MATERIALS AND METHODS: H. pylori genotypes cagA, babA2, and dupA were identified by polymerase chain reactions from gastric biopsy samples in 105 H. pylori-positive patients.
RESULTS: The positive rates for cagA, babA2, and dupA genes in H. pylori dyspeptic patients were 69.5%, 41.0%, and 22.9%, respectivel cagA was more prevalent in Indians (39.7%), babA2 was more prevalent in Malays (39.5%), and dupA detection occurred more frequently in both Indians and Malays and at the same rate (37.5%). The Chinese inhabitants had the lowest prevalence of the three genes. Nonulcer disease patients had a significantly higher distribution of cagA (76.7%), babA2 (74.4%), and dupA (75.0%). There was no apparent association between these virulence genes and the clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSION: The lower prevalence of these genes and variations among different ethnicities implies that the strains are geographically and ethnically dependent. None of the virulence genes were knowingly beneficial in predicting the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection in our subjects.
METHODS: Rats were pre-treated orally with 2% Tween 80 (vehicle), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (reference drug) or MMMC (ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 (v/v); doses of 15, 150 or 300 mg/kg) and then subjected to the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer or pyloric ligation assays. Stomach of rats from the former assay was collected and subjected to the macroscopic and microscopic observations, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant studies while the gastric juice content and tissue from the latter assay were subjected to the antisecretory activity study. The UHPLC analysis of MMMC was also performed.
RESULT: MMMC, in the ratio 1:1, demonstrated the most effective (P
METHODS: 2, 2'-[1, 2-cyclohexanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]bis(4-bromophenol) (CNBP) is synthesized via a Schiff base reaction, using the related ketone and diamine as the starting materials. SD rats are divided as normal, ulcer control (5 ml/kg of 10% Tween 20), testing (10 and 20 mg/kg of CNBP) and reference groups (omeprazole 20 mg/kg). Except for the normal group, the rest of the groups are induced gastric ulcer by ethanol 1 h after the pre-treatment. Ulcer area, gastric wall mucus, and acidity of gastric content of the animal stomachs are measured after euthanization. Antioxidant activity of the compound is tested by Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test and safety of the compound is identified through acute toxicity by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), levels of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and also malondialdehyde (MDA) are determined.
RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of CNBP was approved via FRAP assay. Vast shallow hemorrhagic injury of gastric glandular mucosa was observed in the ulcer group compared to the CNBP-treated animals. Histological evaluations confirmed stomach epithelial defense effect of CNBP with drastic decrease of gastric ulceration, edema and leucocytes penetration of submucosal stratum. Immunostaining exhibited over-expression in HSP70 protein in CNBP-treated groups compared to that of the ulcer group. Also, gastric protein analysis showed low levels of MDA, PGE2 and high activity of SOD and CAT.
CONCLUSIONS: CNBP with noticeable antioxidant property showed gastroprotective activity in the testing rodents via alteration of HSP70 protein expression. Also, antioxidant enzyme activities which were changed after treatment with CNBP in the animals could be elucidated as its gastroprotective properties.
METHODS: A 37-item questionnaire-based survey was conducted to capture the perioperative practices of the global community of bariatric surgeons. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: Response of 863 bariatric surgeons from 67 countries with a cumulative experience of 520,230 SGs were recorded. A total of 689 (80%) and 764 (89%) surgeons listed 13 absolute and relative contraindications, respectively. 65% (n = 559) surgeons perform routine preoperative endoscopy and 97% (n = 835) routinely use intraoperative orogastric tube for sizing the resection. A wide variation is observed in the diameter of the tube used. 73% (n = 627) surgeons start dividing the stomach at a distance of 3-5 cm from the pylorus, and 54% (n = 467) routinely use staple line reinforcement. Majority (65%, n = 565) of surgeons perform routine intraoperative leak test at the end of the procedure, while 25% (n = 218) surgeons perform a routine contrast study in the early postoperative period. Lifelong multivitamin/mineral, iron, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin B12 supplementation is advocated by 66%, 29%, 40%, 38% and 44% surgeons, respectively.
CONCLUSION: There is a considerable variation in the perioperative practices concerning SG. Data can help in identifying areas for future consensus building and more focussed studies.
METHODS: MEMC and its fractions were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify and quantify the presence of its phyto-constituents. The mechanism of gastroptotection of EAF was further investigated using pylorus ligation-induced gastric lesion rat model (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg). Macroscopic analysis of the stomach, evaluation of gastric content parameters such as volume, pH, free and total acidity, protein estimation, and quantification of mucus were carried out. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds was evaluated and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO level in the ethanol induced stomach tissue homogenate was determined.
RESULTS: HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of quercetin and gallic acid in EAF. In pylorus-ligation model, EAF significantly (p <0.001) prevent gastric lesion formation. Volume of gastric content and total protein content reduced significantly (p