Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

  1. Nor Qhairul Izzreen, M.N., Mohd Fadzelly, A.B.
    This study was conducted to determine the total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) as well as the antioxidant activity of 50% ethanolic extracts from different parts of Camellia sinensis (shoot, young and matured leaves). Comparison was also made between black (fermented) and green (unfermented) tea. For green tea, the results showed that the shoot contained significantly higher total phenolic content, followed by the young and matured leaves (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  2. Sugiyama S
    Yakushigaku Zasshi, 2005;40(2):98-106.
    PMID: 17152831
    This article attempts to trace the origin of tea. The author believes the ancient Chinese tea, "chia", is either Jicha (water extract from the pith of Acacia catechu that grows naturally in the mountainous border between the Yunnan province of China and southern Asian countries) or Jicha-Kagikazura (water extract from the young branches and leaves of Uncaris gambir, originally found in India/Sri Lanka). Both were pulverized after being kiln-dried and then mixed with water to produce a thick suspension, or tea. Although the drink is bitter and has an astringent property, it has a particular flavor with a refreshing after-taste. Its components with medicinal properties include tannin, catechin, and various flavonoids, making us believe it was worthwhile for the people at the time to consume the drink regularly. Generally speaking, tea cultivation in China flourished south of the Yangzi Jiang River including the present Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. Depending on the regions, there were words for tea in various languages, including the names of places where particular teas were grown. In addition to the names that appear in the famous Chajing book, it is interesting to note Da Fang pronounced tea as "TAH". Because the area south of the Yangzi Jiang has traditionally been active in foreign trade since the ancient and middle ages. People in this region consumed various foreign originated teas as well. This included Gambir, which was introduced to southern Asia (including present Malaysia and Indonesia) and was consumed as an herbal tea under names such as Guo Luo or Ju Luo teas. Paan, from India, also uses Gambir paste and was a popular chewing refreshment to prevent diseases caused by miasma as well as to keep one's mouth clean. The name A-sen-yaku used in Japan was taken from the plant name Acasia, and Gambir was used to dye Buddhist monks' Ke-Ra bags to a blackish yellow color. The Daikanwa dictionary states the Ra in the name, which means thin silk, was later replaced with "A". The official name for Ji-cha [Er Cha] in modern China is "Gaiji-cha", [Hal-Er Cha], which comes from the name of a variety of tea made by the Ai-Ni tribal subgroup of the ethnic Ha-Ni in Yunnan province. The [see character in text] character is pronounced "ni", which is a homophony of [character in text]. Based on these facts, "Ai-Ni" should be considered the same as "Hai-Ni". Because the ethnic groups in Yunnan province used primitive and tough tea leaves, which were eaten instead of being infused in water, the leaves were first fermented by being buried in the ground. Even today, people of these ethnic groups prefer fungus-fermented black tea with a particular flavor. In contrast, the ethnic Hans used and still use improved and softer young shoots of tea leaves to prepare mainly green tea. It has recently been discovered that Acapsia, as well as Gambir, has anti-oxidant properties, and that consumption over time is effective against many lifestyle-related adult diseases. It may be well worthwhile to cast fresh light upon ancient tea drinking customs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea/history
  3. Kamath NP, Tandon S, Nayak R, Naidu S, Anand PS, Kamath YS
    Eur Arch Paediatr Dent, 2020 Feb;21(1):61-66.
    PMID: 31111439 DOI: 10.1007/s40368-019-00445-5
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of two herbal mouthwashes containing aloe vera and tea tree oil, on the oral health of school children.

    METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled prospective interventional study was conducted in school children aged 8-14 years. The study participants were divided into four groups depending upon the mouthwash used: Group 1 (aloe vera), Group 2 (chlorhexidine), Group 3 (tea tree oil) and Group 4 (placebo). The variables studied included plaque index, gingival index and salivary Streptococcus mutans counts, which were recorded at baseline, 4 weeks after supervised mouth rinse and after 2 weeks of stopping the mouth rinse.

    RESULTS: A total of 89 boys and 63 girls were included. A statistically significant decrease in all variables was noted after the use of both the herbal preparations at the end of 4 weeks which was maintained after the 2-week washout period (p Tea tree oil and chlorhexidine, was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: The use of aloe vera and tea tree oil mouthwashes can decrease plaque, gingivitis and S. mutans in the oral cavity in children. The activity of these two agents is comparable to that of chlorhexidine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tea Tree Oil*
  4. Jing CJ, Seman IA, Zakaria L
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2015 Dec;26(2):45-57.
    PMID: 26868709 MyJurnal
    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  5. Goh, W.N., Rosma, A., Kaur, B., Fazilah, A., Karim, A.A., Rajeev Bhat
    The yield and properties of cellulose produced from bacterial fermentation of black tea broth (known as Kombucha) were investigated in this study. The tea broth was fermented naturally over a period of up to 8 days in the presence of sucrose. Tea broth with a sucrose concentration of 90 g/l produced highest yield of bacterial cellulose (66.9%). The thickness and yield of bacterial cellulose increased with fermentation time. The bacterial cellulose production increased correspondingly with increased surface area:depth ratio. Changes in pH were related to the symbiotic metabolic activities of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, and the counts of both of these in the tea broths were relatively higher than those in the cellulose layer. Findings from this study suggest that the yield of cellulose depends on many factors that need to be optimized to achieve maximum yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  6. Rabeta, M. S., Vithyia, M.
    This study was done to determine the effects of different thermal drying methods (sun drying, microwave drying and hot air oven drying) on the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content and the antioxidant properties of Vitex negundo (VN) tea. Significant decline (P < 0.05) in antioxidant properties of hot air oven drying shows that this method is not the best method to preserve antioxidant compounds in VN tea. As a conclusion, microwave drying has been found to be a good method for maintain the TPC, anthocyanin content and AEAC in dried sample of VN tea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  7. Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Suhaila Abd. Hamid, Al-Shami, Salman Abdo
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016;27(1):115-133.
    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools
    commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame
    and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical
    Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using
    each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to
    sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm,
    a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low
    species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the
    Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm
    and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net
    was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a
    greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable
    farm and the tea plantation streams (RV
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  8. Jin Liang, Pradeep Puligundla, Sanghoon Ko, Xiao-Chun Wan
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1685-1692.
    Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential nutrient for humans. Plant foods are the predominant source of selenium and majority of dietary selenium is absorbed depending on the type of food consumed. Nowadays, green tea is becoming increasingly popular for its prominent health benefits, including the ability to supplement selenium in organically bound, natural food form. The selenium content of Se-enriched green tea is influenced by the selenium level of local soils in which it is grown. However, selenium content of plants can also be improved by artificial fortification methods. In this review, the chemical speciation and biological functions of selenium, fortification methods, biological activities and nutraceutical applications of Se-enriched green tea are discussed. This review provides insights into the current research and the importance of Se-enriched green tea in the enrichment of human nutrition and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  9. Liew PM, Yong YK
    PMID: 26925152 DOI: 10.1155/2016/7842340
    Introduction. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl belongs to the family of Verbenaceae and is commonly known as Gervao, Brazilian tea, verbena cimarrona, rooter comb, or blue porter weed. It is one of the important plants with high medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. S. jamaicensis contains various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems, with cures for several diseases. Objective. The objective of this review paper is to collect information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, biological activities, and safety data of S. jamaicensis. Materials and Methods. The information was obtained from literature search through electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar on S. jamaicensis. Results and Conclusion. The high medicinal properties of this plant, for instance, antimicrobial and antifungal effect as the main activities, but verbascoside as the main active chemical component, make it a valuable source of the medicinal compound. This review paper summarizes all information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, pharmacological activities, and toxicological studies of S. jamaicensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  10. Hajeb P, Jinap S
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2015;55(6):778-91.
    PMID: 24915349 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.678422
    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  11. Fathilah, A.R., Rahim, Z.H.A.
    Ann Dent, 2008;15(1):1-4.
    In this study, the effect of beverages (Coke TM, Sprite™, Ribena™, Chrysanthemum tea and mineral water) on the demineralisation of the enamel surface was investigated. Demineralisation was determined by the rate of calcium released from the enamel surface on exposure to the beverages. Calcium was determined using the EDTA titration method. The pH of these beverages was measured using a pH meter and found to be in the acidic range (2.43 to 5.79) while mineral water which served as a control has a pH of 7.00. Ii was found that the rate of calcium released from Coke™(0.76 J..lg/min) showed a significant mean difference from Sprite™ (0.38 J..lg/min), Chrysanthemum tea (0.10 J..lg/min) and mineral water (0.00 J..lg/min)at p< .05, but was however not significantly different from Ribena™. Likewise, Chrysanthemum tea and mineral water also showed statistically no significant mean difference in the released of calcium during the study period. The results obtained in this study indicated that beverages with low pH may pose detrimental effect on the enamel surface which could have clinical implication, especially in people with salivary gland dysfunction or low salivary flow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  12. Rabeta, M.S., Lai, S.Y.
    Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or ‘ruku’ were determined in this study. Fresh
    leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum was subjected to freeze drying, vacuum drying and processed
    into fermented and unfermented tea. The samples were extracted using distilled water and the
    total phenolics, total flavonoids, condensed tannin content, anthocyanins and total antioxidant
    capacity (TAC) were assessed, measured with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
    and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The results
    showed that drying the fresh leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum and processing them into tea leaves
    significantly increase (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid
    content, and condensed tannin content. However, anthocyanins content showed reduction
    after drying. In the present study, it can be concluded that the vacuum drying method seem
    to produce a product with higher quality of antioxidant properties than freeze drying. Hence,
    vacuum drying can be used to replace freeze drying as it is also cheaper than freeze drying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  13. Naemah Tajol Arus, Suhaily Amran, Norhafsam Maghpor, Ahmad Sayuti Zainal Abidin, Nurzuhairah Jamil, Rochi Bakel, et al.
    In the recent years, an extensive number of scientific researches on occupational diseases have been done to
    identify occupations at high risk of inducing diseases. There are many categories of occupational diseases, and unitary
    of them are occupational respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in a tea factory located in Cameron Highlands,
    Malaysia, with an output of 600,000.00 kg per annum. Its objective was to evaluate respiratory diseases among the
    workers, conducted via questionnaires, interviews and lung functional tests. A total of 38 workers participated in this
    study, 19 in the exposed group and 19 in the control group. The most common chronic symptoms for the exposed
    group are wheezing, dyspnea (short of breath) and phlegm. The result shows that, among the tea processing workers,
    the exposed group suffer from respiratory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea
  14. Ayatollahi MR, Yahya MY, Karimzadeh A, Nikkhooyifar M, Ayob A
    PMID: 26046269 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.05.004
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating temperature changes in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to temperature change and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbonated Beverages*; Composite Resins/chemistry*; Dental Materials/chemistry*; Tea*; Temperature*; Nanotechnology; Nanocomposites/chemistry*
  15. Bhoo-Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Dik VK, Jeurnink SM, Bech BH, Overvad K, et al.
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 Nov;11(11):1486-92.
    PMID: 23756220 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.05.029
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer.

    METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, there were 477,312 participants without cancer who completed a dietary questionnaire and were followed up to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intake was calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low intake), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low intake). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared with low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated after restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tea/adverse effects*
  16. Chen YW, Lee HV
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):78-92.
    PMID: 28860064 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.143
    In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H2O2/Cr(NO3)3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.2-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea/chemistry
  17. Panneerselvam P, Morad N, Tan KA
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2011 Feb 15;186(1):160-8.
    PMID: 21146294 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.102
    The removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution by magnetic nanoparticles prepared and impregnated onto tea waste (Fe(3)O(4)-TW) from agriculture biomass was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)) were prepared by chemical precipitation of a Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles of the adsorbent Fe(3)O(4) were characterized by surface area (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. The kinetics followed is first order in nature, and the value of rate constant was found to be 1.90×10(-2) min(-1) at 100 mg L(-1) and 303 K. Removal efficiency decreases from 99 to 87% by increasing the concentration of Ni(II) in solution from 50 to 100 mg L(-1). It was found that the adsorption of Ni(II) increases by increasing temperature from 303 to 323 K and the process is endothermic in nature. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equation, and the Langmuir adsorption capacity, Q°, was found to be (38.3)mgg(-1). The results also revealed that nanoparticle impregnated onto tea waste from agriculture biomass, can be an attractive option for metal removal from industrial effluent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea/chemistry*
  18. Zamora-Ros R, Alghamdi MA, Cayssials V, Franceschi S, Almquist M, Hennings J, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Dec;58(8):3303-3312.
    PMID: 30535794 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1874-z
    PURPOSE: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HRcalibrated 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HRcalibrated 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) and papillary tumor (HRcalibrated 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HRcalibrated 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tea*
  19. Caini S, Masala G, Saieva C, Kvaskoff M, Savoye I, Sacerdote C, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2017 May 15;140(10):2246-2255.
    PMID: 28218395 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30659
    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tea*
  20. Abdulbaqi HR, Himratul-Aznita WH, Baharuddin NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Dec 01;16(1):493.
    PMID: 27903262
    BACKGROUND: In the author's earlier in vitro investigation, a combination of 0.25 mg/ml green tea and 7.82 mg/ml Salvadora persica L. aqueous extracts was found to exhibit significant synergistic anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effects against primary plaque colonizers biofilm. A clinical trial was needed to support these preliminary in vitro results and to investigate its efficacy as a mouthwash in the control of dental plaque.

    METHODS: A 24 h plaque re-growth, double-blinded, randomized crossover trial was carried out. Participants (n = 14) randomly rinsed with test formulation, 0.12% chlorhexidine (control) and placebo mouthwashes for 24 h. A week before the trial, all participants received scaling, polishing and oral hygiene education. On the trial day, the participants received polishing at baseline and rinsed with 15 ml of randomly allocated mouthwash twice daily without oral hygiene measures. After 24 h, plaque index was scored and then the participants entered a 6-days washout period with regular oral hygiene measures. The same protocol was repeated for the next 2 mouthwashes.

    RESULTS: The results were expressed as mean (±SD) plaque index. The test mouthwash (0.931 ± 0.372) significantly reduced plaque accumulation when compared with placebo (1.440 ± 0.498, p  0.0167).

    CONCLUSIONS: The test mouthwash has an anti-plaque effect for a 24 h period. Longer-term clinical studies are highly encouraged to investigate its anti-plaque effect for longer periods.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02624336 in December 3, 2015.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tea*
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