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  1. Wang SY, Ong KO
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Feb;70(1):33-5.
    PMID: 26032527
    Pedunculated subcutaneous lipoma in the popliteal fossa extending through the superficial fascia causing chronic irritant dermatitis of the adjacent skin with "psoriatic-like" plaque. To the author's knowledge, no similar case has been reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  2. Roslan Abdul Rahman, Fadzilah Ismail, Roszalina Ramli, Ghazali Mat Nor, Sha Primuharsa Putra
    MyJurnal
    Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder which affects the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck, axilla and upper limb as well as the groin region. In the head and neck region, major salivary glands and regional lymph nodes are mainly involved with associated eosinophilia and an elevated IgE concentration. Three cases of Kimura's disease involving the parotid glands, lymph nodes and cheek are presented with a brief review of the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  3. Jahanbakhsh J, Salmah WM, Abubakar NT, Samsudin H
    MyJurnal
    Lymphangiomas are hamartomatous congenital malformations of the lymphatic system that usually involve subcutaneous tissues of cervico-facial region. Rarely, it can be found in subcutaneous tissue of proximal extremities, the buttocks and the trunk. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the best modality to assess the tumor specification and extension. We report a case of lymphangioma at a rare site with its radiological features and patient responsed to the sclerosant therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  4. Aziz A, Mohamad I, Zawawi N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(2):32-35.
    PMID: 30302182
    Kimura disease presents as benign lesion and is commonly present among the Asian population. It is a disease with a favourable prognosis and a peak age of onset in the third decade. It is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that involves the lymph nodes and subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck region. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with multiple Kimura lymphadenopathies involving the left posterior auricular region as well as the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  5. Gan DEY, Choy RXY, Sellappan H, Hayati F, Azizan N
    Oman Med J, 2021 Mar;36(2):e239.
    PMID: 33768970 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2021.21
    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a family of rare mesenchymal tumors with discrete histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Even rarer among them are cutaneous and subcutaneous PEComas. We describe a 34-year-old woman who presented with a large anterior abdominal subcutaneous lesion showing intact overlying skin and no obvious invasion of the abdominal musculature. A wide local excision was performed. Histopathology revealed a solitary tumor measuring 75 × 55 × 90 mm with epithelioid cells in nests with thin fibrovascular septa and spindle cells. Resection margins were clear with no invasion to the skin or rectus sheath. Tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 but negative for other markers. This is the largest subcutaneous PEComa reported to date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  6. Leong, J.F., Levin, K.B., Rajkumar V., Abdullah, S., Jamari, S.
    Medicine & Health, 2019;14(2):261-265.
    MyJurnal
    Cavernous lymphangioma is a congenital malformation of lymphatic system causing dilated lymphatic sinuses that involve the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This was an interesting case of dystrophic macrodactyly of the left ring and little finger in a 18-month-old girl who presented with swollen and sausage like fingers deformity which turned out to be an isolated cavernous lymphangioma. This tumor, although rare to occur in the extremeties, must be differentiated from other congenital vascular lesions of the hand that include arteriovenous malformations and hemangiomas. Diagnosis should be solely based on histopathological analysis of the excised tissue mass. Surgical excision is usually necessary for satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcome
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  7. Rabiul Islam SM, Mamman KG, Pande KC
    Malays Orthop J, 2016 Nov;10(3):39-41.
    PMID: 28553447 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1611.002
    Subcutaneous emphysema is the presence of gas or air in the subcutaneous tissue plane. The term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs, it can result from benign causes, most commonly secondary to trauma or from a life-threatening infection by gas gangrene or necrotising fasciitis. A case of subcutaneous emphysema involving the upper limb resulting from a trivial laceration to the elbow is reported and the importance of distinguishing between the two causes of subcutaneous emphysema is highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  8. Alhamad T
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2011 Aug 15;184(4):484.
    PMID: 21844517 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201012-2018IM
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue/radiography
  9. Shaariyah MM, Salina H, Dipak B, Majid MN
    Ann Saudi Med, 2010 9 25;30(6):475-7.
    PMID: 20864791
    Migration of a foreign body from the hypopharynx to the subcutaneous tissue of the neck is a rare event. We report a case of a 48-year-old male who accidentally swallowed a fish bone which was not identified intraoperatively. The patient then presented with migration of the bone to the soft tissue of the neck. We conclude that careful assessment of the patient with a foreign body in the throat is crucial to avoid fatal complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue/surgery
  10. Kamarul T, Krishnamurithy G, Salih ND, Ibrahim NS, Raghavendran HR, Suhaeb AR, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:905103.
    PMID: 25298970 DOI: 10.1155/2014/905103
    The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects; Subcutaneous Tissue/metabolism; Subcutaneous Tissue/surgery
  11. Syed A, Alvin T, Fazrina A, Abdul R
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):36-39.
    PMID: 29021877 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.005
    Introduction: Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia which spreads rapidly. The scoring system of Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotising Fasciitis (LRINEC) developed by Wong et al has been proposed as a tool for distinguishing NF and other soft tissue infections (STI) in Singapore. We set out to establish whether the LRINEC score is applicable in our Malaysian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of all patients admitted to our hospital diagnosed with NF or To Rule Out NF (TRO NF) between January 1st 2016 to 30th June 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were then calculated for LRINEC score of ≥ 6 and ≥ 8. Results: Fourty-four patients were identified with the diagnosis of NF or TRO NF in the study. Twenty-seven patients (61.4%) were deemed post-operatively as having NF and 17 patients (38.6%) not having NF. A sensitivity of 59.3% and specificity of 47.1% when a LRINEC score of ≥ 6 was taken with positive predictive value (PPV) of 64.0% and the negative predictive value (NPV) of 42.1%. When score ≥ 8 was taken, the sensitivity was 48.1% and specificity of 58.8% with PPV of 65% and NPV of 41.7%. Conclusion: The low sensitivity and low PPV achieved in this study as well as other studies makes the LRINEC score unsuitable to be used solely to distinguish NF with other soft tissue infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  12. Shaariyah MM, Marina MB, Mohd Razif MY, Mazita A, Primuharsa Putra SH
    Malays J Med Sci, 2010 Apr;17(2):51-5.
    PMID: 22135538 MyJurnal
    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare, rapidly progressive infection involving the skin, subcutaneous tissue and fascia. We report three cases of necrotizing fasciitis that differ in their presentation and outcome. The first case involves a patient who presented with progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling that was later complicated by dehydration and reduced consciousness. The second case is a patient with neck swelling and ipsilateral otorrhea. The third case concerns a patient with a buccal ulcer complicated by ipsilateral facial swelling. All of them underwent a fasciotomy with wound debridement with the addition of a cortical mastoidectomy in the second case. Two of these patients recovered well. Unfortunately, the third case succumbed to death due to airway compromise and septicaemia. We advocate the importance of eradicating the source of infection followed by frequent, meticulous wound dressing and strict blood sugar control to obtain better outcomes in managing necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck. However, involvement of the airway carries a grave prognosis despite aggressive treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  13. Langat AS, Wan Sulaiman WA, Mat Johar SFN
    Cureus, 2021 Mar 19;13(3):e13987.
    PMID: 33884238 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.13987
    The heel of the foot is covered by highly specialized thick, glabrous skin containing fibroadipose tissue with numerous fibrous septae traversing the subcutaneous tissue, which acts as a shock-absorbent and prevents shearing of the skin. The loss of heel pad would cause interruption of the propelling function of the foot during walking. Therefore, heel pad reconstruction is an important procedure for wound closure in the acute phase and also functional reconstruction in delayed cases. We report a case of heel pad deformity in a patient who presented to us with left heel pain and inability to fully bear weight, which has caused her walking difficulty, following a road traffic accident. She sustained a degloving injury of the left foot and an open fracture of left calcaneum with ruptured Tendon Achilles in which the wound was initially addressed with failed reverse sural flap and the wound was allowed to heal by secondary intention. Delayed heel reconstruction was carried out with a propeller medial plantar flap and split skin graft. Postoperatively, the patient had improved functional and esthetic outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  14. Tee Evelyn Wy Yap CT, Evelyn Yap WY
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):441-442.
    PMID: 31649225
    Subcutaneous Panniculitis-like T-cell Lymphoma (SPTL) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm of mature cytotoxic T cells, first described in 1991 by Gonzalez et al. The incidence of SPTL in Asian countries ranges from 2.3% to 3%. In Malaysia, only 5 cases were reported from 2001 to 2004 in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SPTL typically presents as skincoloured or erythematous subcutaneous nodules, most often on the extremities and trunk, but it can also involve the face, back and neck. Diagnosis of SPTL is made based on correlation of clinical findings and subcutaneous tissue biopsy along with immunohistochemical staining patterns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  15. Safiah Mokhtar S, M Vanhoutte P, W S Leung S, Imran Yusof M, Wan Sulaiman WA, Zaharil Mat Saad A, et al.
    Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2013 11;231(3):217-22.
    PMID: 24225501
    Diabetic endothelial dysfunction is characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation. In this study, we measured the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostacyclin synthase (PGIS), and prostacyclin receptor (IP) in subcutaneous arteries of type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Subcutaneous arteries were dissected from tissues from seven diabetics (4 males and 3 females) and seven non-diabetics (5 males and 2 females) aged between 18 to 65 years, who underwent lower limb surgical procedures. Diabetics had higher fasting blood glucose compared to non-diabetics, but there were no differences in blood pressure, body mass index and age. Patients were excluded if they had uncontrolled hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, renal or hepatic failure and tumor. The relative expression levels of eNOS, COX-1, COX-2, PGIS and IP receptor were determined by Western blotting analysis, normalized with the β-actin level. Increased expression of COX-2 was observed in subcutaneous arteries of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, whereas the expression levels of eNOS and PGIS were significantly lower in diabetics. There were no significant differences in expression levels of COX-1 and IP receptor between the two groups. Immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous arteries showed that the intensities of eNOS and PGIS staining were lower in diabetics, with higher COX-2 staining. In conclusion, type-2 diabetes is associated with higher COX-2 expression, but lower eNOS and PGIS expression in subcutaneous arteries. These alterations may lead to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and thus these proteins may be potential targets for protection against the microvascular complications of diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue/blood supply*
  16. Mok PL, Cheong SK, Leong CF, Chua KH, Ainoon O
    Tissue Cell, 2012 Aug;44(4):249-56.
    PMID: 22560724 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2012.04.002
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue/metabolism*
  17. Siar CH, Toh CG, Romanos G, Ng KH
    Clin Oral Implants Res, 2011 Jan;22(1):113-20.
    PMID: 20678135 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.01970.x
    collagenous and noncollagenous membranes have been investigated in many animal systems but their effects in the macaque model are unknown.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  18. Yamada M, Shishito N, Nozawa Y, Uni S, Nishioka K, Nakaya T
    Trop Med Health, 2017;45:26.
    PMID: 29118653 DOI: 10.1186/s41182-017-0067-4
    Background: Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode that parasitizes the subcutaneous tissues of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) and Japanese black bear (Ursus thiabetanus japonicus). D. ursi that has parasitized black bears has the potential to subsequently infect humans. In addition, extra-gastrointestinal anisakiasis is less common in Japan.

    Case presentation: We report a case of ventral subcutaneous anisakiasis and dorsal subcutaneous dirofilariasis that was acquired in Fukushima, in the northern part of Japan. The patient was an 83-year-old Japanese female, and subcutaneous parasitic granulomas were present on her left abdomen (near the navel) and left scapula. A pathological examination of the surgically dissected tissue sections from each region demonstrated eosinophilic granulomas containing different species of parasites. To enable the morphological and molecular identification of these parasites, DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded sections using DEXPAT reagent, and the cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S and ITS2 regions of the Anisakis larvae, and the 5S rRNA region of the male Dirofilaria were sequenced. The PCR products were examined and compared with DNA databases. Molecular analysis of the COX2 and 5S rRNA sequences of each worm revealed that the nematode found in the ventral region belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and the male Dirofilaria found in the dorsal region was classified as D. ursi.

    Conclusion: The present case showed a combined human case of D. ursi and A. simplex s.s. infections in subcutaneous tissues. The results of this study will contribute to the identification of unknown parasites in histological sections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  19. Khan MS, Ibrahim SM, Adamu AA, Rahman MBA, Bakar MZA, Noordin MM, et al.
    Cryobiology, 2020 02 01;92:26-33.
    PMID: 31580830 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.09.012
    A number of living creatures in the Antarctic region have developed characteristic adaptation of cold weather by producing antifreeze proteins (AFP). Antifreeze peptide (Afp1m) fragment have been designed in the sequence of strings from native proteins. The objectives of this study were to assess the properties of Afp1m to cryopreserve skin graft at the temperature of -10 °C and -20 °C and to assess sub-zero injuries in Afp1m cryopreserved skin graft using light microscopic techniques. In the present study, a process was developed to cryopreserve Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat skin grafts with antifreeze peptide, Afp1m, α-helix peptide fragment derived from Glaciozyma antractica yeast. Its viability assessed by different microscopic techniques. This study also described the damages caused by subzero temperatures (-10 and -20 °C) on tissue cryopreserved in different concentrations of Afp1m (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 72 h. Histological scores of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis of cryopreserved skin grafts showed highly significant difference (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
  20. Huan NC, Mohamed Arifin N, Khoo TS, Lai YC
    Respirol Case Rep, 2020 Apr;8(3):e00544.
    PMID: 32128215 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.544
    Subcutaneous emphysema (SE) is a common but usually self-limiting complication of cardiothoracic procedures. Rarely, it can be life threatening and is characterized by extensive cutaneous tension and airway compromise requiring immediate intervention. There is a paucity of data on the most efficacious treatment methods for extensive SE. We report an 80-year-old gentleman who developed massive SE necessitating intubation for airway protection following a right chest tube insertion for spontaneous secondary pneumothorax. His SE persisted despite adequate thoracic drainage via a new chest tube. It was then decided to insert two negative pressure wound therapy dressings (NPWTD) or vacuum dressings in the patient's subcutaneous tissue layer via incisions made at anterior chest wall. The dressings were removed after four days in view of significant improvements. NPWTD appears to be an effective, well-tolerated, safe, and inexpensive approach that hastens the resolution of SE without the need for invasive thoracic surgeries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Subcutaneous Tissue
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