality. Instead, more and more conflicts are emerging with lethal consequences, such as, bioterrorism, biological agent abuse, global-terrorism, and environmental destruction is occurring at a greater scale that we have witnessed before. We may have the latest technology and knowledge today, but ironically, we are using them to inflict more suffering and pain in the world. In the Asia-Pacific, the past 30 years has seen dramatic advancement and lifestyle changes. We are now paying a high price for such progress in terms of risk factors to the health of the population, such as, ageing diseases, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and related conditions. The social, political, economic and environmental factors appeared to have deterred and negated WHO's HFA goal to attain basic human rights and health care for all. The HFA will not be achieved in the future if we do not learn from history and start taking measures now.