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  1. Sulaiman A, Farid M, Silva FV
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2017 Jun;23(4):293-309.
    PMID: 28595485 DOI: 10.1177/1082013216685485
    Strawberry puree was processed for 15 min using thermal (65 ℃), high-pressure processing (600 MPa, 48 ℃), and ultrasound (24 kHz, 1.3 W/g, 33 ℃). These conditions were selected based on similar polyphenoloxidase inactivation (11%-18%). The specific energies required for the above-mentioned thermal, high-pressure processing, and power ultrasound processes were 240, 291, and 1233 kJ/kg, respectively. Then, the processed strawberry was stored at 3 ℃ and room temperature for 30 days. The constant pH (3.38±0.03) and soluble solids content (9.03 ± 0.25°Brix) during storage indicated a microbiological stability. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. The high-pressure processing and ultrasound treatments retained the antioxidant activity (70%-74%) better than the thermal process (60%), and high-pressure processing was the best treatment after 30 days of ambient storage to preserve antioxidant activity. Puree treated with ultrasound presented more color retention after processing and after ambient storage than the other preservation methods. For the three treatments, the changes of antioxidant activity and total color difference during storage were described by the fractional conversion model with rate constants k ranging between 0.03-0.09 and 0.06-0.22 day - 1, respectively. In resume, high-pressure processing and thermal processes required much less energy than ultrasound for the same polyphenoloxidase inactivation in strawberry. While high-pressure processing retained better the antioxidant activity of the strawberry puree during storage, the ultrasound treatment was better in terms of color retention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria*
  2. Bhat R, Stamminger R
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2015 Jul;21(5):354-63.
    PMID: 24867944 DOI: 10.1177/1082013214536708
    Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/enzymology; Fragaria/microbiology; Fragaria/chemistry*
  3. Cherian S, Figueroa CR, Nair H
    J Exp Bot, 2014 Sep;65(17):4705-22.
    PMID: 24994760 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru280
    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/genetics; Fragaria/growth & development; Fragaria/physiology
  4. Souad, A.M., Jamal, P., Olorunnisola, K.S.
    MyJurnal
    Watermelon waste materials remained one of the important food grade agro-wastes generated by most hospitality industries in Southeast Asia and particularly in Malaysia. Jam was prepared from watermelon rind with different flavours (vanilla, pineapple, strawberry, lemon and no flavour). Five different samples were prepared at various compositions T₁ (50-50), T₂ (80-20), T₃ (60-40), T₄ (40-60) and T₅ (20-80) of rind and sugar. T₁ (50-50) gave the best jam set. Ten man panel (trained) evaluated the jam for its sensory characteristics and physicochemical analysis. Sensory evaluation conducted among five flavours was significantly different at (p>0.05). Chemical analysis showed that ascorbic acid reduced greatly among all treatments during three month storage. Soluble sugar and pH also decreased gradually for T₁ (from 4.96 to 4.40), T₂ (from 4.92 to 4.21), T₃ (from 4.74 to 4.11), T₄ (from 4.62 to 4.51) and T₅ (from 4.52 to 4.25) upon storage. Strawberry flavoured jam was most acceptable by the panel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria
  5. Ling LT, Palanisamy UD, Cheng HM
    Molecules, 2010 Nov;15(11):7884-92.
    PMID: 21060296 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15117884
    The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex) of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/chemistry
  6. Kin CM, Huat TG
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2009 Sep;47(8):694-9.
    PMID: 19772747
    A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure is optimized for the analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in food matrices, namely cucumbers and strawberries by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The parameters affecting the HS-SDME performance, such as selection of the extraction solvent, solvent drop volume, extraction time, temperature, stirring rate, and ionic strength, were studied and optimized. Extraction was achieved by exposing 1.5 microL toluene drop to the headspace of a 5 mL aqueous solution in a 15-mL vial and stirred at 800 rpm. The analytical parameters, such as linearity, correlation coefficients, precision, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recovery, were compared with those obtained from headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction. The mean recoveries for all three methods were all above 70% and below 104%. HS-SPME was the best method with the lowest LOD and LOQ values. Overall, the proposed HS-SDME method is acceptable in the analysis of pesticide residues in food matrices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/chemistry
  7. Saavedra GM, Figueroa NE, Poblete LA, Cherian S, Figueroa CR
    Food Chem, 2016 Jan 1;190:448-53.
    PMID: 26212995 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.107
    Fragaria chiloensis fruit has a short postharvest life mainly due to its rapid softening. In order to improve its postharvest life, preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan were evaluated during postharvest storage at room temperature. The quality and chemical parameters, and protection against decay were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage from fruits of two subsequent picks (termed as first harvest and second harvest). In general, fruits treated with MeJA and chitosan maintained higher levels of fruit firmness, anthocyanin, and showed significant delays in decay incidence compared to control fruit. MeJA-treated fruits exhibited a greater lignin content and SSC/TA ratio, and delayed decay incidences. Instead, chitosan-treated fruits presented higher antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. In short, both the elicitors were able to increase the shelf life of fruits as evidenced by the increased levels of lignin and anthocyanin, especially of the second harvest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/chemistry*
  8. Haddadi F, Aziz MA, Abdullah SN, Tan SG, Kamaladini H
    Molecules, 2015 Feb 23;20(3):3647-66.
    PMID: 25711423 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20033647
    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/drug effects; Fragaria/growth & development*
  9. Mohamad Nizam Subahir, Suraiti Hasim, Mohd. Badri Yacob, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan
    MyJurnal
    Rubella is an acute and contagious disease which is mainly characterized by fever, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. This contagious disease spreads easily through nasopharyngeal secretions, droplet or direct contact with patients. Meanwhile clinical features of scarlet fever include a sore throat, skin rash and strawberry tongue. A descriptive study was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristic of diseases at a Training Camp in Mersing. Data obtained on demographic details, onset and time of fever and rash or contact with ill person 14 to 21 days prior to symptoms. Screening and interview conducted for all suspected cases of Rubella. 47.4% of the cases presented on 5th June 2012 followed by 15.8% on 11th June 2012 and 13.5% on 12th June 2012. Maculo papular rash was the predominant presenting symptom among students with acute infection in this outbreak (100%) followed by fever (36.8%). Measles specific IgM was not detected in the serum taken but rubella specific IgM was detected in 66.7% (6/19) of samples. 55% (11/20) were positive for ASOT. 4 trainees had Rubella and Scarlet Fever co-infection. It was found out that the outbreak occurred among 391 residents in the camp who shared common places for activities such as lecture, physical activity and meal. Rapid dissemination was due to overcrowded environment and close contact during common activities of the residents. Theoretically co-infection would be presented with severe clinical symptoms but not in this outbreak where all affected trainees only presented with mild fever and rashes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria
  10. Zhang J, Mohamad FH, Wong JH, Mohamad H, Ismail AH, Mohamed Yusoff AA, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):101-113.
    PMID: 29599640 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.12
    Background: Bamboo shoot has been used as a treatment for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine for generations to treat neuronal disorders such as convulsive, dizziness and headaches. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba) is a non-flavonoid phenol found abundantly inDendrocalamus aspershoots (bamboo), fruits (strawberries and apples) and flowers. Kv1.4 is a rapidly inactivatingShaker-related member of the voltage-gated potassium channels with two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. It plays vital roles in repolarisation, hyperpolarisation and signaling the restoration of resting membrane potential through the regulation of the movement of K+across the cellular membrane.

    Methods: Chemical compounds fromDendrocalamus asperbamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted fromXenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from -80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels withn≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.

    Results: All concentration showed statistically significant results withP< 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play any significant roles.

    Conclusion: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be able to enhance the inactivation of Kv1.4 by lowering the membrane potential so that the abnormal neuronal firing can be inhibited. With IC50 slightly higher than 10 μM, increasing concentrations (100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) had shown to exhibit toxicity effects. The best concentration from this study is 10 μM with Hill slope of 0.1799.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria
  11. Ko Y, Chen CY, Yao KS, Liu CW, Maruthasalam S, Lin CH
    Plant Dis, 2008 Aug;92(8):1248.
    PMID: 30769472 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-92-8-1248B
    In March 2005, a fruit rot disease was found in several commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) fields at Fongyuan, 24.25°N, 120.72°E, in Taichung County in central Taiwan. The disease was rare and was negligible in most cultivated areas. However, disease incidence has increased by 4 to 5% over the last 2 years and causes significant postharvest losses. In storage, symptoms on berries include light brown-to-black, sunken, irregularly shaped lesions. The lesions gradually enlarge and become firm with a dark green-to-black, velvety surface composed of mycelia, conidiophores, and conidia. Twelve single conidial isolates (AF-1 to AF-12) of a fungus were isolated by placing portions of symptomatic fruit from four locations onto acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubating at 24 ± 1°C. One isolate from each of the four locations, AF-2, 6, 9, and 12, was selected for identification and pathogenicity studies. The fungus was identified as an Alternaria sp. according to the morphological descriptions of A. tenuissima (2,3). Conidiophores were simple or branched, straight or flexuous, septate, pale to light brown, 3.0 to 5.0 μm in diameter, and bore two to six conidia in a chain. Conidia were dark brown, obclavate or oval, and multicellular with seven transverse (in most cases) and numerous longitudinal septa. Conidia were 15.5 to 56.5 μm (average 35.0 μm) long × 6.0 to 15.0 μm (average 11.0 μm) wide at the broadest point. The pathogen was consistently isolated from berries in the field or in storage. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by inoculating 12 surface-sterilized berries with each of the four isolates. Approximately 300 μl of a spore suspension (2 × 105 conidia per ml) was placed at two points on the uninjured surface of each fruit and allowed to dry for 5 min. Control fruits were treated with sterile water. The berries were then enclosed in a plastic bag and incubated at 24 ± 1°C for 2 days. Disease symptoms similar to those described above were observed on 95% of inoculated berries 3 days after inoculation, while no symptoms developed in control berries. Reisolation from the inoculated berries consistently yielded the Alternaria sp. described above. Pathogenicity tests were performed three times. Previously, strawberry fruit rot caused by A. tenuissima was reported from Florida (2) and Malaysia (1), however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of strawberry caused by a species of Alternaria in Taiwan. References: (1) W. D. Cho et al. List of Plant Diseases in Korea. Korean Society of Plant Pathology, 2004. (2) C. M. Howard and E. E. Albregts. Phytopathology 63:938, 1973. (3) R. D. Milholland. Phytopathology 63:1395, 1973.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria
  12. Afsah-Hejri, L.
    MyJurnal
    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic fungal toxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus). Members of the Aspergillus family are wound-invading pathogens that can infect pistachio trees and nuts. The pistachio nut is a favorite tree nut worldwide, and more than half of the world’s pistachio production is from Iran. Pistachio nuts can easily be infected with Aspergillus spp. due to early splitting or due to animal, insect or physical damage. Any established infection of Aspergillus under high relative humidity and temperature results in the production and rapid accumulation of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. It is impractical to remove aflatoxins from pistachio nuts after they are produced. Some microorganisms (such as saprophytic yeasts) have been reported to have an antagonistic effect against Aspergillus spp. This study aimed to isolate saprophytic yeasts from pistachio fruits and leaves and investigate their biocontrol activities against a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Saprophytic yeasts were identified based on their morphological properties and biochemical tests. In total, 24 yeast isolates were obtained from pistachio fruits and leaves, and their antagonistic effect on A. flavus (PTCC 5006) was investigated. Five saprophytic yeast isolates, displaying the highest biocontrol activities against A. flavus (PTCC 5006), were identified as Pseudozyma fusiformata, Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula fragaria, Cryptococcus hungaricus and Rhodotorula hinula. The biocontrol activities of these yeast isolates were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on sporulation, colony expansion, biomass production and prevention of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production. Pseudozyma fusiformata was the most effective yeast isolate in terms of spore reduction (84.6%) and inhibition of AFB1 production (89.1%). Cryptococcus albidus produced the maximum reduction in fungal dry weight (77.9%). Based on these results, isolated saprophytic yeasts from pistachio fruits and leaves can be used as effective biocontrol agents against the growth of Aspergillus and aflatoxin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria
  13. Ling LT, Radhakrishnan AK, Subramaniam T, Cheng HM, Palanisamy UD
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2139-51.
    PMID: 20428033 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042139
    Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 microg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fragaria/chemistry
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