Wind turbines are massive electrical structures. They produce large returns when illuminated by radar waves. These
scatterings have a great impact on the operation of surveillance, air traffic control and weather radars. This paper presents
two geometric modelling methods for reshaping wind turbine towers so that the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of wind turbines
is reduced. In the proposed reshaping methods, bump structures are created on the surface of the conventional cylinder
wind turbine tower. When a reshaped tower is illuminated by radar waves, the bump structures scatter incident radar
waves into insignificant directions so that the strength of back-scattering is declined and the RCS of the wind turbine is
decreased. The test results confirmed that the proposed methodssignificantly reduce bi-static RCS values of wind turbines.
The proposed reshaping methods are practical, flexible and effective in alleviating the scatterings of wind turbines.
Changes in the abundance of the house fly, Musca domestica, was studied for a period of one year in two poultry farms in Penang, Malaysia: one in Balik Pulau, located in Penang island, and the other in Juru, located on mainland Penang. The sampling of house flies were carried out from March 2007 to April 2008 using the Scudder grill, and the correlation with meteorological conditions particularly rainfall, relative humidity and temperature were observed. In Balik Pulau, the fly abundance showed an inverse relationship to relative humidity and total rainfall. However, no significant correlations were found between the abundance of flies and the above mentioned climatic factors. In contrast, the occurrence of flies in Juru showed strong correlation indices with relative humidity (r=0.803, p<0.05) and total rainfall (r=0.731, p<0.05). Temperature had no significant effect on the abundance of flies in both poultry farms due to imperceptible changes in monthly temperature.
Studies of larval mite populations along transects, as measured with black plates, were conducted in forest and grassland habitats for a period of 67 weeks. Larvae of both Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) deliense and L. (L.) fletcheri were influenced greatly by rainfall, with the larvae being abundant and easily collected during periods of heavy rainfall and difficult or impossible to collect during dry periods. Simulated rainfall maintained larval populations for longer periods during dry weather.
Environmental factors can play important roles in influencing waterbird communities. In particular, weather may have various biological and ecological impacts on the breeding activities of waterbirds, though most studies have investigated the effect of weather on the late stages of waterbird breeding (e.g., hatching rate, chick mortality). Conversely, the present study attempts to highlight the influence of weather on the early nesting activities of waterbirds by evaluating a recently established mixed-species colony in Putrajaya Wetlands, Malaysia. The results show that only rainfall and temperature have a significant influence on the species' nesting activities. Rainfall activity is significantly correlated with the Grey Heron's rate of establishment (rainfall: rs = 0.558, p = 0.03, n = 72) whereas both temperature and rainfall are associated with Painted Stork's nesting density (temperature: rs = 0.573, p = 0.013; rainfall: rs = -0.662, p = 0.03, n = 48). There is a possibility that variations in the rainfall and temperature provide a cue for the birds to initiate their nesting. Regardless, this paper addresses concerns on the limitations faced in the study and suggests long-term studies for confirmation.
The role of science and technology (S&T) in preventing disasters and building resilience to climate change is featured in this paper, drawing primarily on the presentations and discussion of researchers, practitioners and policy makers from 31 institutions in 17 countries during the Workshop on Natural Disasters and Climate Change in Asia, held on 5–7 November 2012 in Bangi, Malaysia. Issues highlighted include advances in climate modelling and weather forecasts, with emphasis on information gaps; hazards and its cascading effects, focusing on current research and approaches; and the potential for land-based mitigation-adaptation strategies. Progress in mobilizing S&T to support disaster prevention and climate resilience is hindered by factors such as absence or lack of research, incomplete and non-existent scientific records, restricted access to data and capacity to innovate and transmit S&T, among others. The establishment of an Asian Network for Climate Science and Technology is proposed to provide and facilitate exchange of information and aid development of research co-ordination projects led by Asian researchers and possibly to act as a one-stop repository of global climate change related research too. The scope of the network would cover climate research with particular relevance to disaster resilience, including scientific capacity, which is all very distinct in Asia.
The determination of variance of surface air temperature is very essential since it has a direct impact on vegetation, environment and human livelihood. Forecast of surface air temperature is difficult because of the complex physical phenomenon and the random-like behavior of atmospheric system which influences the temperature event on the earth surface. In this study, forecast models based on artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic programming (GP) approaches were proposed to predict lead seven days minimum and maximum surface air temperature using the weather parameters observed at the station Chennai, India. The outcome of this study stated that models formulated using ANN approach are more accurate than genetic programming for all seven days with the highest coefficient of determination (R2), least mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) on deployment with independent test dataset. ANN models give statistically acceptable mean absolute error of 0.59oC for lead day one in minimum temperature forecast and 0.86oC variance for lead day one in maximum temperature forecast. The study also clarified that the level of accuracy of the proposed prediction models were found to be better for smaller lead days when compared with higher lead days with both approaches.
Scholars have opined that the courtyard is a passive architectural design element and
that it can act as a microclimate modifier provided that its design requirements are not
ignored. But despite the assertions, empirical studies on the microclimatic
performance of a fully enclosed courtyard house and the non-courtyard house seems
to be deficient, and the assumption that the Courtyard is a passive architectural design
element needs to be substantiated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to
investigate the microclimatic performance of a fully enclosed courtyard and noncourtyard
residential buildings. The main objective is to compare their microclimatic
performances in other to draw a conclusion on the best option. Three Hobo Weather
Data Loggers were used to collect climatic data in the buildings, and the third one was
situated in the outdoor area as a benchmark. The climatic variables investigated are;
air temperature and relative humidity. The fully enclosed courtyard residential building
is seen to have a better air temperature difference of 2 oC to 4 oC and the relative
humidity of 2 % to 6 %. In conclusion, the fully enclosed courtyard residential building
has confirmed a more favorable microclimatic performance, and future studies
towards its optimization are recommended.
Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual exhibit high soil suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, renders conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil irrelevant. In particular, the effective stress theories of saturated soil are not applicable at the practical leve l. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instances, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage to foundation, roads and other structures. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This paper examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (u -u ), and net mean stress (a-u) in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of ;he"' soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction to 25 kPa at constant net mean stress.
Within recorded history, most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way.
The number of dengue cases has been increasing on a global level in recent years, and particularly so in Malaysia, yet little is known about the effects of weather for identifying the short-term risk of dengue for the population. The aim of this paper is to estimate the weather effects on dengue disease accounting for non-linear temporal effects in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2010. We selected the weather parameters with a Poisson generalized additive model, and then assessed the effects of minimum temperature, bi-weekly accumulated rainfall and wind speed on dengue cases using a distributed non-linear lag model while adjusting for trend, day-of-week and week of the year. We found that the relative risk of dengue cases is positively associated with increased minimum temperature at a cumulative percentage change of 11.92% (95% CI: 4.41-32.19), from 25.4 °C to 26.5 °C, with the highest effect delayed by 51 days. Increasing bi-weekly accumulated rainfall had a positively strong effect on dengue cases at a cumulative percentage change of 21.45% (95% CI: 8.96, 51.37), from 215 mm to 302 mm, with the highest effect delayed by 26-28 days. The wind speed is negatively associated with dengue cases. The estimated lagged effects can be adapted in the dengue early warning system to assist in vector control and prevention plan.
Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.
To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence.
Surveillance of mosquitoes and their distribution in association with rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature were conducted in selected suburban and forested areas, namely, Sungai Penchala (Kuala Lumpur) and Taman Alam (Selangor) for 12 months. Armigeres kesseli was the most abundant species in Sungai Penchala while Aedes butleri was the most dominant species in Taman Alam. A positive correlation between mosquito distribution and rainfall was observed in selected mosquito species in Sungai Penchala (Armigeres kesseli, r = 0.75; Armigeres subalbatus, r = 0.62; and Aedes albopictus, r = 0.65) and Taman Alam (Armigeres sp, r = 0.59; Ae. butleri, r = 0.85; and Ae. albopictus, r = 0.62). However, no significant cor- relation was found either between selected mosquito species in both study areas and relative humidity or temperature. Results obtained suggested that vector control programs to be conducted based on temporal distribution of vectors in order to achieve beneficial outcomes with effective costing.
The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.
An epidemio-meteorotropic analytical study of Selangor, in the Southwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, examines the monthly incidence of dengue for the period 1973-1982 to assess possible quantitative association with the monthly rainfall. The relationships between rainfall, abundance of A. aegypti and dengue infection during 1982 in Jinjang, a dengue-prone area in Selangor, were also examined. A quantitative association between rainfall and the number of dengue cases was found during the first wet period. The lag time between the onset of heavy rain and dengue outbreak was about two to three months. A 120% increase in the number of dengue cases was observed when the monthly rainfall was 300 mm or more. Positive associations were seen between the incidence of dengue and the Aedes house index and the Breteau index in Jinjang. The relationships between these three variables and rainfall suggest that the latter might have exerted its effect on dengue infection partly through the creation of more breeding sites for A. aegypti. Assessment of the importance of A. aegypti in the transmission of dengue in this locality was not possible because of the lack of adjustment for A. albopictus, the other known vector of dengue in the state, and for social and other environmental factors influencing infection rates. In spite of this and the interpretational problems common in aggregate studies, the present analyses have provided relatively strong statistical evidence of an association between rainfall and dengue outbreaks in Selangor, thereby indicating that it is a factor worthy of careful surveillance and monitoring.
Forecasting naturally occurring phenomena is a common problem in many domains of science, and this has been addressed and investigated by many scientists. The importance of time series prediction stems from the fact that it has wide range of applications, including control systems, engineering processes, environmental systems and economics. From the knowledge of some aspects of the previous behaviour of the system, the aim of the prediction process is to determine or predict its future behaviour. In this paper, we consider a novel application of a higher order polynomial neural network architecture called Dynamic Ridge Polynomial Neural Network that combines the properties of higher order and recurrent neural networks for the prediction of physical time series. In this study, four types of signals have been used, which are; The Lorenz attractor, mean value of the AE index, sunspot number, and heat wave temperature. The simulation results showed good improvements in terms of the signal to noise ratio in comparison to a number of higher order and feedforward neural networks in comparison to the benchmarked techniques.
Mite foci were fenced above and below ground to prevent the entry of host animals and to prevent the migration of mites within the soil. Weekly counts were made over a period of thirty weeks with larvae being collected at the beginning and end of the study, but not during the intervening period of hot, dry weather. Post-larval forms can survive for long periods and mite foci can remain productive without being visited by the host animals. Mite foci may be missed by normal survey methods during hot, dry weather.