In this study, we have employed a photocatalytic method to restore the liquid effluent from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. Specifically, the performance of both TiO2 and ZnO was compared for the photocatalytic polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The ZnO photocatalyst has irregular shape, bigger in particle size but smaller BET specific surface area (9.71 m2/g) compared to the spherical TiO2 photocatalysts (11.34 m2/g). Both scavenging study and post-reaction FTIR analysis suggest that the degradation of organic pollutant in the TiO2 system has occurred in the bulk solution. In contrast, it is necessary for organic pollutant to adsorb onto the surface of ZnO photocatalyst, before the degradation took place. In addition, the reactivity of both photocatalysts differed in terms of mechanisms, photocatalyst loading and also the density of photocatalysts. From the stability test, TiO2 was found to offer higher stability, as no significant deterioration in activity was observed after three consecutive cycles. On the other hand, ZnO lost around 30% of its activity after the 1st-cycle of photoreaction. The pH studies showed that acidic environment did not improve the photocatalytic degradation of the POME, whilst in the basic environment, the reaction media became cloudy. In addition, longevity study also showed that the TiO2 was a better photocatalyst compared to the ZnO (74.12%), with more than 80.0% organic removal after 22 h of UV irradiation.
Rapid prototyping (RP) of microfluidic channels in liquid photopolymers using standard lithography (SL) involves multiple deposition steps and curing by ultraviolet (UV) light for the construction of a microstructure layer. In this work, the conflicting effect of oxygen diffusion and UV curing of liquid polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) is investigated in microfabrication and utilized to reduce the deposition steps and to obtain a monolithic product. The conventional fabrication process is altered to control for the best use of the oxygen presence in polymerization. A novel and modified lithography technique is introduced in which a single step of PUMA coating and two steps of UV exposure are used to create a microchannel. The first exposure is maskless and incorporates oxygen diffusion into PUMA for inhibition of the polymerization of a thin layer from the top surface while the UV rays penetrate the photopolymer. The second exposure is for transferring the patterns of the microfluidic channels from the contact photomask onto the uncured material. The UV curing of PUMA as the main substrate in the presence of oxygen is characterized analytically and experimentally. A few typical elastomeric microstructures are manufactured. It is demonstrated that the obtained heights of the fabricated structures in PUMA are associated with the oxygen concentration and the UV dose. The proposed technique is promising for the RP of molds and microfluidic channels in terms of shorter processing time, fewer fabrication steps and creation of microstructure layers with higher integrity.
The concentration of acceptor carriers, depletion width, magnitude of donor level movement as well as the sensitivity factor are determined from the UV response of a heterojunction consisting of ZnO on type IIb diamond. From the comparison of the I-V measurements in dark condition and under UV illumination we show that the acceptor concentration (∼10(17) cm(-3)) can be estimated from p-n junction properties. The depletion width of the heterojunction is calculated and is shown to extend farther into the ZnO region in dark condition. Under UV illumination, the depletion width shrinks but penetrates both materials equally. The ultraviolet illumination causes the donor level to move closer to the conduction band by about 50 meV suggesting that band bending is reduced to allow more electrons to flow from the intrinsically n-type ZnO. The sensitivity factor of the device calculated from the change of threshold voltages, the ratio of dark and photocurrents and identity factor is consistent with experimental data.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
Postharvest treatments of fruits using techniques such as ultraviolet-C have been linked with maintenance of the fruit quality as well as shelf-life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV-C irradiation.
The decolorization of reactive orange 16 dye (RO16) from aqueous solution by CuO/H2O2 was investigated. The amount of dye removed was determined by measuring the concentration of the dye at its characteristic wavelengths by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of CuO dose, H2O2 concentration and UV light on the decolorization of the dye were investigated. It was found that the removal rate increased with increasing mass of CuO and increasing concentration of H2O2. The combination of CuO, H2O2 and UV light was the best system with dye removal of 100% after 6 h. The removal efficiency observed was in the order: CuO/UV/H2O2 > CuO/H2O2 > CuO/UV = CuO > UV/H2O2 > H2O2 > UV.
This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC), TiO2/carbon (C), and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m(2) g(-1)). The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.
The physicochemical and functional properties of ultraviolet (UV)-treated egg white protein (EW) and sodium caseinate (SC) were investigated. UV irradiation of the proteins was carried out for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. However, the SC samples were subjected to extended UV irradiation for 4 and 6 h as no difference was found on the initial UV exposure time. Formol titration, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR analyses indicated that UV irradiation could induce cross-linking on proteins and led to improved emulsifying and foaming properties (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the UV-irradiated EW and SC could be used as novel emulsifier and foaming agents in broad food systems for stabilizing and foaming purposes.
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV-B treated leaves presented the highest DPPH activity and antiproliferative activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56.0 and 40.8 µg/mL, respectively, over that of the control plants (78.0 and 58.2 µg/mL, respectively). These observations suggest that post-harvest irradiation with UV-B can be considered a promising technique to improve the healthy-nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of sweet basil leaves.
This report assesses the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and anticipated ozone recovery on the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface. Interactions between changes in ozone and changes in climate, as well as their effects on UV radiation, are also considered. These evaluations focus mainly on new knowledge gained from research conducted during the last four years. Furthermore, drivers of changes in UV radiation other than ozone are discussed and their relative importance is assessed. The most important of these factors, namely clouds, aerosols and surface reflectivity, are related to changes in climate, and some of their effects on short- and long-term variations of UV radiation have already been identified from measurements. Finally, projected future developments in stratospheric ozone, climate, and other factors affecting UV radiation have been used to estimate changes in solar UV radiation from the present to the end of the 21st century. New instruments and methods have been assessed with respect to their ability to provide useful and accurate information for monitoring solar UV radiation at the Earth's surface and for determining relevant exposures of humans. Evidence since the last assessment reconfirms that systematic and accurate long-term measurements of UV radiation and stratospheric ozone are essential for assessing the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and adjustments. Finally, we have assessed aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and human health, as well as implications for UV radiation from possible solar radiation management (geoengineering) methods to mitigate climate change.
Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost the consumption of poly(vinyl chloride) never stops increasing. Therefore, this work abstracted by two parts, first, synthesis of Schiff bases 1-4 compounds through the reaction of amino group with appropriate aromatic aldehyde, reaction of PVC with Schiff bases compounds 1-4 in THF to form a new modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4. The structures of Schiff bases 1-4 and the modified PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3, and PVC-4 have been characterized by different spectroscopic analyses. Second, the influence of introducing 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole as a pendent groups into PVC chain investigated on photostability rules of tests. The modified polymers photostability investigated by observing indices (ICO, Ipo, and IOH), weight loss, UV and morphological studies, and all results obtained indicated that PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3 and PVC-4 gave lower growth rate of ICO, IPO, and IOH through UV exposure time. The photostability are given as PVC-4
Comparison studies in suspension and hybrid photocatalytic membrane reactor (HPMR) system was investigated by using Reactive Black 5 (RB5) as target pollutant under UVA light irradiation. To achieve this aim, hybrid TiO2/clinoptilolite (TCP) photocatalyst powder was prepared by solid-state dispersion (SSD) methods and embedded at the outer layer of dual layer hollow fiber (DLHF) membranes fabricated via single step co-spinning process. TiO2 and CP photocatalyst were also used as control samples. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion of X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The result shows that TCP was actively functioned as photocatalyst in suspension system and 86% of RB5 photocatalytic degradation achieved within 60 min; however the additional step is required to separate the catalyst with treated water. In the HPMR system, even though the RB5 photocatalytic degradation exhibits lower efficiency however the rejection of RB5 was achieved up to 95% under UV irradiation due to the properties of photocatalytic membranes. The well dispersed of TCP at the outer layer of DLHF membrane have improved the surface affinity of DL-TCP membrane towards water, exhibit the highest pure water flux of 41.72 L/m2.h compared to DL-TiO2 membrane. In general, CP can help on improving photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in suspension, increased the RB5 removal and the permeability of DLHF membrane in HPMR system as well.
A solvated complex of alpha-H(4)SiW(12)O(40).4HMPA.2H(2)O composed the heteropolytungstate alpha-H(4)SiW(12)O(40) and the organic substrate hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) has been synthesised, purified, and characterized. The electronic spectra (lambda = 220-500 nm) as well as the (1)H NMR spectra for the title compound dissolved in CD(3)CN establish that this complex dissociates into free SiW(12)O(40)(4)(-) and HMPA moieties in solution unless the organic substrate HMPA is present in very high concentrations. The solid reflectance electronic spectra and IR spectra indicate that there is interaction between the alpha-H(4)SiW(12)O(40) and the organic substrate. The complex has no photosensitivity under irradiation of sunlight, but under the near-UV light result in a charge transfer by oxidation of the HMPA and the reduction of the polyoxometalate. Light yellow polyhedrons of the title compound crystallize from the aqueous solvent of acetonitrile and aqueous solution as the formula of alpha-H(4)SiW(12)O(40).4HMPA.2H(2)O in the monoclinic, space group P2(1). The unit cell has a = 12.791(3) Å, b = 22.103(6) Å, c = 15.532(4) Å, beta = 102.860(10) degrees, and Z = 2. From the bond-valence parameters, it was found that the four hydrogen atoms of the polyoxometalate were combined with the N atoms of the four HMPA respectively. The title compound shows a certain second-order and third-order nonlinear optical response of I(2)(omega) = 0.7I(2)(omega)(KDP) and chi((3)) = 2.63 x 10(-)(11) esu, respectively.
Ultraviolet (UV) light especially UV-C has been used to sterilize fruits and vegetables. However, overdose of UV-C irradiation could cause brownish-red colouration to products such as banana fruit. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the effect of UV-C irradiation at different doses on the surface colour of Berangan banana fruit during ripening; (2) determine polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity after irradiated with different doses of UV-C, and (3) examine the effectiveness of three browning assessment methods (subjective score, browning index derived from Lab colour space and optical density of 420 nm) in response to PPO activity of UV-C irradiated Berangan banana fruit. Mature green Berangan banana fruit were irradiated with 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C. After irradiation, the fruit were initiated to ripening using 1 mL/L ethylene for 24 h. Then, the fruit were allowed to ripen in 27oC and fruit of day 0, 1, 3 and 5 were sampled for peel colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and ho), browning assessment (three methods) and PPO assay. The peel colour, browning assessment using subjective score and optical density, and PPO activity of Berangan banana fruit were affected significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by interaction of radiation dose x ripening day. The values of L*, b*, C* and ho decrease while a* values increase as fruit irradiated with 0.03 and 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C indicating brownish-red has occurred. Fruit irradiated with 0.04 kJ/m2 UV-C discoloured by ripening day 3 while those irradiated with 0.03 kJ/m2 discolored by day 5. Similar result was obtained when fruit assessed for its browning using subjective score and optical density. A contrary result was obtained in PPO activity where UV-C irradiation has inhibited Berangan banana fruit PPO activity by ripening day 5. Correlation analysis showed that browning index that derived from colour space is highly related to PPO activity with coefficients of 0.93. As conclusion, the lethal dose causing browning for Berangan banana fruit is 0.03 kJ/m2 and browning index that derived from colour space is most effective to correlate browning with PPO activity.
The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of UV blocking monomers in contact lenses in providing eye protection from UV radiation. The spectral transmission of 8 contact lenses (7 soft contact lenses: Precision UV, Acuvue 2, Surevue, Omega, Encore UV, Durasoft 3 and Lunelle UV and 1 rigid gas permeable contact lens: Boston 7) was evaluated by using a dual beam spectrophotometer. Durasoft 3, a non UV absorbent contact lens was used as the control. The results showed that Precision UV contact lens absorbed UV light up to wavelength of 380 nm, whereas Acuvue 2 and Surevue absorbed up to 360 nm only. Omega, Encore UV and Lunelle UV lenses absorbed UV light up to 335 nm with spectral transmission of Lunelle UV being the highest among all soft contact lenses tested, which was 17%. Boston 7 could absorb UV light up to 385 nm, but the amount of UV light transmitted was higher than soft lenses, which was 30%. Durasoft 3 only blocked UV light at 200-245 nm. Precision UV lens had better UV blocker characteristics than the other contact lenses tested. UV blocking soft contact lenses could be an alternative for spectacles in protecting internal ocular structures from UV radiation.
The effect of storage time on the quality of ultraviolet-irradiated and thermally pasteurised pineapple juice was evaluated. The juices were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV-C) at wavelength 254 nm (53.42 mJ/cm2, 4.918 s), thermally pasteurised at 800C for 10 minutes and stored at 40C for 13 weeks. There were significant changes in the total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and turbidity of UV-irradiated juice during storage, whereas for the same quality attributes of thermally pasteurised juice remained stable throughout the storage time. There were no significant changes in total phenolics for both treatments throughout the storage period. Other quality parameters (ascorbic acid, colour L, hue angle and chroma) were significantly affected by the storage time. Regarding the microbiological analysis, the total plate counts and yeast and mould counts of the UV-irradiated juice increased gradually throughout the 13 weeks of storage while these parameters remained unchanged in the thermally pasteurised juice with almost no microorganism growth. UV-irradiated pineapple juice preserved better quality attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, turbidity, total phenolic, L (lightness), hue angle and chroma) than the thermal pasteurised juice during the storage time. Hence, UV irradiation has great potential as an alternative technology to thermal pasteurisation in producing products of high nutritive values.
Reactive green 19, acid orange 7 and methylene blue are employed as the organic pollutants in this work. A photocatalytic fuel cell is constructed based on the idea of immobilizing zinc oxide onto zinc photoanode and platinum loaded carbon cathode, both evaluated under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. Influence of light and dye structures on the performance of photocatalytic fuel cell are examined. With reactive green 19, 93% and 86% of color removal are achieved after 8 h of photocatalytic fuel cell treatment under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. The decolorization rate of diazo reactive green 19 is higher than acid orange 7 (monoazo dye) when both dyes are treated by photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, as the electron releasing groups (-NH-triazine) allow reactive green 19 easier to be oxidized. Comparatively, acid orange 7 is less favorable to be oxidized. The degradation of methylene blue is enhanced under sunlight irradiation due to the occurrence of self-sensitized photodegradation. When methylene blue is employed in the photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight irradiation, the short circuit current (0.0129 mA cm-2) and maximum power density (0.0032 mW cm-2) of photocatalytic fuel cell greatly improved.
This paper presents a low-cost method of constructing the compact UV illuminator, which is considered as an important
component of a gel documentation system. The procedure involves using a smallest-possible UV lamp and a motor which
moves the UV lamp in the UV illuminator instead of conventional 4 UV lamps. A comparative analysis of images produced
by using the commercial gel documentation system and our prototype was carried out. These comparisons were done
in real DNA gel as well as a reference plate made of quantum dot. The plate was composed of the chambers filled with
various densities of the quantum dot instead of the Agarose gel containing the ETBR in order to increase the accuracy of
comparison and the convenience of experiments. Despite the use of only 1 UV lamp, the proposed system demonstrated
a similar imaging performance compared with the conventional gel documentation system equipped with 4 UV lamps,
resulting in the great reduction of the system cost.
The photodegradation rate constant and surface morphology of poly(vinyl chloride), upon irradiation with ultraviolet light was investigated in the presence of polyphosphates as photostabilizers. Poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation rate constant was lower for the films containing polyphosphates compared to the blank film. In addition, the surface morphology of the irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) containing polyphosphates, examined by scanning electron microscopy, indicates that the surface was much smoother compared to the blank film.
Five luminescent polymorphic aggregates of trinuclear Cu(i)-pyrazolate, namely [anti-Cu3L3]2 (1), [syn-Cu3L3·C2H5OH]2 (2), [anti-Cu3L3·C2H5OH]n (3), [anti-Cu3L3·0.5C7H8]n (4) and [syn-Cu3L3·C8H10]n (5) (HL = 4-(pyridin-4-ylthio)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole), were reported. The trimeric Cu3L3 fragments present syn- and anti-conformations dependent on the dangled direction of 4-pyridyl groups on the two sides of the Cu3Pz3 plane (Pz = pyrazolate). Intertrimeric NPyCu weak coordination bonds associate these Cu3L3 fragments together to form dimeric or polymeric structures, which are further stabilized by crystallized solvent molecules or intertrimeric CuCu interactions. The solvated complexes (3-5) may be transformed into the unsolvated complex 1 by evacuation of the crystallized solvents upon heating. All these complexes emit from green to yellow under UV irradiation, which originated from the triplet excited states of metal to ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) mixed with intertrimeric CuCu interactions. This work provides a novel kind of supramolecular aggregate based on Cu3Pz3 beyond the classical π-acidbase adducts and metallophilicity-dependent dimers/oligomers.